Web UI Guide

About this guide

This guide provides information about the web-based user interface (Web UI) for the ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances.

The purpose of this guide is to help users understand the ExtraHop system architecture and functionality as well as learn how to operate the controls, fields, and options available throughout the Web UI.

Additional resources are available through the following links:

Introduction to the ExtraHop system

The ExtraHop system helps you to monitor network activity and all your applications. For example, you can learn how well applications are consuming network resources, how systems and devices are communicating with each other, and how to identify transactions that are flowing across the data link layer (L2) up to application layer (L7) in your network.

Overall, the ExtraHop platform works in the following ways:
  • Collecting data from transactions observed on your wire data capture feed or receiving NetFlow, sFlow, IPFIX, and AppFlow traffic from remote flow networks
  • Automatically discovering and classifying devices that are communicating on the network
  • Providing you with 4,000 built-in metrics for dozens of protocols
  • Enabling you to create custom metrics, alerts, and reports
Note:To learn more about how ExtraHop works, view the following training modules:

ExtraHop platform architecture

The ExtraHop platform comprises a suite of appliances that are designed to passively monitor the network traffic in your environment in real time. The ExtraHop system provides you with top-level and detailed metrics about the devices on your network, which you can analyze to determine where problems in your network might be developing.

ExtraHop Discover appliance

The ExtraHop Discover appliance (EDA) provides the ability to analyze and visualize all of your network, application, client, infrastructure, and business data. The Discover appliance passively collects unstructured wire data—all of the transactions on your network—and transforms this data into structured wire data.

Deploy a single Discover appliance, either physical or virtual, anywhere in your network environment.

ExtraHop Explore appliance

The ExtraHop Explore appliance (EXA) integrates with the ExtraHop Discover appliance to store transaction and flow records sent from the Discover appliance. You can see, save, and search the structured flow and transaction information about events on your network with a simple, unified UI, with no modifications to your existing applications or infrastructure. Deploy a cluster of three or more Explore appliances to take advantage of data redundancy and performance improvements.

ExtraHop Trace appliance

The ExtraHop Trace appliance (ETA) continuously collects network packets and integrates with the ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances to enable you to quickly retrieve all packets that match a set of search criteria within a given time interval. You can then download the packet capture file for further inspection in a packet analyzer, such as Wireshark.

Deploy a Trace appliance when you need access to more than the summary data collected by the Discover appliance.

ExtraHop Command appliance

The ExtraHop Command appliance (ECA) provides centralized management and reporting across multiple ExtraHop Discover, Explore, and Trace appliances that are distributed across datacenters, branch offices, and the public cloud.

You can pair an Explore appliance or cluster to multiple Discover appliances, and then query the records stored by each Discover appliance from the Command appliance.

When you add a Trace appliance, you can search, download, and analyze the collected packets to gain further insight about the information flowing across your network.

For most large ExtraHop deployments, a dedicated Command appliance is the most efficient way to manage all of your remote appliances.

To learn more about the ExtraHop platform, view the following training modules:

Data sources in the ExtraHop system

ExtraHop enables you to collect and analyze both wire and machine data. Wire data is observed in real time, which provides information about what’s happening on your network. Flow data, a type of machine data, can also be collected from a network device and sent to the ExtraHop for analysis or storage. Flow data is an alternative option if wire data cannot be collected from a remote network.

Wire data

With wire data, the ExtraHop system passively collects a copy of unstructured packets through a port mirror or tap and stores the data in the appliance datastore. The copied data goes through real-time stream processing, which transforms the packets into structured wire data through the following stages:
  1. TCP state machines are recreated to perform full-stream reassembly.
  2. Packets are constructed into flows.
  3. The structured data is analyzed and processed in the following ways:
    1. Transactions are identified
    2. Devices are automatically discovered by MAC and IP address and then classified by their activity.
    3. Metrics are generated and associated with protocols and sources, and the metric data is then aggregated into metric cycles. For more information, see the Sources and groups section.
      Note:Aggregation roll ups, also referred to as metric cycles, help determine the granularity of metric data in time series analyses. For more information, see the Time interval and data roll up section.
  4. As new metrics are generated and stored, and the datastore becomes full, the oldest existing metrics are overwritten according to the first-in first-out (FIFO) principle.

Flow data

A flow is a set of packets that are part of a single transaction between two endpoints. Similar to how the ExtraHop system can identify flows from wire data, flows from machine data on remote networks can be sent to a Discover appliance for analysis. Flows are identified through their unique combination of IP protocol (TCP/UDP), source and destination IP addresses, and source and destination ports.

The ExtraHop system supports the following types of flow data:
NetFlow v5
The Cisco proprietary protocol that defines a flow as a unidirectional flow of packets all sharing the following values: Ingress interface, source and destination IP address, IP protocol, source and destination ports, and the type of service. NetFlow v5 has a fixed record format with 20 fields and cannot be customized.
NetFlow v9
An adapted version of NetFlow v5 where the record format is template based. NetFlow v9 has 60+ fields in the records and can be customized. In the Discover appliance, these records are only partially parsed until the template packet is detected.
IPFIX
An open standard based on the NetFlow v9 standard. ExtraHop supports only the native format; formats where the Enterprise bit is set outside of a trigger is not supported.
AppFlow
The Citrix implementation of IPFIX with customized extensions to include application-level information such as HTTP URLs, HTTP request methods, status codes, and so on.
sFlow
A sampling technology for monitoring traffic in data networks. sFlow samples every nth packet and sends it to the collector whereas NetFlow sends data from every flow to the collector. The primary difference between sFlow and NetFlow is that sFlow is network layer independent and can sample anything. NetFlow v5 is IP based, but v9 and IPFIX can also look at Layer 2.

The Discover appliance enables you to add any of the above flow data sources. You can then view metrics for flow networks and their interfaces.

Flow networks
A flow network is a network device that sends information about flows seen across the device. Similar to how the ExtraHop system can identify flows from wire data, the ExtraHop system can receive flow information from remote network devices, also called flow exporters.
Flow interfaces
A flow network device can have multiple interfaces. Instead of looking at flow information for the entire device, you can look at flow information for a specific interface on the device.
A typical flow monitoring setup consists of three main components:
Flow exporter
Aggregates packets into flows and exports the flow network traffic to one or more flow collectors. A flow exporter might be a router or switch on remote network that has been configured to send NetFlow or AppFlow traffic to your Discover appliance.
Flow collector
Receives, stores, and pre-processes flow network traffic received from a flow exporter.
Flow analyzer
Analyzes received flow network traffic in the context of intrusion detection, resource management, or traffic profiling.

With the Discover appliance working as a flow collector and analyzer, you can collect the flow network traffic through the following stages:

  1. Flow exporters detect and format traffic, caching information about the flow, including source and destination IP addresses, port, IP protocol, and number of bytes and packets.
  2. The flow exporter sends the cached information from the flow network to the Discover appliance, which acts as a collector and analyzer for the flow data.
  3. The flow network traffic is analyzed, flows are identified, and metrics are aggregated for the total number of bytes and total number of packets in each flow.

For example, when a client initiates a request to a server, the packet is sent to the router, which directs the packet to the destination server through the network topology. If that router is configured to be a flow network exporter, information about the flow is then formatted and sent to the Discover appliance for analysis.

By analyzing flows of network traffic, such as NetFlow traffic, an administrator can identify the top network flows (most bytes consumed), top network talkers (highest throughput), total number of bytes, and the total number of packets per router interface.

Device discovery

The ExtraHop system automatically discovers devices based on what is happening on the network. There are two device discovery modes: layer 2 (L2) discovery and layer 3 (L3) discovery. The default discovery mode is L3 discovery.

L2 discovery
Creates an L2 device for every locally observed MAC address over the wire. All IP addresses associated with a MAC address are aggregated into one device.
L3 discovery
Creates an L3 device for every locally observed IP address over the wire that meets the following criteria:
  • A device responds to an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request for the IP address, allowing the ExtraHop appliance to associate the IP address with an MAC address.
  • The associated MAC address is not the MAC address of an L3-routing device.

In addition to creating L3 devices, the Discover appliance also creates an L2 device for each unique MAC address. If the MAC address and IP address are associated with the same device, the Discover appliance links the parent L2 device and the child L3 device. The IP address and MAC address for a device are displayed in the overview section on the Device page in the Metrics section of the Web UI. The following characteristics apply to L2 devices created by L3 device discovery mode:

  • L2 metrics that cannot be associated with a particular child L3 device (for example, L2 broadcast traffic) are associated with the parent L2 device.
  • In the device list view in the Metrics section of the Web UI, you can filter the full device list for L2 devices only, L3 devices only, or both types of devices. Learn more in the Find a device section.
  • L2 devices that exist solely as parents to L3 child devices do not count against licensed device count limits.

Device names and roles

After a device is discovered, the ExtraHop system tracks all of the wire data traffic associated with the device. The ExtraHop system discovers device names by passively monitoring naming protocols, including DNS, DHCP, NETBIOS, and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). A device can be identified by multiple names, which are all searchable. If a name is not discovered through a naming protocol, the default name is derived from device attributes (MAC address for L2 devices and the IP address for L3 devices). You can also create a custom name for a device. Learn more in the Change the name of a device section.

Note:If a device name does not include a hostname, the ExtraHop system has not yet observed naming protocol traffic associated with that device. The ExtraHop system does not perform DNS lookups for device names.

Based on the type of traffic associated with the device, the ExtraHop system assigns a role to the device, such as a gateway, file server, database, or load balancer. Learn more in the Change a device role section.

Remote device discovery and custom devices

The ExtraHop system automatically discovers local L3 devices based on observed ARP traffic that is associated with IP addresses. By default, all IP addresses that are observed outside of locally-monitored broadcast domains are aggregated at one of the incoming routers in your network. To identify and learn about individual devices outside of these routers, which are beyond your local network, you can create custom devices and enable reporting on these devices. For example, you can create a single device encompassing several known IP addresses for a remote site or cloud service. For more information on how to create a custom device, see the Custom devices section.

Note:If you have a proxy ARP configured in your network, the ExtraHop system might automatically discover remote devices. For more information, see this ExtraHop forum post.
To identify and learn about individual devices located outside of local routers beyond your local network, complete one of the following options:
  • Configure remote discovery in the ExtraHop Admin UI to discover L3 devices for a range of IP addresses that are not on the local network.
  • Create a custom device to collect metrics for a remote IP address or a range of IP addresses into one device. For example, you can create a single device that collects metrics for several known IP addresses that belong to remote sites or cloud services.

Next steps

Device Discovery FAQ

Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about device discovery.

How does the ExtraHop system discover devices?

The ExtraHop system automatically discovers devices that are active on your local network. First, the ExtraHop system creates an L2 device entry for every locally observed MAC address over the wire. Then, the ExtraHop system creates an L3 device entry for every locally observed IP address included in an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) response.

Here are some important considerations about L3 device discovery:

  • The IP address for the new L3 device is associated with a single MAC address.
  • To discover L3 devices outside of your network, you can create a custom device or enable remote device discovery.
  • If a router has proxy ARP enabled, the ExtraHop system creates an L3 device for each IP address that the router answers ARP requests for.

After a device is discovered, the ExtraHop system begins to collect metrics for the device. As soon as metrics are available for a device, you can search for L2 and L3 devices in the ExtraHop system by their IP address, MAC address, or name (either a hostname observed from DNS traffic or a custom name that you assign to the device).

For more information, see Device discovery.

What is an L3 device?

An L3 device entry in the ExtraHop system includes an IP address that is observed from local traffic or traffic detected from a router. ExtraHop automatically creates an L3 device entry for every locally observed IP address. When an L3 device is in not in limited analysis, L2 - L7 protocol activity is tracked against that L3 device. The ExtraHop appliance also tracks a single L2 parent device entry for each router MAC address that is associated with the same IP address.

What is an L2 device?

An L2 device entry in the ExtraHop system includes a MAC address only. ExtraHop automatically creates an L2 device entry for every locally observed MAC address, and network throughput activity for that MAC address is tracked against that L2 device. If the ExtraHop system later observes a local IP address associated with an L2 device's MAC address, the ExtraHop system then creates a child L3 device entry. L2 parent devices have a parent relationship with any L3 devices having the same MAC address. The L2 parent device entry remains in the ExtraHop system and does not count against licensed device limits. L2 parent devices are also exempt from the whitelist.

Why can't I find a device?
If you cannot find a device in the ExtraHop system, it could be related to one of the following reasons:
  • The device is outside of a locally-monitored broadcast domain. You can configure remote discovery in the ExtraHop Admin UI to create devices for a subnet or range of remote IP addresses. For example, if you want to monitor traffic associated with a remote branch office, the ExtraHop system can be configured to discover devices for each IP address at that office. You can also manually create a custom device in the Discover appliance to monitor traffic for a specific IP address.
  • The device has not been active since the ExtraHop system was deployed. An active device is one that sends data over the wire to other devices. Devices that only receive traffic are not discovered.
What is a custom device?

Custom devices are manually created in the Discover appliance, and can be configured to collect metrics across IP addresses and ports as a single device. You might create a custom device to track individual devices outside of your local broadcast domain or you might create a single custom device to collect metrics for several known IP addresses for a remote site or cloud service.

For more information, see Remote device discovery and custom devices.

What is a device limit?

A device limit is the total number of devices that can be in full analysis. Full analysis means that the Discover appliance collects complete L2-L7 protocol metrics for that device. If more devices are discovered on your network after the device limit is reached, those devices are placed into limited analysis.

The device limit for your appliance is determined by the license you acquired. The device limit ensures that your ExtraHop appliance operates efficiently when there are too many devices on your network.

What is limited analysis?

Devices that are discovered after the device limit is exceeded can be placed into limited analysis. When a device limit is reached, there are too many devices on your network for the Discover appliance to fully analyze. The ExtraHop system only collects network metrics from L2 and L3 protocols for devices placed into limited analysis.

For more information, see View the device limit and device counts.

How do I check my device limit and device counts?

Log into the ExtraHop Web UI and click the System Settings icon. Then, click Device Limits. The device limit for your appliance is listed at the top.

Next to the device limit is the number of active devices that are in limited analysis. This number will be zero if the active device count, or number of active devices discovered on your appliance, is below the device limit. If the number of limited analysis devices is not zero, then the device limit is the same as the number of devices in full analysis.

To see the current device count, or the number of active devices discovered by the ExtraHop system, select Eligible for Licensing in the drop down menu to the left of the Search button and then click Search. Note the number displayed at the bottom left of the page.

For more information, see View the device limit and device counts.

What does eligible for licensing mean?

Devices that are actively communicating with other devices on your network are eligible for licensing. Devices that are not active, or have not been discovered by the ExtraHop appliance, are not considered eligible for licensing. However, inactive devices that were discovered in the past can be added to the Eligible for Licensing list again if they become active.

For more information, see View the device limit and device counts.

What is the whitelist?

The whitelist is a way to prioritize devices that you want to make sure receive full analysis in case your device limit is exceeded. Devices that are added to the whitelist are reserved for full analysis when they are actively communicating with other devices. If a device is not on the whitelist, it might be placed into limited analysis.

For more information, see Add or remove devices from the whitelist.

How do I know which devices are in the whitelist?

Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance and click the System Settings icon. Then, click Device Limits. Click the number displayed next to “Whitelist” to view each device that has been added to the whitelist.

How do I add devices to the whitelist in batches?

Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance and click the System Settings icon. Then, click Device Limits. In the table of devices, select the checkbox next to all of the devices that you want to add to the whitelist. Then, click the Add to Whitelist icon in the upper right corner above the table.

For more information, see Add or remove devices from the whitelist.

Can I change the role of my device in the ExtraHop system?

Yes, you can update the device role in device properties. The ExtraHop system assigns a device type, or role, to a newly discovered device based on the type of observed wire data traffic associated with the device.

For more information, see Change a device role in the ExtraHop Web UI Guide.

Can I change the name of my device in the ExtraHop system?

Yes, you can change the device name in device properties.

For more information, see Add a custom device name in the ExtraHop Web UI Guide.

Software frame deduplication

The ExtraHop system removes duplicate L2 and L3 frames and packets when metrics are collected and aggregated from your network activity by default. L2 deduplication removes identical Ethernet frames (where the Ethernet header and the entire IP packet must match); L3 deduplication removes TCP or UDP packets with identical IP ID fields on the same flow (where only the IP packet must match).

The ExtraHop system checks for duplicates and removes only the immediately-previous packet both on the flow (for L3 deduplication) or globally (for L2 deduplication) if the duplicate arrives within 1 millisecond of the original packet.

By default, the same packet traversing different VLANs is removed by L3 deduplication. In addition, packets must have the same length and the same IP ID, and TCP packets also must have the same TCP checksum.

L2 duplication usually only exists if the exact same packet is seen through the data feed, which is typically related to an issue with port mirroring. L3 duplication is often the result of mirroring the same traffic across multiple interfaces of the same router, which can show up as extraneous TCP retransmissions in the ExtraHop system.

The System Health page in the ExtraHop Web UI contains charts that display L2 and L3 duplicate packets that were removed by the ExtraHop system. Deduplication works across 10Gbps ports by default and across 1Gbps ports if software RSS is enabled. L3 deduplication currently is supported only for IPv4, not IPv6.

Introduction to the ExtraHop Web UI

The ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances provide access to your network, application, client, and infrastructure data through a dynamic and highly customizable Web UI.

After you log into the ExtraHop appliance with a browser over HTTPS, you can immediately view your network activity through built-in system dashboards. If your environment includes a Command appliance, you can monitor all of the activity on your distributed Discover appliances from a single, centralized Command appliance.

Log into the ExtraHop Web UI and explore your network environment through the following options:

Top-down workflows
Start with high-level charts and device groups that display all of the activity on your network. When you see something interesting, you can drill-down to specific devices and transaction details.
Bottom-up workflows
Search for a particular device, URI, or database. You can then explore real-time metrics and activity associated with that device, and pivot to different devices and protocols to learn more.
Review system dashboards
When you log into the ExtraHop system, you will see the Activity dashboard. This dashboard is a good starting point because it shows you everything happening on your network. For more information about this dashboard, and how to build your own, see the Get started with dashboards section.
Drill down on interesting data
When you see a spike in traffic or other interesting data, you can drill down to see which devices are associated with that data. For more information, see the Drill-down functionality section.
Explore activity groups
Another way to get a top-down view of specific activity is to explore activity groups. For more information, see the Activity groups section.
Search for a device
ExtraHop automatically discovers devices that communicate on the network. You can search for devices by IP address, URI, or other attributes. For more information, see the Find a device section.
Create a group
After you have found devices that are important to you, you can build a device group of devices and track their activity. For more information, see the Device groups section.
Build a dashboard
You can create a custom dashboard view of your devices to see real-time information that is most relevant to you. For more information, see the Dashboards section.
Set up alerts
Configure threshold and trend-based alerts that notify you when there is a potential issue with a network device. For more information, see the Alerts section.
Create reports
Generate reports on network metrics for a particular time interval, and export the information as a PDF file or as CSV data. For more information, see the Reports section.
Build a geomap
Geomaps display metrics across a global map, which indicates where metrics activity has occurred. For more information, see the Geomaps section.
Apply a bundle
Bundles are system objects saved as a JSON file. A bundle contains information about a selected ExtraHop system configuration, such as triggers, dashboards, applications, or alerts. Apply a bundle to your ExtraHop system, or create a bundle to share with others. For more information, see the Bundles section.
Build a trigger
Create a custom metric with a trigger. Triggers are custom scripts that perform an action upon a pre-defined event. Triggers require planning to make sure a trigger doesn’t negatively impact system performance. For more information, see the Triggers section.

In addition, if your ExtraHop Discover appliance is connected to an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can directly access stored transaction records through the Discover Web UI. Or, if you are monitoring multiple Discover appliances through a Command appliance, you can retrieve record information by node through the Command Web UI.

The ExtraHop Web UI provides a framework of elements that remain static as you move around the system. The information and options in the left and content panes of the Web UI change based on your selections in the top menu.

The following figure identifies both global navigation elements and the areas of the Web UI that will change based on your selection.

Top menu

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI.

Dashboards
Provides built-in system dashboards that give you an instant view of the activity on your network. You can also create and share dashboards with other users.
Metrics
Provides access to system metrics sources, group metrics, and record queries.
Records
Runs a record query for the selected time interval and displays the New Record Query page, where you can add filters to refine your search.
Packets
Runs a packet query for the selected time interval and displays the New Packet Query page, where you can add filters to refine your search.
Global search field
Enables you to type any object or search criteria and find a match on your Discover appliance. If you have an ExtraHop Explore appliance configured, you can also search for saved records.
Community icon
Launches a new tab in your web browser to the ExtraHop forums and to other external resources.
Help icon
Launches documentation for the page that you are currently viewing.
System Settings
Provides access to system configuration options.
User Icon
Enables you to log in and log out of your Discover appliance or Command appliance, change your password, and access API options.

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI, below the top menu.

Pane toggle
Enables you to collapse or expand the left pane.
Global Time Selector
Enables you to determine the global time interval that is applied to all system metrics.
Recent Pages
Enables you to see the most recent pages you visited. Repeated pages are deduplicated and condensed to save space.
Navigation Path
Displays where you are in the system and provides available pivot points so you can search for the same metrics across multiple protocols, devices, or other swappable criteria.
Command menu drop-down
Appears throughout the Web UI and contains context-sensitive actions for the area you are in. For example, when you click the Dashboards top menu, the command menu at the end of the navigation bar provides options to view dashboard properties and to create a new dashboard.

The left pane and content pane change based on your selections. See the following sections to learn more about each feature.

Time Selector

The Time Selector enables you to specify a time interval for the collection and presentation of network data. There are two types of Time Selectors: a Global Time Selector for specifying global time intervals, and a Region Time Selector for specifying region time intervals.

The Global Time Selector is located at the top-left of the navigation bar. Access the Region Time Selector by clicking the command menu next to the region name and selecting Use Region Time Selector.

A global time interval is applied across the Discover appliance. Navigating from one area to another will not change the time interval for the metrics you are viewing. This means that the same time interval applies whether you are viewing different metrics across the Web UI or if you are drilling-down to view detailed metrics.

Note:Logging out of the Discover appliance will reset the global time interval to the Last 30 minutes. However, global time interval information is included at the end of the URL. To maintain a specific global time interval after logging out, copy or bookmark the URL. Make sure that the entire URL is copied to maintain the specified global time interval.

A region time interval is applied by dashboard region and you can set different time intervals per-region. When you add a widget to an existing region, the widget inherits the time interval for that region.

You can apply either a global time interval or a region time interval to a dashboard region. To toggle between time intervals, start by clicking the command menu in the region header. To apply a region time interval, select Use Region Time Selector. To apply a global time interval, select Use Global Time Selector. When the Region Time Selector disappears from the region header, this indicates that the global time interval is applied to the region.

Displaying running time and snapshot time intervals

For dashboards and top-level metrics pages—where metrics are polled automatically—you will see the running time for the global time interval displayed in the Global Time Selector.

For a detailed metric page or a records query results page—where metrics are not polled automatically—you will see the snapshot of the global time interval, which includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the metric or record query was last polled. To reload the metrics or query for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display.

Specify a global or region time interval

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or the Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, select one of the following options:
    Last 30 minutes
    Displays the last 30 minutes of data collected.
    Last 6 hours
    Displays the last six hours of data collected.
    Last day
    Displays the last 24 hours of data collected.
    Last week
    Displays the last seven days of data collected.
    Last
    Displays the data collected within a customized unit of time. For more information, see the Specify a custom time interval section.
    Custom time range
    Displays the data collected within a fixed date and time range. For more information, see the Specify a custom time range section.
  3. Click Save.
    Note:You can view metrics in charts with different levels of granularity based on the time interval that you specify. For more information, see the Time interval and data roll up section.

Specify a previous time interval

Time intervals are preserved across a login session. The five most recent unique time intervals are also saved in the History tab of the Time Selector.

To select a previous time interval:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. Click History.
  3. Select a time interval. You selection will be applied to the options on the Time Interval tab.
  4. Click Save.

Specify a custom time interval

To view metrics that occurred in a specific unit of time that is not available by default, such as minutes or months, you can modify the settings in the custom time interval option.

To specify a custom time interval for a global or region time interval:

  1. Click the Global or Region Time Selector and select the Last radio button in the Time Interval tab.
  2. Type the number of units of time.
  3. Click the drop-down list and select minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years.
  4. Click Save.

Specify a custom time range

To view metrics that occurred during a specific time, you can specify a custom time range or you can zoom in on a chart.

To specify a custom time range:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, and select Custom Time Range.
    The drop-down field will display a default time range.
  3. Click the drop-down field. A calendar dialog box opens.
  4. Click a day to specify the start date for the range. One click will specify a single day. Clicking another day will specify the end date for the range.
    Note:Use the back and forward arrows on the calendar to change the month displayed on the calendar.
  5. Click Save.

Zoom in on a time range

You can click-and-drag across a region in a line chart to zoom in and specify a custom time range in the Time Selector. For example, if you observe a spike in a chart, you can click-and-drag across the spike to zoom in on the activity that occurred in that time range.

Note:This option is only available for time-series charts. It is not available for bar charts, text widgets, or tables.

If you are zooming in on a chart within a dashboard region that has a region time interval applied to it, this time range will become the region time interval for every widget in that region (unless you have applied a global time interval to that dashboard region). The ability to zoom in on a time range is useful for observing other metric activity that occurred in that same time range. For more information, see the Time Selector section.

If the specified time range is valid it appears green. If the specified time range is less than one minute, the range is invalid and appears red.

Note:Data might not be available for the zoomed time range.
  1. Click and drag your mouse across the chart to select a time range.
  2. Release the mouse button. The graph is redrawn to the specified time range.

The scales on the chart’s axes update to reflect the range of values in the zoomed time range. In addition, the Custom Time Range value in the Time Selector adjusts to reflect the time range in the chart.

If you want to revert from the zoomed time range back to your original time interval, click the undo icon—a magnifying glass with a minus sign—in the Time Selector. For example, if you originally specified Last 30 minutes as your time interval, and then perform a series of zoom operations on a chart, you can revert back to your original 30-minute time interval with one click on the undo icon.

Compare metric deltas

Metric delta comparison is available for dashboards and device-related protocol pages. If you save a comparison and navigate to another area of the Discover appliance, the comparison is disabled temporarily. When you return to your original page, the delta comparison you saved will be enabled again.

Note:Dynamic baselines will not appear on a chart when you are comparing metric deltas.
There are two ways to perform a metric delta comparison:
  • On a protocol page, where you can compare delta changes across all metrics displayed on a device, device group, or detail metric page.
  • On a dashboard page, where you can compare delta changes by the entire dashboard or by the region
Compare metric deltas on a protocol page
  1. Find the protocol page with the metrics that you want to compare.
  2. In the upper left hand corner of the page, click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
  3. In the Time Interval tab, click Compare.
  4. In the Delta Comparison tab, select the time interval to compare with the original time interval.
  5. Click Save.
    Charts display metric values from each time interval side-by-side.
  6. To remove the delta comparison, complete the following steps:
    1. Click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
    2. Click Remove Delta.
    3. Click Save.
Compare metric deltas on a dashboard page
  1. Find the dashboard with the metrics you want to compare.
  2. In the upper left hand corner of the page, click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
  3. In the Time Interval tab, click Compare.
  4. In the Delta Comparison tab, select the time interval to compare with the original time interval.
  5. Click Save.
    A new chart with a delta comparison time interval is placed on the original chart.

  6. To remove the delta comparison, complete the following steps:
    1. Click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
    2. Click Remove Delta.
    3. Click Save.
    Tip:You can also apply a metric delta comparison to an individual region. Click the region title, and select Use region time interval. Follow steps 3-6 to apply a metric delta comparison to all the charts within the region.

Dashboards

A dashboard is an HTML page that displays real-time and historic data for any built-in or custom metric in the ExtraHop platform. In a dashboard, data is displayed in widgets, and widgets are assembled in regions.

Dashboards are stored separately for each user that accesses the ExtraHop Discover appliance. After you build a custom dashboard, you can share it with other ExtraHop users.
Tip:Essentials dashboards are created by ExtraHop staff to display common and related network metrics. A set of dashboards are available in the Essentials bundle on your ExtraHop appliance. For more information, see the Essentials bundle section.

This section contains information about system dashboards and procedures on how to create and manage custom dashboards.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules:

Get started with dashboards

The ExtraHop Discover appliance provides expansive and granular metrics about the traffic on your network. The possibilities are endless, but the initial view can be overwhelming.

A dashboard is a customizable HTML page that displays different views of your network through widgets such as charts. Dashboards are a powerful feature that can help showcase the data that is most relevant to your daily operations in real-time and manage the signal to noise ratio of your network activity.

The information in the following sections will help you get started.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules.

Types of dashboards

The ExtraHop appliance provides built-in system dashboards, but you can also create custom dashboards to display only the metrics you want to see.

System dashboards
Any ExtraHop user with an active account can log in and view system dashboards, which are built into the ExtraHop system. The Activity dashboard and Network dashboard are system dashboards that provide a top-down perspective of all the activity happening on your network.
Custom dashboards
ExtraHop users can create a custom dashboard, which is one of the most effective ways to create a single view of protocols, metrics, and devices that are the most important to your organization. Before you create a custom dashboard, we recommend that you first determine which metrics you want to visualize and monitor in your dashboard. For example, it helps to have a question you want to answer, or an idea of which metric sourcesapplications, devices, groups, and networks—that you want to monitor on a regular basis.
Activity dashboard page

The built-in Activity dashboard displays the following information about your network.

Traffic Overview
View the types of traffic on your network. For example, the Top L7 Protocols chart displays the most active application protocols. The protocol with the most area, or color, in the chart has the highest volume of packet transmissions during the selected time interval. In the Alert History widget, you can also view up to 40 of the latest alerts that were generated, and their severity levels.
Active Protocols
View important metrics and activity about specific application protocols.
Note:In the ExtraHop Command appliance, you can display the Activity dashboard for each Discover appliance. The appliance name appears in the navigation bar; click the down arrow next to the node name to pivot the display to other Discover appliances.
Network dashboard page

The built-in Network dashboard displays the following information about your network.

Network L2 metrics
View raw data throughput at the data link layer (L2). You can view throughput, the packet rate, and the breakdown of frame counts by distribution and type.
Network L4 metrics
View TCP activity through connection, request, and response metrics. This data can indicate how effectively data is being sent and received across the transport layer (L4) in your network.
Network Performance
View overall network performance by reviewing the throughput per application protocol and the magnitude of high TCP round trip times.
Network L3 metrics
View data throughput at the Internet layer (L3), and see packets and traffic by TCP/IP protocols.
DSCP
View a breakdown of packets and traffic by Differentiated Services code points, which is part of the DiffServ network architecture. Every IP packet contains a field to express the priority of how the packet should be handled, which are called differentiated services and the values for the priorities are called code points.
Multicast Groups
View traffic that is sent to multiple receivers in a single transmission, and see packets and traffic by each receiver group. Multicast traffic on a network is organized into groups based on destination addresses.
Note:In the ExtraHop Command appliance, you can display the Network dashboard for each Discover appliance. The appliance name appears in the navigation bar; click the down arrow next to the node name to pivot the display to other nodes.

When you log into the ExtraHop appliance for the first time, you will see the Activity dashboard, which a built-in system dashboard that displays a high-level overview of all the activity happening on your network.

There are several ways to explore dashboards and the metrics displayed in them. The following figure shows the available navigation options that you can interact with to configure and view metrics.

Dashboard dock
Access and organize custom, built-in, and shared dashboards. For more information, see the Organize dashboards section.
Global Time Selector
Change the time interval for the entire dashboard. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
Region header
Change the time interval for the region, rename the region, modify sources, or delete the region.
Chart legend
Drill down on metrics, isolate data (hold focus), and view metric definitions.
Command menu
Edit the dashboard layout and dashboard properties, create a dashboard, or copy, print, present, share, or delete your dashboard.
Chart title
Edit, print, copy, and rename charts. You can also navigate to protocol pages associated with chart sources (Go to...), export chart data, and view metric definitions.

Plan a dashboard

Building a custom dashboard is one of the most effective ways to monitor high-priority network traffic and troubleshoot an issue.

There are four basic steps to building a custom dashboard from the Dashboard page:

  1. Identify the devices or traffic that you want to monitor. For example, there are three categories of metrics you might want to start with:
    • Availability metrics: These metrics track client requests and server responses and help answer the question, is my server offline or unavailable?
    • Reliability metrics: These metrics track error rates for server responses and help answer the question, is my server functioning properly?
    • Performance metrics: These metrics track server performance by measuring server processing times for sending response to requests and help answer the question, is my server properly resourced?
  2. Create a dashboard, which will provide an empty region containing an empty chart and empty text box widget.
  3. Add data to the empty chart with the Metric Explorer, which provides options for configuring metric sets and chart types.
    • Select a metric source, which might be an important server (such as web server, database, or LDAP server) or a group of devices generating specific traffic (such as all HTTP clients).
    • Select metrics, which might be about availability (such as HTTP request and response rates), reliability (such as database errors over time), or performance (such as server processing times).
    • Select a chart type.
  4. Configure a dashboard, by adding more widgets and regions.
    Tip:Consider adding multiple chart types for a single metric to create multiple views of that data.
Note:You can also build a dashboard from a protocol page. This method enables you to quickly add charts to a new or existing dashboard around an application, device, network, or group that you are exploring in the Web UI. For more information, see the Create a chart from a protocol page section.
Note:Learn more by taking the Build Your First Dashboard training.

Dashboard components

Dashboards are composed of customizable regions and widgets. Regions are spaces that hold and compartmentalize widgets. Widgets are objects contained within regions. A widget is a chart, text box, alert history list, activity group list, or network list. Understanding how these components work and the type of information each widget displays can help you build your dashboard.

Region

A region is a compartment that contains widgets.

You can modify regions in the following ways:
  • Apply a specific time interval or range to all of the widgets within a region.
    Note:See the Time Selector section to learn about the differences between the global time interval and region time interval.
  • Rename the title of your region.
  • Modify the metric source for all of the widgets within a region.
  • Delete a region, which will also delete all of the widgets within that region.
  • You can click and drag from the lower right corner of the region to resize the compartment and make room for additional widgets. For more information, see the Edit a dashboard layout section.
Widget

Widgets are configurable dashboard components that can be added to a region for different functions. Drag-and-drop different types of widgets into a region, or drag-and-drop a new region onto your dashboard.

The following widget types are available:

Chart widget
A chart contain metrics. When you configured the chart for the first time, you need to select which chart is best for visualizing data. For example, candlestick chart is effective for seeing outliers easily. For more information, see Edit a chart widget section.
Text box widget
A text box contains that text that you write and format in Markdown. Text boxes are useful for adding descriptive information about charts and regions. For more information, see Edit a text box widget section.
Alert History widget
Displays details about active alerts for metric sources on your network. For example, with this widget, you can quickly identify emergency alerts that have fired, and then navigate to the source of the alert.
Activity Groups widget
Displays the number of devices in activity groups. The Discover appliance automatically generates activity groups, which are groups of devices based on the type of network traffic they generate. A device might appear in more than one activity group if it has multiple types of traffic. For example, with this widget, you can see how many CIFS clients are actively generating requests on your network.
Networks widget (Command appliance only)
Displays the details about network captures that the Command appliance is configured to monitor. You can see how many devices and applications are active on each network.

Charts FAQ

Here are some answers to frequently asked questions about charts.

How do I create a chart?
You can create a chart in one of the following ways:
  • Create a new dashboard. An empty chart will appear in your new dashboard, which you can then edit with the Metric Explorer.
  • Add a new chart to an existing dashboard by editing the dashboard layout. In the upper right corner, click the properties menu and select Edit Dashboard Layout. You can then add new empty chart widgets to your dashboard.
  • Create a new chart based on a built-in chart from a protocol page. Click the chart title and select Create Chart from.... You can then save your chart to a dashboard.
How do I edit an existing chart?

Click on the chart title and select Edit. You edit a chart with the chart-building tool called the Metric Explorer. In the Metric Explorer, you select a source, protocol metrics to display from that source, and a chart type.

Which chart type should I select to compare data?
The following chart types are helpful if you want to compare two metrics together, for example the total number of requests compared to the total number of responses.
  • Bar chart
  • List chart
  • Table chart
  • Value chart
Which chart type should I select to observe changes over time?
The following chart types are helpful if you want to observe how a metric, such as errors, changes over time.
  • Line chart
  • Area chart
  • Column chart
When should I create a box plot, candlestick, or histogram chart?
Box plot, candlestick, and histogram charts help you visualize the statistical distribution of data for timing metrics in the ExtraHop system. Timing metrics include server processing time and round trip time.

Box plot chart: Displays the distribution summary of a single metric. You can compare different metrics such as processing time (for application latency) and round trip time (for network latency) side-by-side.

Candlestick chart: Displays changes to the distribution summary for a single metric over time.

Histogram chart: Displays the entire distribution for a single metric. Data is placed into bins instead of percentiles. Histograms help you quickly find outliers, because you can interpret the value of each bin, rather than interpret percentiles.

Note:Depending on the type of metric you select, you can view the distribution of metric activity as percentiles or as a mean and standard deviation. The box plot and candlestick charts display inner quartiles by default (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentiles). Drill down on a timing metric to view the mean and standard deviation of a timing metric broken down by client, server, and other factors.
When should I create a heatmap?

A heatmap displays a distribution of percentiles over time. You can only view timing metrics such as server processing time and round trip time in a heatmap. For example, a heatmap is useful for identifying concentrations of high server latency at a specific time.

What are maximum, minimum, and average rates?

Network byte and packet data can be displayed in a chart as a maximum, minimum and average per second rate. The Rate Summary in a chart displays these three rates together.

Configuring a chart to display the Rate Summary is only available for high-precision metrics, where metric data is aggregated into 1-second intervals. In the ExtraHop system, high-precision metrics are Network Bytes and Network Packets. For more information, see Display a rate or count in a chart.

Can I add trend lines to my chart?

You can add a dynamic baseline to your chart. A baseline is essentially a trend line that is calculated based on historical data. Baselines help you distinguish between normal and abnormal activity in your chart data.

The Discover appliance does not begin calculating a dynamic baseline until the setting is enabled from the Options tab in the Metric Explorer. Therefore, dynamic baselines only appear for time periods that occur after the baseline was enabled. For more information, see Add a dynamic baseline to a chart.

You can also add a static threshold line to your chart. A threshold line helps you determine if activity is falling above or below a specific value, which is helpful for monitoring service level agreement (SLA) compliance. For more information, see Add a static threshold line to a chart

How do I add a rate to my chart?

Count metrics, such as errors, requests, and responses, are displayed as total counts in charts by default. But you can also display these metrics as a rate in a chart.

Below the metric name in the Metric Explorer, click Count, and select the type of rate to display.

For more information, see Display a rate or count in a chart.

How do I change the units in my chart?

You can change units from bytes to bits, linear to log scale, or from the decimal prefix (1,000 bytes) to binary prefix (1,024 bytes). You can also abbreviate values in bar, value, and list chart types. Click the Options tab when editing a chart in the Metric Explorer.

How do I change a chart name?

Click the chart title and select Rename.

How do I change the labels in my chart?

You can rename metric labels that appear in the legend for most charts. Click on the metric label in the chart and select Rename. This option is not available for box plot, candlestick, heatmaps, or status chart types.

Why do I see Incompatible selections when I hover over a chart type?

Some chart types are only compatible with certain types of metrics. When editing a chart, you might see an Incompatible selections message as you hover over a chart type. This message means that the metric you already selected is incompatible with the chart type.

For example, If you selected an error, request, response, or network bytes metric, you will see an Incompatible selection message as you hover over the following chart types:
  • Heatmap
  • Histogram
  • Candlestick
  • Box plot

These chart types are only compatible with timing metrics such as server processing time and round trip time.

Why is there no data in my chart?

There might not be activity for the source or protocol metric you selected for your chart during the time interval you selected. Adjust the time interval to see if data appears in your chart.

If you are not seeing the traffic you are expecting, contact ExtraHop Support for help.

Create a dashboard

When you create a dashboard, a region containing an empty chart and text widget appear for you to configure. You can expand the region to include a maximum of six charts that are of minimum width. Region and dashboard length are unlimited.

  1. On the Dashboards page, create a dashboard by:
    • Click New Dashboard at the bottom of the left pane (dashboard dock).
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select New Dashboard.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, review the following:
    Title
    Type a name for the dashboard.
    Author
    Type your name.
    Description
    Type a brief description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    (Optional) To change the five-character unique identifier, also known as a short code, click the link and type a meaningful name. The identifier appears after /Dashboard in the URL.
    Note:The permalink can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: dot (.), underscore (_), dash (-), plus sign (+), parentheses ( ), and brackets ([ ]). The name cannot contain spaces.
    Editors
    Specifies the names of users that have editing access for the dashboard. The default editor is the author. Add editors to your dashboard by sharing your dashboard. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Theme
    Select a radio button to specify a style for the dashboard. Select Light, Dark, or Space.
  3. Click Create.
    The new dashboard is populated with a region that contains an empty chart and text box widget. You can now edit your chart and edit your text box.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode when you are satisfied with your changes.
    Important:You can also create a dashboard from protocol pages. For more information, see the Create a chart from a protocol page section.

Edit a chart widget

The following steps show the general flow for editing a chart widget in the Metric Explorer tool. Begin by specifying sources and metrics to add data to your chart. Then choose a chart type to visualize the data. Finally configure data calculations and adjust the chart appearance.

Note:You can display rates (such as an average rate, maximum rate, or minimum rate) or percentiles in your chart, depending on the metric you select. For more information, see the Display rates or counts in a chart and Display percentiles or a mean sections.
  1. Open the Metric Explorer by completing one of the following steps:
    • For any chart, click the chart title and then select Edit.
    • For dashboard charts, click the command menu in the upper right corner and select Edit Layout. Click anywhere within the chart.
  2. Add sources and metrics to your chart by completing the following steps:
    1. Click Add Source.
    2. In the source search field, type the name of a source, such as an application, device, device group, or network.
      Tip:Underneath the search field, click Any Type to filter search results to a specific source type.
    3. Select the source you want to add.
    4. In the metric search field, type the keywords for the metric you want to view. For example, to view HTTP transaction data coming from a client to your web servers, type HTTP requests.
      Tip:Underneath the search field, click Any Protocol to filter search results to a specific protocol or custom metric.
    5. Select the metric you want to add. To remove a metric, click the x icon in the upper left corner in the metric field. Or, to replace a metric, click the metric name to open a new search.
    6. Optional: To add more metrics to your metric set, click Add Metric and then search for the metric you want to include in the metric set.
    7. To add more sources to your chart, click Add Application, Add Device, Add Group, or Add Network, and then search for and select the source you want to add. You can only select the same source type that is currently in your metric set. A metric set contains one source type and metrics. For example, if you select the All Activity application as the source, you can only add more applications to that metric set. To include a different source type in your chart, such as a device, click Add Source to start a new metric set.
      Tip:If you are displaying more than one source in your chart, such as two applications, you can create an ad hoc source group by selecting Combine Sources. You can then view a single metric value for both applications.
  3. Select a chart type from the bottom of the Metric Explorer. Some charts might not be compatible with your selected metrics. For example, the heatmap chart can only display dataset metric data, such as Server Processing Time. For more information about charts and compatible metrics, see the Chart types section.
  4. Modify how data is displayed by doing the following optional steps:
    1. Display detail metrics by key in a chart.
    2. Display device group members in a chart.
    3. Display rates or counts in a chart.
    4. Display percentiles or a mean.
    5. Add a dynamic baseline.
    6. Add a static threshold line.
  5. Modify chart properties by doing the following optional steps:
    1. Change chart title.
    2. Change chart appearance to grayscale.
    3. Change a metric label in a chart legend.
    4. Abbreviate metric values in a chart.
    5. Change drill-down chart labels.
    6. Display chart legend.
    7. Change chart units.
    8. Sort chart data.
  6. Optional: In the preview pane, click Last 30 minutes to select a different time interval and see how your data appears at different time points.
    Note:The time interval you preview in the Metric Explorer does not apply to your saved dashboard.
  7. Click Save.

Dynamic baseline

Dynamic baselines help distinguish between normal and abnormal activity in your chart data.

Select a baseline type that best fits your environment. For example, if you regularly see dramatic changes from one day to another, select an hour-of-week baseline that compares activity seen on specific days of the week. If HTTP activity spikes on Saturdays, this baseline can compare the current spike in HTTP activity with the level seen on other Saturdays at the same hour.

Discover appliances calculate dynamic baselines based on historical data. To generate a new data point on a dynamic baseline, an appliance calculates the median value for a specified period of time. The following table displays how each type of baseline is calculated:

Type Sample window Compares Baseline updated
Hour of day 10 days The same hour of the day. For example, every day at 2:00 PM. Every hour
Hour of week 5 weeks The same hour of week. For example, every Wednesday at 2:00 PM. Every hour
Short-term trend 1 hour Every minute. Every 30 seconds

For example, assume you configure an hour-of-week baseline for HTTP responses on a Sunday. At 10:00 PM, the appliance determines how many HTTP responses there were at 10:00 PM for the last 5 Sundays and calculate the median value; the median number of responses then appear as the baseline value for that hour.

Discover appliances do not begin calculating a dynamic baseline until the setting is enabled. Therefore, dynamic baselines only appear for time periods that occur after the baseline was enabled. Keep in mind that an appliance can begin building a dynamic baseline only if the necessary amount of data has been collected. For example, if you create an hour-of-day baseline, and the Discover appliance has only been collecting data for six days, the appliance will not begin drawing the baseline until four more days have passed because an hour-of-day baseline requires at least 10 days of data.

Dynamic baselines require a Discover appliance to calculate and store baseline data. Therefore, creating a baseline consumes system resources, and configuring too many baselines might degrade system performance.

If two identical dynamic baselines exist in separate dashboards, the dashboards reuse the baseline data; however, the baselines must be identical. If you select a new baseline type, the new dynamic baseline will not share data with the previous dynamic baseline.

Note:Dynamic baselines will not appear on a chart while comparing metric deltas.
Add a dynamic baseline

You can add a dynamic baseline to a chart to help distinguish between normal and abnormal activity.

Warning:Deleting or modifying a dynamic baseline can remove dynamic baseline data from the system. If a dynamic baseline is not referenced by any dashboards, the data will be removed from the system to free unused system resources.
Note:Baselines are only supported in area, candlestick, column, line, and line & column charts.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Analysis.
  3. Under Dynamic Baselines, select the type of dynamic baseline you want to add.
    Option Description
    Hour of day Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for a given hour of the day. This option is most useful if activity in your environment usually follows a consistent daily pattern. If you regularly see dramatically different levels of activity on different days of the week, this option is less useful because the baseline usually does not match the current values.
    Hour of week Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for a given hour on a specific day of the week. This option is most useful if you regularly see significantly different levels of traffic during each day of the week.
    Short-term trend Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for the last hour. This option is useful for smoothing chart data to reveal short-term trends.
  4. Click Add to Dashboard.

Add a static threshold line

Displaying a static threshold line in a chart can help you determine which data points are either below or above a significant value.

For example, you can create a line chart for server processing time to help you monitor the performance of an important database in your network environment. By adding a threshold line that defines an service level agreement (SLA) boundary of acceptable processing time, you can see when database performance is slowing down and address the issue.

You can add one or more threshold lines as you edit a chart. These lines are local to the chart and not associated with other widgets or alerts. Threshold lines are only available for the following charts:

  • Area
  • Candlestick
  • Column
  • Line
  • Line & Column
  • Status

To add a static threshold line to an existing chart:

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Analysis.
  3. In the Static Thresholds section, click Add Threshold Line.
  4. In the Value field, type a number that indicates the threshold value for the line. This value determines where the line appears on the y-axis of your chart.
    Note:For charts that display only count metrics (such as bytes, errors, and responses), the value of the threshold line automatically scales based on data calculations that are configured in the chart. When the Show as rate (per second) option is not selected, the line value automatically scales to the roll up period (either 30 seconds, 5 minutes, 1 hour, or 1 day). The roll up period is determined by the time interval you specified.
  5. In the Label field, type a name for your threshold line.
  6. In the Color field, select a color (options are gray, red, orange, or yellow) for your threshold line.

Display rates or counts in a chart

In a chart, count metric data can be calculated as an average rate per second or displayed as a total number of events over time. After configuring your initial selection, you can toggle between these data views in the chart. In addition, you can display the maximum rate, minimum rate, and average rate in a chart for high precision, or 1-second, Network Bytes and Network Packets metrics.

Note:Depending on the count metric you select, you will see the following default displays:
Count
For the majority of count metrics, such as errors, requests and responses, the total count is automatically displayed.
Average rate
For network and packet-related count metrics, the average rate per second is automatically displayed.
Rate summary
For specific 1-second throughput (Network Bytes) and packet (Network Packet) count metrics, the maximum, minimum, and average rates is automatically displayed.
Tip:For charts with more than one count metric selected, avoid displaying rates and counts together in the same chart. It can skew the scale of the y-axis. The y-axis will include a "/s" on tick labels only if all metrics are displaying rates.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select a count metric.
    Note:A count metric is associated with specific number of events that occurred over time. For example, a byte is recorded as a count metric, and can either represent a throughput rate (as seen in a time series chart) or total traffic volume (as seen in a table). Errors, packets, requests, and responses are also recorded as count metrics.
  3. Select a chart type that is compatible with count metrics (includes line, value, column, bar, pie, and list charts).
  4. Select a data calculation to display in your chart:
    • To display the average rate per second, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Average Rate.
    • To display the count, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Count.
    • To display a maximum rate, minimum rate, and average per second, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Rate Summary, Maximum Rate, or Minimum Rate. These types of rates are only available for the following sources and metrics:
      • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
      • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
      • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)
    Note:Charts that were configured in a previous version of ExtraHop firmware, with the Show as rate option selected, now display the Average rate.

Display percentiles or a mean

You can configure a chart to display statistical calculations for metric data, such as percentiles or a mean. A percentile is a statistical measure to determine if a data point falls below or above a given percentage amongst all of the data in a dataset metric type. A mean is the calculated average of all of the data in a sampleset metric type. You can also view the standard deviation for a sampleset metric type only.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select a source and then a dataset or sampleset metric. The median (50th percentile) automatically displays for dataset metrics in most charts. The mean automatically displays for sampleset metrics.
    Note:A dataset metric is usually associated with time, such as server processing time or round trip time. Sampleset metrics are often the detail metrics for dataset metrics. Only compatible metrics are displayed in metric search results when you select a percentile-based chart, such as a heatmap, candlestick, or histogram chart.
  3. Select a chart type that is compatible with dataset or sampleset metric (includes all chart types except for the pie chart).
  4. Select a statistical calculation to display in your chart:
    • To display a summary of percentiles (from the 5th to 95th percentiles), click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Summary.
    • To display a specific percentile, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Percentile. In the Set Percentiles field, type numbers separated by a comma. For example, to view the 10th, 30th, and 80th percentiles, type 10, 30, 80.
    • To display the 100th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Maximum.
    • To display the 0th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Minimum.
    • To display the 50th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Median.
    Note:

    The median, percentile, maximum, and minimum displays are unavailable for heatmap and histogram charts.

Filter outliers

Histogram and heatmap charts display a distribution of data. However, outliers can skew how the distribution displays in your chart, making it difficult to notice patterns or average values. The default filter option for these charts excludes outliers from the data range and displays the 5th-95th percentiles. You can change the filter to view the full range of data (Min to Max), including outliers, in your chart through the following procedure.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the histogram or heatmap chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. From the Default filter drop-down list in the Filters section, select Min to Max.
  5. Click Save.

Display detail metrics by key in a chart

You can edit a chart to display metrics broken down by key. When you drill down on a metric in the Metric Explorer, you can view up to 20 top key values in a chart for a specific time interval. A key can be a client IP address, hostname, method, URI, referrer, or more. For example, if your chart displays a total count for HTTP Requests, you can drill down by client to view the IP addresses that sent the most requests to your web servers.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  3. In the Details section, click Drill down by <None>, where <None> is the name of the detail metric key currently displayed in your chart.
  4. Select a key from the drop-down list.
    Note:If you have more than one source selected in your metric set, such as two devices, the sources are automatically combined into an ad hoc source group as you drill down. You cannot deselect the Combine Sources checkbox. To view detail metrics for each source, you must remove a source from the metric set and then click Add Source to create a new metric set.
    If detail metric data for a common key is available for all of the metrics in a metric set, the detail metrics automatically appear in the drop-down list, as shown in the following figure. If a detail metric in the list is grayed out, data is unavailable for all of the metrics in that metric set. For example, client, server, and URI data are available for both HTTP Requests and HTTP Responses metrics in the metric set.

  5. You can filter detail metric keys with an approximate match, regular expression (regex), or exact match through one of the following steps:
    1. In the Filter field, select the icon to display keys by an approximate match or with regex. You must omit forward slashes with regex in the approximate match filter.
    2. In the Filter field, select the = icon to display keys by an exact match.
      Note:Regex is unsupported in the exact match filter.
  6. Optional: In the top results field, enter the number of keys that you want to display. These keys will have the highest values.
  7. To remove a drill-down selection, click the x icon.
    Note:You can display an exact key match per metric, as shown in the following figure. Click the detail metric name (such as All Methods) to select a specific detail metric key (such as GET) from the drop-down list. If a key appears gray (such as PROPFIND), detail metric data is unavailable for that specific key. You can also type a key that is not in the drop-down list.

Regular expression filter examples

Regular expression (regex) is supported in the Metric Explorer when drilling down for detail metrics. The following examples will help you create simple and effective regex strings for filtering detail metrics keys, such as IP addresses.

Note:In the ExtraHop system, regex is most effective when you want to filter metric data by a parameter contained within the metric key, such as a number within any IP address. Regex is not effective for filtering for details by an exact match, such as filtering to specify an exact IP address.
Chart Scenario Regex filter How it works
Compare HTTP status codes 200 to 404. (200|404) Matches 200 and 404 codes where the | symbol serves as an OR function.
Display all HTTP 400 and 500 error codes occurring on your network. ^[45] Matches a 4 or 5 in the status code.
Display any IP address with a 187. 187. Matches 1, 8, and 7 characters in the IP address.
Review all IP addresses containing 187.18. 187\.18\. Matches 187 and the character . that follows the 187. For example, this filter returns results for 187.18.0.0.0, 180.187.0.0.0, or 187.180.0.0.0/16.
Display any IP address except 187.18.197.150. ^(.(?!187.18.197.150))*$ Matches anything except 187.18.197.150.
Change drill-down chart labels

Each chart provides an option to display available detail metric key values by hostname or origin. If the hostname or origin value is unavailable, the IP address automatically displays.

Note:This option is not available for candlestick, histogram, heatmap, and status charts.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Labels section, select one of the following options:
    • Hostname if available. Displays the hostname for each device is collected from naming protocols such as DNS and DHCP. If you assigned a custom name to a device, the custom name displays instead of the hostname. Deselect Show custom device names to always display the hostname.
    • Origin if available. Displays the origin for each request, which is collected from values in the HTTP origin header fields such as “X-Forwarded-For” or “X-Client-IP.”
  4. Click Save.

Display device group members in a chart

You can edit a chart to display up to 20 members in a device group. When you drill down by group member in the Metric Explorer, you can view metrics per device within the group in the chart. If you drill down by group member, you cannot drill down by a key for those group members. To see detail metrics by key for one or more group members, we recommend creating another chart with specific devices selected as the source.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  3. Make sure a device group or activity group is selected as your source. For more information about how to select sources and metrics, see the Edit a chart widget section.
  4. In the Details field, click Drill down by <None>, where <None> is the name of the detail metric currently displayed in your chart. Then, select Group Member.
  5. In the top results field, enter the number of group members that you want to display. These devices will have the highest metric values. You can display up to 20 group members.
  6. To remove the drill-down selection, click the x icon.

Change chart title

The chart title, which is automatically determined by which source and metrics you select for your chart, can be changed to a custom title.

  1. Click the chart title and select Rename.
  2. In the Display custom title field, type a new chart title.
  3. Click Save.
    Note:To display the automatic title again, select Display default title.

Custom metric labels

You can change the default metric label in a chart to a custom label. For example, you can change "Network Bytes" to "Throughput."

Note:The ability to rename a metric label is not available for box plot, candlestick, heatmap, or status charts.
Custom metric labels only apply to individual charts. A custom label persists if you complete one of the following actions:
  • Add new sources and metrics to your chart
  • Copy the chart to another dashboard
  • Share the dashboard with another user
To prevent the mislabeling or inaccuracy of a custom label when metric data changes, a custom label clears if you change the following data parameters:
  • Source
  • Metric
  • Data calculation. For example, a custom label clears if you change the data calculation from median to percentile. But a custom label persists if you change a count metric to a rate.
  • Drill-downs. For example, the custom label for a top-level metric, such as"Requests," clears when you drill down by key, such as clients.
    Note:If you change the label for a metric after drilling down, and there is no data available for that metric or key, then the top-level label displays.
    Tip:Type the variable, $KEY, into the Display custom name field to change how the drill-down key displays within the custom label. For example:
    • Type $KEY errors to display "172.22.1.81 errors"
    • Type [$KEY] errors to display "[172.22.1.81] errors"
Change a metric label in a chart legend

You can rename the label for metric, which is displayed in a chart legend.

Note:The custom metric label in a chart is not applied globally across the ExtraHop system.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
    Note:For more information, see the Edit a chart widget section.
  2. In the preview pane of the Metric Explorer, click the metric label in the legend, and select Rename.
    Note:You cannot directly edit the labels for delta or trend series. You can change the label for a top-level metric, which all apply to the delta or trend series.
  3. In the Display custom label field, type a custom name.The custom series name must be unique from other series in the chart.
    Note:For detail metrics, the custom label is prepended to the key. You can preview how the custom label appears for all top keys displayed in your chart. For more information, see the Custom metric labels section.
  4. Click Save. A custom label is saved or discarded when the chart changes are saved or discarded.

Change chart appearance to grayscale

Charts display data in color by default, but all charts provide the option to display data in grayscale.

Note:If your chart contains an alert that is assigned to metric data, and that alert status is active, the chart data displays in color and will not display in grayscale. For example, data in the status chart will rarely be displayed in grayscale.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. From the Chart style drop-down list in the Appearance section, select Grayscale (except alert status).

Change chart units

Each chart provides an option to specify the units and scale for data in your chart. You can convert bytes to bits, convert linear scale to log scale, and select the suffix notation from base 2 or base 10.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. Optional: In the Units section, select Convert bytes to bits.
    Note:The bytes unit is displayed in charts as "B." The bits unit is displayed as "b."
  4. Optional: In the Units section, select Set log scale for y-axis.
    Note:This option is unavailable for histogram charts.
  5. Optional: In the Units section, from the Suffix notation drop-down list, select Base 2 (Ki = 1024) or Base 10 (K = 1000).
    Note:This option is unavailable for histogram and heatmap charts.
  6. Click Save.

Display chart legend

The area, column, line, line & column, and pie charts provide an option to hide a legend.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Legend section, select Display legend.

Abbreviate metric values in a chart

Bar, list, and value charts display the full numeric value by default. You can abbreviate this value in your chart to improve readability. For example, the value of 16,130,542 bytes can be abbreviated to 16.1 MB.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Units section, select Abbreviate numbers.
  4. Click Save.

Sort chart data

The bar, list, and value charts provide a sorting option that sorts data by the order in which the metrics were added to your chart, by the detail metric key name, or by the data value (highest to lowest, for example).

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. From the Sort metric by down-down list in the Sort field, select Order Added, Key Name, or Value.
  4. Click Save.

Change percentile precision

The pie chart provides a percentile precision option that specifies the decimal precision, or the number of digits, displayed in your chart. Percentile precision is useful for displaying ratios of data, especially for service-level agreements (SLA) that might require a precise data for reporting.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the pie chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. In the Units section, select Show percents instead of counts.
  5. From the Percent precision drop-down list, select the decimal precision value, such as 0.00% or 0.000%.
  6. Click Save.

Include sparklines

The list and value charts provide an option to include a sparkline for each metric selected in the chart. The sparkline is a small, gray chart that looks similar to an area chart and shows how data changes over time.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the list or value chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. In the Layout section, select Include sparklines.
  5. Click Save.

Display alert status in a chart

The list and value charts provide an option to display data with an alert status color. Different colors indicate the severity of the configured alert. For example, you can configure a value chart to display the metric data in red when an alert threshhold is crossed.

For more information about creating and configuring alerts, see the Alert settings section.

Note:Colors for the most severe alert assigned to the source and metric will display in the chart by default.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Labels section, select Use color to show alert status.
  4. Click Save.

Chart types

Chart types effectively control how your data is displayed in a dashboard. The Metric Explorer has several chart types, some of which carry restrictions. For example, you can only display dataset metric types in a heatmap or histogram chart.
Tip:Hover your mouse over each chart type in the ExtraHop Web UI to learn about any metric or configuration requirements.
Learn more about each chart type in the following sections:
Chart type Description Compatible metrics
Area chart Displays metric values as a line that connects data points over time, with the area between the line and axis filled in with color. Any metric type.
Bar chart Displays the total value of metric data as horizontal bars. Any metric type.
Box plot chart Displays variability for a distribution of metric data as horizontal lines that contain three or five data points. Dataset and sampleset metric types.
Candlestick chart Displays data calculations for a distribution of metric values over time. Dataset metric type and high-precision, or 1-second, network (L2) count metrics.
Column chart Displays metric data as vertical columns over a selected time interval. Any metric type.
Heatmap chart Displays a distribution of metric data over time, where color represents a concentration of data. Dataset metric type only.
Histogram chart Dsplays a distribution of metric data as vertical bars, or bins. Dataset metric type only.
Line chart Displays metric values as data points in a line over time. Any metric type.
Line & column chart Displays metric values as a line, which connects a series of data points over time, with the option to display another metric as a column chart underneath the line chart. Any metric type.
List chart Displays metric data as a list with optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Any metric type.
Pie chart Displays metric data as a portion or percentage of a whole. Count, maximum, snapshot metric types only.
Status chart Displays metric values in a column chart and the status of an alert assigned to both the source and metric in the chart. You can only select one source and metric to display in this chart.
Table chart Displays metric values in a table. Any metric type.
Value chart Displays the total value for one or more metrics. Any metric type.
Area chart

The area chart displays metric values as a line that connects data points over time, with the area between the line and axis filled in with color. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual line, or a series. Each series is stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of the data. Select the area chart to see how the accumulation of multiple metric data points over time contribute to a total value. For example, an area chart can reveal how various protocols contribute to total protocol activity.

Tip:You can isolate individual series in the chart by clicking on the legend.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Bar chart

The bar chart displays the total value of metric data as horizontal bars. Select the bar chart when you want to compare the data for more than one metric for a selected time interval.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Box plot chart

The box plot chart displays variability for a distribution of metric data. Each horizontal line in the box plot includes three or five data points. With five data points, the line contains a body bar, a vertical tick mark, an upper shadow line, and a lower shadow line. With three data points, the line contains a vertical tick mark, an upper shadow, and lower shadow.

Tip:Hover over the line to view all percentiles and count values (total number of events that occurred) for the chart.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with the dataset and sampleset metric types. You can display the following data calculations in this chart:

Summary
For dataset metrics, the Summary displays the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentile values. The line contains five data points. The body represents the range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile. The middle tick mark represents the 50th percentile (median). The upper shadow line represents the 95th percentile. The lower shadow represents the 5th percentile.

For sampleset metrics, the Summary displays the +/-1 standard deviation and the mean values. This line contains a vertical tick mark to represent the mean, and an upper and lower shadow line to represent standard deviation values.

Percentile...
For dataset metrics, the Percentile displays either three or five custom percentiles. Each percentile you enter must be separated by a comma and a space. If you specify three data points, the line represents the range of percentile values. The middle tick mark represents the middle value. The upper shadow represents the top range for your selection. The lower shadow is the bottom range of your selection.
Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Candlestick chart

The candlestick chart displays variability for a distribution of metric data over time. Vertical lines at each time interval displays three or five data points. If the line has five data points, it contains a body, middle tick mark, an upper shadow line, and a lower shadow line. If the line has three data points, it contains a middle tick mark. Select the candlestick chart to view the variability of data calculations for a specific period of time.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with the dataset metric type and high-precision, or 1-second, network (L2) count metrics.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include:

Summary
Summary displays the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentile values for dataset metrics. The line will contain five data points. The body represents the range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile. The middle tick mark represents the 50th percentile (median). The upper shadow line represents the 95th percentile. The lower shadow represents the 5th percentile.
Percentiles...
Percentile displays either three or five custom percentiles for dataset metrics. Each percentile you enter must be separated by a comma and space. If you specify three data points, the line represents the range of percentile values. The middle tick mark represents the middle value. The upper shadow represents the top range for your selection. The lower shadow is the bottom range of your selection.
Rate summary
The Rate Summary displays the maximum, minimum, and average rates for the following 1-second network bytes and packets metrics:
  • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
  • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
  • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)

The upper and lower parts of the line represent the range from the maximum and minimum rates. A middle tick mark represents the average rate.

Tip:Hover over a line to view the values of percentiles and count (total number of events that occurred) for a data point.
Column chart

The column chart displays metric data as vertical columns over a selected time interval. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual column, or a series. Each series is stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of the data. Select the column chart to compare how accumulation of multiple metric data points at a specific time point contribute to a total value.

Tip:Click the legend to isolate individual series.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Heatmap chart

The heatmap chart displays a distribution of metric data over time, where color represents a concentration of data. The heatmap legend displays the color gradient that corresponds to the data range in the chart. For example, the darker color on the heatmap indicates a higher concentration of data points. Select the heatmap when you want to identify patterns in the distribution of data.

Note:The dashboard properties theme, such as Light, Dark, or Space, affects whether a darker or lighter color indicates a higher concentration of data points.
The chart displays a default data range between the 5th and 95th percentiles, which filters outliers from the distribution. Outliers can skew the scale of data displayed in your chart, making it more difficult to spot trends and patterns for the majority of your data. However, you can choose to view the full range of data by changing the default filter in the Options tab. For more information, see the Filter outliers section.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart requires a dataset metric type only.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include include percentiles.
Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Histogram chart

The histogram chart displays a distribution of metric data as vertical bars, or bins. The default view displays a data range from the 5th to 95th percentile (5th-95th), which filters outliers from the distribution. The minimum to maximum (Min-Max) view displays the full data range. Click the magnifying glass in the upper right corner of the chart to toggle between the two views. Select the histogram chart to view the shape of how data is distributed.

Note:Your toggle selection (between the 5th-95th and Min-Max views) will persist for your chart, but not for the users that you shared your dashboard and chart with. To set a persistent toggle selection before sharing a dashboard, see the Filter outliers section.

Data is distributed into bins on a linear or log scale. First, the data range automatically determines whether the chart has a linear or log scale. Then, data is placed into bins. When the data range spans several orders of magnitude, data is placed into bins on a log scale, and Min-Max (log) appears in the upper right corner of the chart. Typically, the 5th to 95th percentile data range does not require a log scale.

Click-and-drag to zoom in on multiple bins or a specific bin. Click the magnifying glass again in the upper right corner of the chart to zoom out to the original view (either 5th-95th or Min to Max).

Note:Zooming in to view a custom time interval does not change the global or region time interval.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart requires a dataset metric type only.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include include percentiles.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Line chart

The line chart type displays metric values as data points in a line over time. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual line, or a series. Each series overlaps. Select the line chart to compare changes over time.

Tip:Click the legend to isolate individual series.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Line & column chart

The line & column chart type displays metric values as a line, which connects data points over time, with the option to display another metric as a column chart underneath the line chart. If your chart contains more than one metric (for example, HTTP Requests and HTTP Errors), you can select Display as Columns to display one of the metrics as a column chart underneath the line chart. Select the line & column chart to compare different metrics at different scales in one chart. For example, you can view error rates and the total number of HTTP responses in one chart.

Note:Columns are displayed in the color red by default. To remove the red color, click Options and clear Display columns in red.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

List chart

The list chart displays metric data as a list with optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Select the list chart to view long lists of metric values, such as detail metrics.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Pie chart

The pie chart displays metric data as a portion or percentage of a whole. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric will be represented as single slice, or series, in the pie chart. Select the pie chart to compare the metric values that are mutually exclusive, such as status code detail metrics for the top-level HTTP Response metric.

You can configure your pie chart to display as a donut chart by selecting Show total value from the Option tab.

To set a specific number of digits displayed in your chart, see the Change percentile precision section.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is requires a count, maximum, snapshot metric type only.

You can only view rates and count in this chart.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Status chart

The status chart type displays metric values in a column chart and the status of an alert assigned to both the source and metric in the chart. The color of each column represents the most severe alert status of the configured alert for that time interval. Select the status chart to see how data and the alert status for your metric change over time.

For more information about configuring alerts, see the Alert settings section.

To view the status of all of the alerts associated with the selected metric category, click Show Related Alerts. A list of alerts will then be displayed underneath the column chart.

Available metrics for this chart

You can only select one source and metric to display in this chart. This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean. However, you cannot display a summary of percentiles (from the 5th to 95th percentiles).

Note:This chart does not support baselines.
Table chart

The table chart displays metric values across rows and columns in a table. Add rows to the table by selecting more than one source. Add columns to the table by adding metrics.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type. You can only select one metric set to display in the table. A metric set contains one type of source, such as applications or devices, and metrics.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Value chart

The value chart type displays the total value for one or more metrics. If you select more than one metric, metric values are displayed side-by-side. You can also add optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Select the value chart to see the total value of important metrics, such as the total number of HTTP errors occurring on your network.

Available metrics for a chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Alert history widget

The alert history widget displays details about active alerts that are assigned to a metric source. You can configure the alert history widget with the Metric Explorer.

Note:The alert history widget can only display up to 40 alerts. If you have more than 40 active alerts, click Show All Alerts in the bottom row of the table.
Available metrics for this widget

This widget requires metric sources only. You cannot add metrics to the alert history chart.

Edit a text box widget

The text box widget enables you to type and display custom text in a dashboard region. It is a helpful tool for adding notes about a chart or data in a dashboard.

The text box widget supports the Markdown syntax, which enables you to format text and add metric variables that display updated metric data dynamically. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax that converts plain text into HTML with non-alphabetic characters, such as “#” or “*”. A new text box widget contains sample text that is already formatted in Markdown.

  1. Open the Metric Explorer window by doing one of the following steps:
    • On the Dashboards page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. Click anywhere within the text box widget.
    • Click the title and then select Edit.
  2. In the Metric Explorer: Edit Text Widget window, type and edit text in the left Editor pane.
    The HTML output text dynamically displays in the right Preview pane.
  3. Click Save.

Format text in Markdown syntax

The following table shows common Markdown formats that are supported in the text box widget.

Note:Additional Markdown format examples are provided in the GitHub Guides: Mastering Markdown. However, not all Markdown syntax formatting options are supported in the text box widget.
Format Description Example
Headings Place a number sign (#) before your text to format headings. The level of heading is determined by the amount of number signs. ####Example H4 heading
Unordered lists Place a single asterisk (*) before your text to format bulleted lists. * Example 1 * Example 2
Ordered lists Place a single number and period (1.) before your text to format numbered lists. 1. Example 1 2. Example 2
Bold Place double asterisks before and after your text to format bold. **bold text**
Italics Place an underscore before and after your text to format italics. _italicized text_
Hyperlinks Place link text in brackets before the URL in parentheses. Or type your URL.
Note: Links to external websites open in a new browser tab. Links within the ExtraHop Web UI,such as dashboards or custom pages, open in the current browser tab.

[Visit our home page](https://www.extrahop.com)

https://www.extrahop.com

Blockquotes Place a right angle bracket and a space before your text to format a blockquote.

On the ExtraHop website:

> Access the live demo and review case studies.

Monospace font Place a backtick (`) before and after your text to format in a monospace font. `example code block`
Note:Adding emojis in Markdown syntax is unsupported. However, copying and pasting a Unicode block emoji is supported in the text box widget. For more information, see Unicode Emoji Chart website.

Add images in Markdown syntax

You can add images to the text box widget by linking to them. Make sure your image is hosted on a network that is accessible to the Discover appliance.

Links to images must be specified in the following format:

![<alt_text>](<file_path>)

Where <alt_text> is the alternative text and <file_path> is the path of the image. For example:

![Graph](/images/graph_1.jpg)
Note:You also can add images by encoding them to Base64. For more information, see the following post on the ExtraHop customer forum, “Putting Images in Text Boxes.”

Add metrics in Markdown

You can add metric variables to a text box widget by writing metric queries in Markdown.

The Markdown format for writing metric queries is:

%%metric:<definition>%%

Where <definition> is replaced with a JSON-defined structure that is based on the ExtraHop REST API query structure.

Note:The following metric queries are unsupported in the text box widget:
  • Time-series queries
  • Mean calculations
  • Multiple object_ids
  • Multiple metric_spec
  • Multiple percentiles

A metric query must contain the following parameters:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec

To retrieve the object_type, metric_spec, and metric_category values for a metric name:

  1. Click Settings
  2. Click Metric Catalog
  3. Type the metric name in the search field
  4. Select the metric, and look for the values in the REST API Parameters section.

For more information, see the Metric Catalog section.

You can retrieve object_ids from the URL that you are browsing.

Object Type URL Parameter
Application applicationOID=
Network networkOID=
Group deviceGroupOID=
Device deviceOID=

Metric variable examples

The following examples show you how to write top-level metric queries for application, device, and network objects, and detail metric queries.

Application queries

To specify the All Activity object, the object_ids is “0”.

This example query shows how you can retrieve HTTP metrics from the All Activity object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP requests and [value] HTTP responses from All Activity.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%HTTP requests and
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from All Activity.
Device queries

You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. To retrieve metrics for a specific device, specify the device object ID number in object_ids. To retrieve the device object ID (deviceOid), search for the device object in the ExtraHop global search. Select the device from your search results. The “deviceOid=” value will be embedded in the URL query string.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device client object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [8],
"metric_category": "dns_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device server object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [156],
"metric_category": "dns_server",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.
Network queries

To specify All Networks, the object_type is “capture” and the object_ids is “0.” To specify a specific VLAN, the object_type is “vlan” and the object_ids is the VLAN number.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "net","metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for a specific VLAN and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from VLAN 3.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [3],
"metric_category": "net",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from VLAN 3.
Group queries

To specify a group, the object_type is “activity_group” or “device_group.” You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. The object_ids for the specific group must be retrieved from the REST API Explorer.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "activity_group",
"object_ids": [17],
"metric_category": "http_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.
Detail metric queries

If you want to retrieve detail metrics, your metric query should contain additional key parameters, such as key1 and key2:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec
    • name
    • key1
    • key2
Note:The key parameters act as a filter for displaying detail metric results.
For built-in detail metrics, you can retrieve detail metric parameters from the Metric Catalog. For example, type HTTP Responses by URI, and then look at the parameter values in the REST API Parameters section.
Note:You must supply the object_ids in your query.

This example shows how to retrieve HTTP requests by URI for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"object_type": "application", 
"object_ids": [0],  
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}] 
}%%

This example query shows you how to retrieve HTTP requests by URIs that contain a key value for “pagead2” for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0], 
"metric_specs": [ 
{ 
"name": "req", 
"key1": "/pagead2/" 
} 
] 
}%%

This example query shows how to retrieve count metrics for all networks and displays the following output: “Getting [value] detail ICA metrics on all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name":"custom_count",
"key1":"network-app-byte-detail-ICA"
}]
}%%
detail ICA metrics on all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve a custom dataset statistic with topn keys and percentiles, and displays the following output: “The fifth percentile is: [value].

The fifth percentile is:
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [1],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name": "custom_dset",
"key1": "myCustomDatasetDetail",
"key2": "/10.10.7/",
"calc_type": "percentiles",
"percentiles": [5]
}]
}%%
.
Note:Sampleset metrics are unsupported in the text box widget. For example, adding the “calc_type”: “mean” parameter to your text box query is unsupported.

Edit a dashboard layout

Add and arrange the placement of regions and widgets on your dashboards.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Click and drag dashboard components, such as a region or widgets, from the bottom of the page to add them to your custom dashboard.
    Note:For more information, see the Add a region, Delete a region, Add a widget, and Delete a widget sections.
  3. To arrange dashboard components, click and drag the edge of a region or widget to resize them. Click the header of a region or widget to drag them into a different location.
    Note:If dashboard components overlap, they will be outlined in red. You must click and drag the sides of the widgets and regions to make room.
  4. Click Remove Extra Space to remove the empty vertical white space around widgets.
    Note:Empty vertical white space will be removed from every region on the dashboard.
  5. After making your changes, click Exit Layout Mode.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.

Add a region

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. From the bottom of the page, click and drag a region onto the dashboard.
  3. Click the Exit Layout Mode button in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
    You can now add widgets to your empty region and rename it. When you are finished modifying your region, click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.

Copy a region

You can copy a region and paste it into another dashboard or new dashboard. All of the widgets in that region will be copied.

  1. Click the region title.
  2. Hover over Copy to… to expand the menu and make one of the following selections:
    • If you are copying the region to a new dashboard, select New Dashboard. In the Dashboard Properties window, in the Title section, type a name for the new dashboard.
      Tip:You can edit dashboard properties at any time. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties section.
    • If you are copying the region to an existing dashboard, select the dashboard from the menu. The dashboard page opens and displays the location of the copied region. Drag and drop the region to a desired location and then click Exit Dashboard Layout.
      Note:If the copied region is placed on top of another region, it will appear red, indicating that regions are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. Move the region to a new location until it is no longer red.

Delete a region

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. On the region you want to delete, click Delete.
  3. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard.

Rename a region

  1. Do one of the following steps:
    • Click the region title and select Rename.
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. In the region toolbar, click Rename.
  2. Type the new name for your region.
  3. Click Save.

Modify sources

You can change the sources for charts and widgets within a region without opening the Metric Explorer for each chart. This feature helps you to quickly update a copied dashboard.

  1. Complete one of the following steps:
    • Click the region title and select Modify Sources
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. In the region toolbar, click Modify Sources.
  2. In the Modify Sources window, select the object that you want to change from the list on the right and choose a new metric source.
    Tip:You can also change the title of the region by clicking on the region name to the right.
  3. Click Save Dashboard.

Add a widget

You can add widgets, such as a chart or text box, to an empty space in a region on your dashboard.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. Make sure you have space within the region for a new widget. Click and drag the corner of a region to make space or add a new region.
  2. Drag-and-drop one of the following widget types onto the region.
    Chart
    This widget is user-defined. Learn more in the Edit a chart widget section.
    Alert History
    This widget displays information about alerts that were detected about the objects in the list. Click Add metric source to customize the alert history.
    Activity Groups
    This widget displays a list of all activity during the specified time interval and cannot be modified.
    Text Box
    This widget provides a space for typing and displaying custom text in a dashboard region. You can format text with the Markdown syntax. Learn more in the Edit a text box widget section.
    Note:If you place a widget on top of another widget, overlapping widgets are outlined in red and will not display properly if you click Exit Layout Mode. To create more space in the region for the new widget, expand the region size and then move the widget to a new location.
  3. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to Dashboards page.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.

Copy a widget

  1. Click the widget title.
  2. Hover over Copy to… to expand the menu and make one of the following selections:
    • If you are copying the widget to a new dashboard, select New Dashboard. In the Dashboard Properties window, in the Title section, type a name for the new dashboard.
      Tip:You can edit dashboard properties at any time. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties section.
    • If you are copying the widget to an existing dashboard, select the dashboard from the menu. The dashboard page opens and displays the location of the copied widget within a new region. Rename the region and then click Exit Dashboard Layout.
      Note:If the copied region is placed on top of another region, it will appear red, indicating that regions are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. Move the region to a new location until it is no longer red.

Delete a widget

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the widget and select Delete.
  3. Click Delete Widget.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
  1. Click the widget or chart title and then select Print.
    The print preview appears in a new window.
  2. Click Print Widget.

Change dashboard properties

After you created a dashboard, you can modify the metadata that is associated with that dashboard through the dashboard properties options.

  1. On the Dashboards page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Dashboard Properties.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, you can modify the following fields:
    Title
    Change the dashboard name.
    Author
    Change the author name.
    Description
    Change the description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    Change the URL for the dashboard. By default, the permalink, also known as a short code, is a five-character unique identifier that appears after /Dashboard in the URL. You can change the short code to a friendly name.
    Note:The permalink can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: dot (.), underscore (_), dash (-), plus sign (+), parentheses ( ), and brackets ([ ]). The name cannot contain spaces.
    Sharing
    To share a dashboard with users who can view and edit, click the link. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Editors
    View the list of ExtraHop Web UI users with editing access to the dashboard. To change the users, click Sharing.
    Theme
    Select one of the following themes to change the colors and appearance of the dashboard:

    Light: White background with dark text.

    Dark: Black background with white text.

    Space: Dark background with a stylized background image and text.

  3. Click Save.

Share a dashboard

You can share custom dashboards with other ExtraHop users and groups and decide whether to give them view or edit access. User group information is imported from LDAP (such as OpenLDAP or Active Directory).

Note:How a user interacts with a dashboard and the information they can view in the ExtraHop system is determined by user privileges, which are assigned by the ExtraHop administrator. For more information, see the User privileges section in the ExtraHop Admin UI Guide.
  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the dashboard page and select Share.
  4. Grant viewing access to specific users or groups by completing one of the following steps:
    • Click Only specified users or groups can view or edit. In the Specify users and groups field, type the name of a user or group, and select the name from the drop-down list. Select Can view and click Add User or Add User Group. Repeat this process for additional users and groups.
    • Select All users and groups can view; only specified users and groups can edit.
  5. Grant editing access to specific users or groups by completing the following steps:
    1. In the Specify users and groups field, type the name of a user or group.
    2. Select a name from the drop-down list.
    3. Select Can edit.
    4. Click Add User or Add User Group.
    5. Repeat the process for additional users and groups.
  6. Click Save.

Remove access to a dashboard

You can modify the view and edit access privileges for dashboards that you granted to specific users and groups.

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Share.
  4. Modify the access privileges by selecting from the following options:
    • Click the red delete (x) icon next to the user or group name to remove all access.
    • Modify the access privileges by selecting either Can edit or Can view from the drop-down list next to the user or group name.
  5. Click Save.

View a dashboard

There are several ways to view information in a dashboard and present dashboard information to others. For example, you can opt to display hover-over descriptions of protocols and metrics in dashboards. You can also select between two presentation options to view dashboards: presentation mode or widget slideshow. Alert statuses can also be viewed in dashboards through widgets.

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. To see definitions of the protocol and metrics displayed in charts, do the following steps:
    1. Click the chart title or legend label.
    2. Hover over Descriptions. The protocol and metric definition will be displayed.
      Note:You can also view descriptions in charts that display traffic from individual ports. Descriptions are provided for protocols that the Discover appliance parses.
  3. To present a full-screen display of your dashboard, do the following steps:
    1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page.
    2. Select Presentation Mode.
    3. Click Exit Presentation Mode in the upper right corner to return to the previous display.
      Note:You can open a dashboard in presentation mode directly by appending /presentation to the URL. For example: https://<extrahop_ip>/extrahop/#/Dashboard/437/presentation.
  4. To view a dashboard as a widget slideshow, do the following steps:
    1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page.
    2. Select Widget Slideshow.
    3. Select a time increment to view a slideshow of widgets within the current region.
    4. Click the x icon in the upper right corner of the screen to return to the previous display.
  5. To display alert statuses for metrics, you can configure the status chart or alert status display options in dashboard charts such as the list and value chart. For more information, see the Status chart and Display alert status in a chart sections.

Organize dashboards

To organize dashboards in the dashboard dock (left pane), you can create folders, copy dashboards, filter dashboards, and sort dashboards in ascending, descending, or custom order.

The following fields and controls are available in the dashboard dock.
Filter dashboards... field
Enables you to limit the displayed list of items.
Dashboard sort buttons
Enables you to switch between ascending, descending, and custom sort views. For more information, see the Sort dashboards section.
Dashboard Inbox
Displays a list of dashboards that have been shared with you by other users. The Dashboard Inbox appears only if the inbox contains one or more dashboards. To share your dashboard with others, see the Share a dashboard section.
My Dashboards
Displays a list of dashboards that you created. To organize your dashboards within custom folders, you can create a folder, add a dashboard to a folder, and arrange folders within the dashboard dock. You can keep these dashboards private or share them with other users. Editing access to your dashboard can be granted on a per-user or user group basis. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
System Dashboards
Displays the default built-in dashboards that provide you with a high-level overview of everything happening on your network in real-time. The two system dashboards, which are the Activity dashboard and the Network dashboard, cannot be deleted, modified, or shared. For more information, see the Types of dashboards section.
New Dashboard
Enables you to create a new dashboard.

Create a folder for dashboards

  1. In the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu .
  2. Click New Folder.
    Note:To add a new folder through a keyboard shortcut, type N then F.
  3. Type a name for the folder and click Save.

Add a dashboard to a folder

  1. In the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu .
  2. Click Edit Dock.
    Tip:To add a new folder through a keyboard shortcut, type O then D.
  3. Drag-and-drop dashboards that you created into a folder.
    Note:If dashboards are sorted in ascending or descending order, the drag-and-drop functionality is disabled. To enable this functionality again, click the sort icon in the upper right header of the dashboard dock until the custom sort icon displays.
  4. Click the Exit Edit Mode icon in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock to save your changes and exit edit mode.
    Note:You cannot click-and-drag system dashboards or shared dashboards to a new folder.

Arrange dashboard folders

To change the location of folders in the dashboard dock:

  1. Click the command menu in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock.
  2. Click Edit Dock.
  3. Click and drag the folders to change their location.

Copy a dashboard

  1. Select a dashboard.
  2. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the dashboard page.
  3. Click Copy and do one of the following steps:
    • Click Keep Sources to maintain chart and widget configurations in the new dashboard.
    • Click Modify Sources to update charts and widgets with new sources in the new dashboard.
      1. In the Modify Sources window, click the source name.
      2. Search for a new source (either an application, device, or network) that you want to replace the original source with.
      3. Click Create Dashboard.
      Tip:You can also change the title of the dashboard by clicking on the pencil icon next to the dashboard name.
  4. To change the new dashboard title, select the dashboard and update its dashboard properties. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties topic.
    Note:You cannot drag a dashboard to a folder to copy it.

Sort dashboards

You can reorganize the order in which dashboards appear in the dashboards dock.

In the top right corner of the dashboards dock, click the sort icon.
The dashboard will be reorganized according to one of the following sorting modes:
Ascending
Lists dashboards in ascending alphabetical order.
Descending
Lists dashboards in descending alphabetical order.
Custom Order
Lists dashboards according to a customized order.

To modify the order, in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu , and then click Edit Dock. Make sure that the sorting mode is set to Custom Order, and then click and drag to reorganize dashboards and folders. You can also move dashboards from one folder to another; however, you cannot move dashboards into or out of the System Dashboards folder.

Filter dashboards

You can filter the dashboards that are displayed in the dashboard dock to locate a specific dashboard.

In the dashboard dock, in the Filter dashboards... field, type all or part of a dashboard name or folder.
Only dashboards or folders that contain the specified string will appear in the dashboard dock.

Export dashboard data

You can export data from charts or tables to a CSV or Excel file. You cannot export content from a text box widget or a heatmap chart.

  1. Click the chart or table title that you want to export.
  2. Select Export to CSV or Export to Excel.
The file will be downloaded to your local computer.

In the Discover appliance, you can print dashboards from your browser or from the command menu on the Dashboard page.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner and then select Print.
    Tip:To print through a keyboard shortcut, type pp.
    The print preview appears in a new window.
  2. Click Print Page.

In the Command appliance, you can print dashboards from your browser. You can also export dashboards directly to a PDF file by performing the following steps.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Export to PDF.
    Tip:To access the export to PDF option through a keyboard shortcut, type pp.
  2. Type a custom name for your PDF file or accept the default name.
  3. Depending on the arrangement of widgets and the width of your dashboard, choose one of the following page width options:
    Narrow
    Displays large text in chart titles and labels, but provides less space for displaying chart data. Long chart titles and labels might be truncated.
    Medium
    (Recommended) Displays an optimized view of chart titles, legends, and data.
    Wide
    Displays small text in chart titles and labels, but provides more space for displaying chart data.
  4. Depending on the number of regions in your dashboard, choose one of the following pagination options:
    Single page
    Displays the entire dashboard on a single, continuous page.
    Page break per region
    Displays the dashboard by region, separated with a page break for each region.
  5. Click Export to PDF.
    Note:The process for generating a PDF might take several seconds.
    The PDF file will download to your local computer. Each PDF file includes the dashboard title and time interval. Click View report on ExtraHop to open the original dashboard set to the time interval specified in the PDF file.

Delete a dashboard

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page, and select Delete.
  2. Click Delete Dashboard in the Confirm delete dialog box.

Drill down on metrics from a dashboard

If you see interesting activity in a dashboard chart, you can drill down to investigate which factors are linked to that activity. Drilling down on a metric lets you investigate metric values broken down by key, such as client IP address, server IP address, methods, or resources. Click on the metric value or label in a chart, and then select a key.

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. Click a dashboard name in the left pane (dashboard dock).
  3. Click on a metric value or a metric label in the chart legend.
    Note:Drill down by chart legend is unavailable for the box plot, candlestick, heatmap, and histogram charts.
  4. In the Drill down by… field, select a key. A drill-down metrics page with a topnset of metric values by key appears. You can view up to 1,000 key values in a topnset.

Metrics

Metrics are measurements of network behavior. Metrics help you to gain visibility into what is happening in your network in real-time. In the ExtraHop system, metrics are calculated from wire data, and then associated with devices and protocols. The ExtraHop system provides a large number of metrics, which you can explore from protocol pages in the Metrics section of the ExtraHop Web UI. You can also search for metrics in the Metric Catalog, in the Metric Explorer, and by searching for metrics by source and then protocol.

Get started with metrics

The ExtraHop system provides you with 4,000 built-in metrics for over a dozen protocols. A metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Because the ExtraHop system provides so many L2 through L7 protocol metrics to view, it can be challenging to know where to find the metrics that are most important to you.

Top-level metrics and detail metrics

Top-level metrics and detail metrics provide different views about network activity. Top-level metrics provide you with a big-picture value to help identify what is happening on your network. You can then drill down on a top-level metric to view detail metrics. Detail metrics provide you with a value for a specific key (such as a client or server IP address), which gives you insight into how a specific device, method, or resource is affecting the network.

On the Dashboard page, you can configure charts to display either top-level or detail metrics. On protocol pages, you can view top-level metrics and then drill down to view detail metrics.

A top-level, or base, metric gives you a sum of data for a specified time period. The ExtraHop system provides you with real-time updates about top-level metrics. For example, you can view the total number of HTTP requests sent by a device for the last 30 minutes.

In the following figure, a bar chart displays the top-level metric for the total number of HTTP requests that were sent to a web server during a specific time period.

Detail metrics provide you with a metric value for a specific key, such as a client IP address, server IP address, URI, hostname, referrer, certificate, or method. For example, you can drill down on the total number of HTTP requests to break out the number of requests sent per client. When you drill down, the ExtraHop system provides you with a topnset of detail metrics. A topnset is the top 1,000 key-value pairs calculated for the time interval you specify in the Time Selector. A topnset is not a complete data set because a topnset only represents the key-values that are recorded for a specific aggregation roll up (based on a specified time interval), and is limited to up to 1,000 keys per topnset.

In the following figure, a Bar chart displays detail metric values by client (which is a key) after drilling down on the top-level metric for HTTP requests. Specifically, the chart displays eight clients that sent the most requests to the web server during a specific time period. You can configure charts to show you either a specific key or a specific number of keys from a topnset.

Note:When drilling down to detail metrics from protocol pages, you might encounter a chart that includes more than 1,000 keys. Some charts in the ExtraHop system combine topnsets for multiple detail metrics into one table. You can then sort keys by detail metrics. For example, when you drill down on the responses metric by URI from the Metrics > Applications > All Activity > Web page, the chart displays both a topnset of URIs for HTTP Responses and a topnset of URIs for Server Processing Time.
Types of top-level metrics

Each top-level metric in the ExtraHop system is classified into a metric type. Understanding the distinctions between metric types can help you configure charts or write triggers to capture custom metrics. For example, a heatmap chart can only display dataset metrics.

Count
The number of events that occurred over a specific time period. You can view count metrics as a rate or a total count. For example, a byte is recorded as a count, and can either represent a throughput rate (as seen in a time series chart) or total traffic volume (as seen in a table). Rates are helpful for comparing counts over different time periods. A count metric can be calculated as a per-second average over time. When viewing high-precision, or 1-second, bytes and packet metrics, you can also view a maximum rate and minimum rate. Count metrics include errors, packets, and responses.
Distinct count
The number of unique events that occurred during a selected time interval. The distinct count metric provides an estimate of the number of unique items placed into a HyperLogLog set during the selected time interval.
Dataset
A distribution of data that can be calculated into percentiles values. Dataset metrics include processing time and round trip time.
Maximum
A single data point that represents the maximum value from a specified time period.
Sampleset
A summary of data about a detail metric. Selecting a sampleset metric in a chart enables you to display a mean (average) and standard deviation over a specified time period.
Snapshot
A data point that represents a single point in time.
Tip:Visit the Tip of the Week: Metric Types post on the ExtraHop community forum.

Time interval and data roll up

The time interval you specify in the Time Selector determines how metric data is aggregated, or rolled up into buckets. The aggregation roll up, also known as a metric cycle, provides information about the level of granularity for count metric data shown in time-series charts.

Note:The aggregation roll up is not displayed in list and value charts.

The following table provides information about how data will be rolled up for a specific time interval.

Time Interval Aggregation Roll Up (if available) Notes
Less than six minutes 1-second A 1-second roll up is only available for custom metrics and for the following built-in throughput and packet metrics:
  • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
  • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
  • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)
120 minutes or less 30-second If a 30-second roll up is not available, a 5-minute or 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Between 121 minutes and 24 hours 5-minute If 5-minute roll up is not available, a 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Greater than 24 hours 60-minute  
Note:If you have an extended datastore that is configured for 24-hour metrics, a specified time interval of 30 days or longer will display a 24-hour aggregation roll up.

Explore how metric data changes over different time intervals with the Time Selector.

Drill-down functionality

The ExtraHop system enables you to easily drill down from a top-level metric into specific details about the devices, methods, or resources associated with that metric. Drilling down helps you to investigate root causes of interesting network activity. Click on the metric value in a table or chart and then select the detail, such as IP address, method, error, resource, or status code, that you want to know more about.

For example, if you see a large number of DNS request timeouts in a dashboard chart, you can drill down to see the top DNS servers in your environment that are associated with that metric, as well as the number of times each server did not respond to repeated DNS requests.

Note:When you drill down on a top-level metric by a key (such as a client IP address or resource), the ExtraHop system calculates a topnset of up to 1,000 metric value-key pairs. These metric value-key pairs are known as detail metrics. Learn more in the Top-level metrics and detail metrics and Explore drill-down metrics by key sections.
Note:If your Discover appliance is connected to an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can drill down on a protocol or metric to view stored records. Learn more in the Records section.
Explore drill-down metrics by key

Drilling down on a metric lets you explore metric values broken down by key, such as client IP address, server IP address, methods, or resources. On the drill-down metric page, there are several ways to explore detail metrics (which are metric value-key pairs), which help you to learn how a specific device, method, or resource is linked to network activity.

The following figure shows all the available options for exploring detail metrics:

Filter results
You can filter drill-down results in the following ways:
  • Type in the filter field to dynamically filter results
  • Click the Any Field drop-down list and make a selection
  • Choose an operator to define parameters for your filter:
    • Select = to perform an exact string match.
    • Select to perform an approximate string match. The ≈ operator supports regular expression.
      Note:To exclude a result, enter a regular expression. Learn more in the Regular expression filter examples section.
    • Select > or to perform a match for values greater than (or equal to) a specified value.
    • Select < or to perform a match for values less than (or equal to) a specified value.

Click Add filter to save the filter settings. You can save multiple filters for one query. Saved filters are cleared if you select another key from the Details section in the left pane.

Observe changes over time in the chart
You can observe how a metric value changed over the selected time interval in the chart above the table. Select an individual row or multiple rows to change chart data. Hover over data points in the chart to view more information about each data point.
Pivot to more data
You can view metric values for different keys by clicking key names in the Details section in the left pane. If available, click a device name in the table to navigate to a Device page, which displays traffic and protocol activity associated with that device.
Adjust time interval and compare data from two time intervals
You can change the time interval in the Global Time Selector to view metric values from different time intervals. You can also perform a metric delta comparison from two different time intervals in the same table. Learn more in the Compare metric deltas section.
Note:The global time interval in the upper left corner of the page includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the drill-down metrics were last polled. To reload the metrics for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display. Learn more in the Time interval and data roll up section.
Sort data in columns
You can sort by metrics to learn which keys are associated with the largest or smallest metric values. For example, when you drill down on HTTP responses by client for an HTTP server, you can sort on processing time to see which clients experienced the longest website load times. You can then click the host name to navigate to the Device page to learn more about the client.
Note:When you drill down on a response, request, or network byte metric, related metrics such as processing time are included in the table. For example, when you drill down on CIFS responses by files, related metrics such as goodput bytes and access time appear in the far right columns in the table.
Change data calculation for metrics
You can change the following calculations for metric values displayed in the table:
  • If you have a count metric in the table, click Count in the Options section in the left pane and then select Average Rate. Learn more in the Display rates or counts in a chart section.
  • If you have a dataset metric in the table, click Mean in the Options section in the left pane and then select Summary. When you select Summary, you can view the mean and the standard deviation.
Export data
You can download a PDF, CSV, or Excel file with all the drill-down results by right-clicking on the table.

In the Discover and Command appliances, you can search for metrics by source, such as an application, device, flow network, or a group of devices, and then by protocol.

To view all the metrics collected by the ExtraHop system for a source, click Metrics from the top menu.

The following fields and controls are available in the left pane:

Sources
Enables you to view metrics for applications, devices, and networks.
Groups
Enables you to view metrics for groups of devices based on their activity. You can also create a custom device group and view metrics associated with those groups. You can also view trouble groups, which are automatically generated based on network traffic. Trouble groups represent a collection of devices that meet specific criteria indicating potential problems.
Alerts
Enables you to view the alert history for saved alerts.

As you specify the sources or group of devices that you want to explore in the left pane, the center pane displays the available protocol pages associated with your selection. Select a protocol page to display all available metrics in tables, lists, and charts.

Tip:When looking for metrics that are relevant to you, start with a device you are already familiar with. Search for a device in the global search field, and then click on the device name. On the device protocol page, you can pivot across protocols in the left pane and view top-level metrics and charts in the center pane to see all of the network activity associated with your device.
Note:If there are no results for a metric, or if a protocol appears to be missing, the ExtraHop system did not detect any related activity or traffic for that source. To learn more about how the ExtraHop system collects metrics, see the Data sources in the ExtraHop system section.

Dashboards are another way to explore the metrics that are most relevant to you. For example, you can plan and build a custom dashboard with charts that highlight your top devices and most critical network traffic. For more information, see the Get started with dashboards section.

Metric Catalog

The Metric Catalog enables you to view information about built-in and custom metrics in the ExtraHop system. This information can be useful for writing API queries and adding metric variables in a text box widget. You also can delete and edit custom metrics through the Metric Catalog.

Note:For information on modifying custom metrics in the Metric Catalog, see the Custom metrics section.

Search for metrics by typing a keyword or metric name into the filter field. Click the command menu next to the Type to filter... field for sorting options.

When you select a metric from the search results, information about that metric displays in the right pane in the following sections.

The Parameter section provides the following information about the selected metric:

Source
Specifies how the metric was created. If the source is builtin, the selected metric is one of 4,000 metrics already built into the ExtraHop system. If the source is trigger, the selected metric is a custom metric created by a user.
Metric
Specifies the API parameter name of the selected metric.
Source Type
Specifies the source type (application, device, or network) that is associated with the metric.
Metric Type
Specifies the type of base (top-level) metric (such as a count or dataset) that is associated with the selected metric.
Type
Specifies whether the metric is a base (top-level) metric or a detail metric.

The Display section provides information about how the selected metric will be displayed in the Web UI:

Name
Specifies the display name of the metric.
Units
Specifies the unit for the metric, if available.
Description
Specifies a description for the metric.

The Detail Relationships section provides the name of the base (top-level) metric or detail metric that is related to the selected metric.

The REST API Parameter section provides an example of a JSON query structure for the selected metric with API parameters.

Metric Explorer

The Metric Explorer is a tool for creating and editing dashboard charts. In the Metric Explorer, you can add metrics to a chart and immediately view how metric data will appear in a preview pane. The preview pane dynamically updates as you make metric and chart type selections, which enables you to explore and change how your data is visualized in a dashboard.

The Metric Explorer provides the following components for configuring a chart.

Metrics tab
Add metric sets to your chart. A metric set consists of a single type of source and one or more metrics.
Note:You can add multiple metric sets to display in a single chart. For example, one metric set can contain a mix of device sources (such as servers) and another metric set can contain application sources.
Source
In the Source section, add a metric source, such as an application, device, group, or network capture.
Metric
In the Metric section, search for and select compatible metrics for the source. Depending on the type of metric you select, data calculation options are listed underneath the metric name. For example, when you select whether you select a count metric type (such as HTTP Requests or Network Bytes), you can select to display a rate or count. When you select a dataset metric type (such as Server Processing Time), you can choose to display a summary of percentile values or a specific percentile value.
Detail
Optionally, in the Detail section, drill down to display detail metrics for the entire metric set in your chart.
Time interval
Specify a time interval to view presentation of network data in your chart. You can change the time interval, but your changes will not be saved with other chart configurations. You must change the time interval with the Time Selector in your dashboard.
Analysis tab
Add a static threshold line and a dynamic baseline to your chart.
Options tab
Select configuration options, such as changing a chart title, units, and labels.
Preview section
Preview how metric data will display in your chart. The chart dynamically updates as you add and remove metrics from the Metrics tab.
Chart section
Select a chart type to display data. Toggle between different time-series and non time-series chart types to determine which chart is the best choice for visualizing the data you are interested in.
Note:Some charts have specific metric requirements.

The following figure displays a configured line chart. The chart is displaying data for one metric set, Application Metrics, the average rate data calculation for the HTTP Responses metric, and detail metric keys for client IP addresses.

Sources and groups

In the ExtraHop system, a metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Metrics are generated from network traffic, and then each metric is associated with a source, such as an application, device, or network. When you select a source from the Metrics section of the Web UI, or in the Metric Explorer when building a chart, you can view metrics associated with that source. Each source provides access to a different collection of metrics.

Select from the following sources and groups as you configure dashboard widgets or navigate across protocol pages.

Applications

Applications are user-defined containers for metrics that are associated with multiple devices and protocols. These containers can represent distributed applications on your network environment. In the ExtraHop system, applications are created through triggers, which are custom scripts. Triggers can collect metrics across multiple types of network traffic to capture information with cross-tier impact. For example, if you want a unified view of all the network traffic associated with a website—from web transactions to DNS requests and responses to database transactions—you can write a trigger to create a custom application that contains all of these related metrics. The Applications page displays the default All Activity application, which contains metrics for every device on your network, and all custom applications created through triggers.

Note:For information about creating applications with triggers, see the Triggers section.

The table on the Applications page provides the following information:

Name
The name assigned to the application through the trigger. Click on an application name to navigate to the metric page associated with the application.
Capture
On a Discover appliance, this column identifies the wire data feed that is the source for the application. On a Command appliance, this column identifies the Discover appliance where the application was created.
Description
A user-defined description that is assigned to the application through a trigger.
You can filter applications by application name, network capture, or application description. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or .
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, the search results return all devices with a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
Note:Learn more by taking the Creating and Using App Containers training.
Drill down on metrics from application protocol pages

When you see an interesting high-level metric about protocol activity on an Application page, you can drill down to investigate which factors are linked to that activity. Drilling down on a metric lets you explore metric values broken down by key, such as client IP address, server IP address, methods, or resources.

Note:You can drill down on metrics from Device, Device Group, and Flow Network protocol pages. Learn more in the Drill down on metrics from device protocol pages and Drill down on flow network metrics sections.

Drill down from an application protocol page

  1. Click Metrics.
  2. Click Applications in the left pane.
  3. Click an application name.
  4. Click a protocol in the left pane.
  5. If you find an interesting metric, click the metric value. A drill-down menu appears with keys. The diagram below shows a drill-down menu for HTTP status codes with the client IP address key.
For an example of a drill-down workflow that explores DNS protocol data, see the Metrics walkthrough: finding DNS failures.

Devices

Devices are objects on your network with a MAC address and IP address that have been automatically discovered and classified by the ExtraHop system. Metrics are available for every discovered device on your network. An L2 device has a MAC address only; an L3 device has an IP address and MAC address.

Note:For more information about how devices are automatically discovered and classified by the ExtraHop system, see the Device discovery section.

You can filter devices on the Devices page by name, MAC address, VLAN, IP address, or node, and then click Search. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or Any Device.

Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.

The table on the Devices page contains the following columns:

Name
The primary name for the device on the network. Click a device name to navigate to a metrics page where you can view protocol metrics.
MAC Address
The MAC address is a unique identifier for the device network interface.
VLAN
The virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) for the device. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves the tag on the mirror port.
Note:By default, this column does not appear on Discover appliances and values are set to null on Command appliances. VLAN information is displayed for devices only if the devices_accross_vlans setting is set to true through the running configuration file.
IP Address
The last IP address the device communicated from on the network.
Node
(Command appliance only) The name of the Discover appliance associated with the device.
Discovery Time
The date and time when the device was first discovered.
Description
An optional, user-defined description.

The counter at the bottom of the table identifies the number of devices currently displayed in the table. The table can display up to 1,000 devices per page.

Find a device

You can search for a specific client, server, router, or other device in the ExtraHop system by any device attribute, such as IP address, hostname, or custom name.

There are several ways to find a device:

  • From global search, where you can search by any device attribute.
  • From the device list page in the Metrics section of the Web UI, where you can filter search results.
  • From an activity group page, where you can find a device based on the type of protocol activity. Learn more in the Find a device within an activity group section.

This procedure shows you how to find a device from the device list page. You can search for a device by entering a value in the search field, or filter search results by device attribute. You can also sort on any column title.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then click Devices in the left pane.
    Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search typed into the search field. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
  3. Optional: Filter devices in the search results by device attributes. Click Any Column to select one of the following device attribute categories:
    Any Column
    Matches a substring in any device element.
    Name
    Matches a substring in the device name. Learn more about device names and how to change them.
    MAC address
    Matches a substring in the device MAC address.
    VLAN
    Matches a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag.
    IP address
    Matches a substring in the device IP address. The IP address criteria can include CIDR notation in IP address or subnet prefix length format. For example, 10.10.0.0/16 for IPv4 networks or 2001:db8::/32 for IPv6 networks.
    Node
    (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in a connected Discover appliance name.
    Tag
    Matches a substring in the user-defined device tag.
    Type
    Matches a substring to a specified device attribute type that you select from the drop-down list. Select from the following options:
    Activity
    Specify active metrics. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server returns devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP server.
    Device Type
    Specify a device type, such as gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, and custom device types.
    Class
    Specify a device class, such as node, remote, and custom devices.
    Vendor
    Matches a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
  4. Optional: Filter by L2 or L3 devices. Click All Devices and select one of the following categories:
    L2 device
    An L2 device in the ExtraHop system has a MAC address only. ExtraHop automatically creates a device based on a MAC address, and all activity is tracked against that device.
    L3 device
    An L3 device in the ExtraHop system has an observed IP address that comes from local traffic or from traffic coming from a router.
    Note:To learn more about these types of devices, see the Device discovery section.
Find peer devices talking to a specific device

From a device or device group protocol page, you can drill down by Peer IPs to find information about devices that are actively communicating with other devices or device groups.

Find performance metrics for peer devices
  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then select Device, Activity Group, or Device Group in the left pane.
  3. Click Overview or Network in the left pane.
  4. In the Details section near the upper right corner of the page, click Peer IPs.
    A list of peer devices appears, which are broken down by IP address, hostname (if available), the average number of bytes per second, and the average number of packets per second. The ExtraHop system determines hostname for peer devices by passively monitoring naming protocol activity, such as DNS, DHCP, or NetBIOS. In the Details section in the left pane, you can select different network protocols to view different performance metrics.
    Tip:You can convert the average rate of network byte and packet metrics to a total count for the selected time interval. In the Options section in the left pane, click Average Rate for an individual metric and then select Count.
Find network latency metrics for peer devices
  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then select Device, Activity Group, or Device Group in the left pane.
  3. Click TCP in the left pane.
  4. In the Details section near the upper right corner of the page, click Peer IPs.
    A list of peer devices appears, which is broken down by IP address, hostname (if available), round trip time, accepted connections, and initiated connections. Round trip time is a measurement of total network latency as data is transferred between devices. Accepted connections are the number of TCP connections sent by the peer device. Connected connections are the number of TCP connections initiated by the device with the peer device.
Change the name of a device

The ExtraHop system automatically names devices by passively monitoring naming protocol traffic (DNS, DHCP, NETBIOS, CDP). If naming protocol traffic is not observed for a device, the device name instead displays the IP address for L3 devices or the MAC address for L2 devices. In either condition, you can replace the automatic device name with a custom name. The custom name will appear throughout the ExtraHop system.

Note:The ExtraHop system does not perform DNS lookups for device names. The ExtraHop system derives the DNS name for a device by observing DNS traffic over wire data. Learn more in the Device discovery section.
  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and select Device in the left pane.
  3. Find a device and click the device name. A Device page appears, which displays traffic and protocol metrics associated with the device.
  4. In the Overview section in the upper left corner, click Properties.
  5. Click Display custom name.
  6. Type a custom name in the field.
  7. Click Save.
Change a device role

The ExtraHop system monitors all of the protocol activity associated with a device from wire data. Based on certain types of traffic and protocol activity that was observed, the ExtraHop system then assigns a role to a device. You can replace the automatic or default device role with a manually assigned role.

For example, the ExtraHop system assigns the WWW server role to devices associated with sending HTTP responses.

The following device roles can be automatically assigned to a device:

Gateway: Assigned to an L2 device when a large amount of unique IP addresses (past a certain threshold) are associated with the device. The device name will include the router name (for example, “Cisco B1B500”).

Database (DB) server: Assigned to a device when there are database responses sent from this device.

File server: Assigned to a device when there are NFS and CIFS responses sent from this device.

WWW server: Assigned to a device when there are HTTP responses sent from this device.

Auto: Assigned to a device by default.

The following device roles can be manually assigned to a device:

Load balancer: Assign to your device if you want to classify the device as a reverse proxy that helps distribute traffic across multiple servers.

Firewall: Assign to your device if you want to classify the device as a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network and blocks traffic according to security rules.

To change or manually assign a device role:

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Find a device either through global search or the Device page in the Metrics section of the Web UI. Click the device name. A Device page appears, which displays traffic and protocol activity for the selected device.
  3. In the upper right corner, click Properties.
  4. In the Device Role section, click the drop-down list and select a role.
  5. Click Save.
Drill down on metrics from device protocol pages

When you see an interesting top-level metric about protocol activity on a Device, a Device Group, or an Activity Group page, you can drill down to investigate which factors are linked to that activity. Drilling down on a metric lets you investigate metric values broken down by key, such as client IP address, server IP address, methods, or resources.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Device, Device Group, or Activity Group in the left pane.
  2. Click a device or group name.
  3. Click on a metric value or a metric label in the chart legend. A menu appears.
    Note:You can also click a drill-down shortcut button in the Details section in the upper right corner of the page.
  4. In the Drill down by… section, select a key. A drill-down metrics page with a topnset of metric values by key appears. You can view up to 1,000 key values in a topnset.
    Note:If a View More link appears at the bottom of a chart, click View More to drill down on the metric displayed in the chart.

Networks

The Networks page provides information about network capture and flow network sources discovered by the ExtraHop system. A network capture is the entry point into network devices and virtual LANs (VLANs) that are detected from wire data by the ExtraHop system. A flow network is a network device, such as a router or switch, that sends information about flows seen across the device. A flow network can have multiple interfaces. Click a network capture or flow interface to view protocol metrics about the data from those traffic sources.

This section describes the source attributes available on the Networks page.

Note:When starting from the Network page, keep in mind that information collected through network captures and flow networks are determined by port mirror configuration or flow configuration in the Admin UI.

In addition, if your organization manages multiple capture points or remote flow networks through the Command appliance, the Networks page displays a table of all capture points and flow networks for your entire networking environment.

The Network table provides the following information:

Name
The name of a network capture or flow interface. Click the drop-down icon next to a network capture or flow network to display VLANs or flow interfaces, respectively.

Click a network capture or VLAN to navigate to a protocol page and view top-level and detail protocol metrics.

Click a flow network or flow interface to navigate to a summary page and view top-level metrics.

Select the checkbox next to a network capture or flow network to access the following configuration options:

Devices
The number of devices in the network capture. This attribute does not apply to flow networks.
IP Address
The IP address of the Discover appliance responsible for the network capture or flow network.
Description
An optional description of the network obtained from the network capture or VLAN protocol page.
You can filter network captures and flow networks by name, devices, IP address, description, or application description. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or .
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
View configured network captures

View a list of configured network captures and their associated VLANs. To configure network capture settings, see the Capture section in the Admin UI Guide.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, the table provides the following information about the capture:
    Name
    Displays the name of the capture.
    Type
    Displays the whether the network is a Wire Network or a Flow Network.
    Devices
    The number of devices in the network capture.
    IP Address
    Displays the IP address of the Discover appliance providing wire data for the capture.
    Description
    An optional detailed description of the network. Click on the capture name to open an overview page where you can modify this description.
    Interface Speed
    This field is not applicable to network captures.
    Note:On a Command appliance, the table displays the capture for each Discover appliance.
  3. Click the drop-down arrow next to the capture name to see a list of associated VLANs.
  4. Click the capture name or VLAN name to view more information and built-in charts.
Change the name of a network capture or VLAN
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a single capture or VLAN.
  3. Click Rename in the upper right corner.
  4. Type a new name and then click OK.
View configured flow networks

View a list of configured flow networks and their attributes. To configure a flow network, see the Flow Networks section in the Admin UI Guide.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, for each configured flow network, the table provides the following information:
    Name
    Displays the name of the flow network.
    Type
    Displays the whether the network is a Wire Network or a Flow Network.
    Devices
    This field is not applicable to flow networks.
    IP Address
    Displays the IP address of the flow network device.
    Description
    This field is not applicable to flow networks.
    Interface Speed
    Displays the speed of the network interface on the remote device. This setting requires SNMP to be enabled through the Admin UI of the Discover appliance.
  3. Click the drop-down arrow next to the flow network name to see a list of flow interfaces and their attributes.
  4. Click the flow network name or flow interface name to view built-in charts on summary pages.
Change the name of a flow network
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a single flow network or flow interface in the table.
  3. Click Rename.
  4. Type a new name and then click OK.
Assign triggers to a flow network or flow interface
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a flow network or flow interface.
  3. Click Assign Trigger.
  4. Select the checkboxes for the triggers that you want to assign to the flow network, and then click Assign Triggers.
Set a custom speed for a flow interface

Bandwidth utilization metrics about flow interfaces are calculated through the interface speed. If you have configured SNMP for your flow network, by default, the interface speed is set through SNMP. However, you can also set a custom speed for your flow interfaces on the ExtraHop Discover appliance.

For information on how to configure SNMP for your flow network, see the Flow networks section of the ExtraHop Admin UI Guide.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, click on a flow network to expand the list of available flow interfaces.
  3. Select the checkbox for the flow interface you want to customize.
  4. Click Automatically set interface speed through SNMP.
  5. Select Manually set interface speed.
  6. Type a custom speed for the interface, and then click Set Interface Speed.
Flow network summary pages

Summary pages provide built-in charts for the IP traffic that exits and enters through remote network devices, such as NetFlow traffic, for configured flow networks and flow interfaces.

Summary pages contain three regions with charts for top-level, summary data:

Overview
View the total amount of network throughput (average bits per second) traveling in and out of either the flow network or flow interface. For flow interfaces only, you can also view the bandwidth utilization of throughput traveling in and out of the flow interface.
Protocols
IP flow packets are typically transferred across the flow network or flow interface by UDP and TCP ports. View the total amount of traffic for each protocol and port that is transferring data in the bar chart. In the line chart, compare protocol and port throughput changes over time. You can also hover over the protocol and port name in the legend of the line chart to isolate protocol data in the chart.
Endpoints
View the amount data that devices (endpoints) are sending and receiving across the flow network or flow interface in the following ways.
  • Top talker charts display individual devices with the highest volume of throughput.
  • Top sender charts display the throughput for devices sending data.
  • Top receiver charts display the throughput for devices receiving data.
  • Conversation charts display the highest volume of throughput by flow between two devices (endpoints).
  • Compare the top talkers, senders, and conversations in the bar chart.
  • In the line chart, compare changes in throughput activity for individual devices over time.
  • Hover over a device IP address in the line chart to isolate throughput data in the chart.

To create your own dashboard charts from the summary page or preview data in different chart types, see the following sections:

To configure the time interval for a specific region, see the Time Selector section.

Modify flow network chart display

Summary pages for flow networks and flow interfaces have built-in charts, and you can modify a limited set of options on the page to see how your data might display differently. If you like a different view, you can then create a custom dashboard chart with those settings.

  1. Click Metrics, and then click Networks.
  2. Click on a flow network or flow interface.
  3. On the Summary page, click a chart title.
  4. Select from the chart type options at the bottom of the page or select from the available Metrics options in the left pane.
    Note:Not all chart types are compatible for all metrics options. Warning icons appear when the chart type is incompatible with the selected option.
  5. Optional: If you want to save the modified chart to a new custom dashboard, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the chart, and select Create a chart from….
    1. Edit the chart as needed.
    2. When you finish configuring the chart, click Add to Dashboard.
    3. Either select New Dashboard to create a new dashboard with your chart, or select an existing dashboard name listed beneath New Dashboard.
Create a chart from flow network data

If you find interesting NetFlow traffic on your flow network or flow interface summary pages, you can modify the built-in charts and save the modified charts to an existing or new dashboard.

  1. Click Metrics, and then click Networks.
  2. Click on a flow network or flow interface.
  3. On the Summary page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of a chart.
  4. Select Create a chart from….
  5. Edit the chart as needed.
  6. When you finish configuring the chart, click Add to Dashboard:
    • Select New Dashboard to create a new dashboard.
    • Select an existing dashboard name from the list below New Dashboard.
Drill down on flow network metrics

When you see an interesting top-level metric about network activity on a Flow Network or Flow Interface page, you can drill down to investigate which factors are linked to the activity. Drilling down on a metric lets you explore metric values broken down by peer IP addresses, protocols and ports, conversations, and sender and receiver IP addresses.

For example, on a Flow Network page in the Endpoints region, click the chart legend label to drill down by peer IP addresses.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks in the left pane.
  2. Click a flow network or flow interface name.
  3. Click a metric value or a metric label in the chart legend. A menu appears.
  4. In the Drill down by… section, select a key. You will navigate to a page that contains a table of metric values by key from a topnset.
    Note:You can view up to 1,000 key values in a topnset.
    Note:For drill-down metric values, which are not polled automatically, you will see the snapshot of the global time interval, which includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the metric or record query was last polled. To reload the metrics for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display.
Drill down on network capture and VLAN metrics

When you see an interesting top-level metric about network activity on a Network capture or VLAN page, you can identify which devices are linked to that activity.

Note:For information about how to drill down on metrics from a flow network or flow network interface page, see the Drill down on flow network metrics section.
  1. Click Metrics.
  2. Click Networks in the left pane.
  3. Click a network capture or VLAN interface name.
  4. Click a network layer in the left pane, such as L3 or L7 Protocols. Charts that display metric values for the selected time interval appear. For most protocols and metrics, a Device table also appears at the bottom of the page.
  5. Click the chart data, which updates the list to display only the devices that are associated with the data.
  6. Click a device name. A Device page appears, which displays traffic and protocol activity associated with the selected device.

Activity groups

Activity groups contain devices that are automatically grouped together based on their network traffic. A device with multiple types of traffic might appear in more than one activity group. Activity groups make it easy to identify all the devices associated with a protocol, or determine which devices were associated with protocol activity during a specific time interval.

You can filter activity groups by name or count. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or the includes () operator.
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
The table on the Activity group page provides the following information:
Name
Specifies the name of the activity group, which is based on the type of protocol activity of the devices in the group. The name also indicates whether the group contains client or server devices. Click on the name of an activity group to navigate to a page where you can view protocol metrics for that group. For example, click the TCP Devices activity group to see the L4 TCP protocol metrics page, which lists all of the devices with TCP traffic.
Count
Specifies the number of devices that belong to the activity group.
Find a device within an activity group

Activity groups contain devices that are automatically grouped together based on their protocol traffic. Activity groups can be a quick way to find a device associated with a protocol, or discover decommissioned devices that are still active. For example, you can look at the HTTP Servers activity group and locate all devices that have sent HTTP responses over the wire.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. From the top menu, click Metrics and then select Activity Group in the left pane.
  3. Select an activity group, such as HTTP Servers. The Device Group page for the activity group appears.
  4. In the top right corner of the page, click Group Members. A table with all of the devices within the activity group appears.
  5. Click on a device name in the table. The Device page appears, which displays traffic and protocol metrics associated with the selected device. All protocol activity associated with the device is listed in the left pane.
  6. Click HTTP Server in the left pane to see the number of HTTP responses sent by this device.

Device groups

Device groups help you track metrics across designated devices, typically grouped by their activity. Device groups can be static or dynamic. While you must manually add devices to a static device group, a dynamic device group automatically adds devices to the group that matches criteria that you define. The criteria can be a hostname, IP address, MAC address, or any of the filter criteria listed for the device on the Devices page. For example, you can create a dynamic group and then configure a rule to add all devices within a certain IP address range to that group automatically.

From the Metrics section in the Web UI, the Device Groups table includes the following information about all the device groups created in the ExtraHop system:

Name
Displays the name of the device group. The icon next to the name indicates whether the device group is a static or dynamic group. Click on the name to view the Assignments page for the device group, which has criteria for the group among other settings.
Count
Displays the number of devices that belong to the device group.
Description
Displays an optional, user-defined description for the device group.
Note:Learn more by taking the Working with Device Groups online training.

Next steps

Create a static device group
  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  3. Click Add.
  4. In the Name field, type a name for the new group.
  5. For the Group Type option, select Static (add and remove devices manually).
  6. In the Description field, add information about this device group.
  7. Click OK.
    Your device group is now created. Next, assign devices to your group.
  8. Click Devices in the left pane.
  9. Find a device and then select the checkbox next to the devices you want to add to your group.
  10. At the top of the device table, hover over the icons and click the Add to Group icon.
  11. Select your new device group from the Select a group... drop-down list.
  12. Click Add to Group.
Add devices to a static device group

After creating a static device group, you must manually add devices to the group. If you know which device or devices you want to add, you can quickly add them from a list. Or you can first view information about a specific device and then add that device to the group

Add one or more devices from a list
  1. Click Metrics and then click Devices in the left pane.
  2. Find a device and then select the checkbox next to the devices.
  3. At the top of the device table, hover over the icons and click the Add to Group icon.
  4. Select your device group from the Select a group... drop-down list.
  5. Click Add to Group.
View device information and then add a device
  1. Click Metrics and select Device in the left pane.
  2. Find a device and then click on the device name. The traffic and protocol metrics associated with the device appear.
  3. Click Properties in the upper right corner of the page.
  4. Click the Group tab.
  5. In the Include in These Static Groups section, click the search field. A drop-down list of static device group appears. Type the name of the device group into the search field to filter results.
  6. Select the device group name.
    Note:You can also create a new static device group at this step. Type a name for the new static device group and press Enter. The device is automatically added to the new device group.
    Note:If the device also belongs to a dynamic device group, the device group name is displayed in the Included in Dynamic Groups section. For more information, see the Device groups section.
Remove devices from a static device group

You can only remove devices from a static device group individually from the Device page.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups in the left pane.
  3. Click on the device group name.
  4. In the upper right corner, click Group Members.
  5. Click the device name that you want to remove. The Device page appears.
  6. In the upper right corner, click Properties.
  7. Click the Groups tab.
  8. Locate the device group name in the Include in these Static Groups section, and then click the red x icon.
Create a dynamic device group
  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. From the top menu, click Metrics and then click Device Groups in the left pane.
  3. Click Add.
  4. In the Name field, type a name for the new group.
  5. In the Group Type field, select the option for Dynamic with criteria.
  6. Click the drop-down list and select from one of the following criteria:
    IP address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device IP address in IPv4, IPv6, or CIDR block.
    Name
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device name.
    Node
    (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in the node name.
    MAC address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device MAC address.
    Tag
    Adds devices that match a substring in the user-defined device tag.
    Type
    Select the following options from the drop-down lists:
    Activity
    Adds devices that are associated with active metrics. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server adds devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP Server.
    Device type
    Adds devices that are classified as a gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, or custom device.
    Note:When the Include custom devices checkbox is selected, custom devices will be added to your group.
    Class
    Adds devices that are classified as node, remote, custom, or pseudo.
    Vendor
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
    VLAN
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device VLAN tag. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves them on the mirror port.
  7. In the Description field, add a brief description for the new group.
  8. Click OK.
Modify dynamic device group criteria

A dynamic device group automatically adds devices to the group that match criteria that you define. The criteria can be a hostname, IP address, MAC address, device tag, or any of the device attributes listed for the device on the Devices page.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups in the left pane.
  3. Click the device group name.
  4. In the upper right corner of the page, click Properties.
  5. In the Group Type section, complete one of the following steps:
    • Click the top drop-down field and select one of the following device attributes:
      Name
      Adds devices that match a substring in the device name.
      MAC address
      Adds devices that match a substring in the device MAC address.
      VLAN
      Adds devices that match a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves them on the mirror port.
      IP address
      Adds devices that match a substring in the device IP address in IPv4, IPv6, or CIDR block.
      Node
      (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in a connected Discover appliance name.
      Tag
      Adds devices that match a substring in the user-defined device tag.
      Type
      Select from the following options:
      Activity
      Adds devices that are associated with activity groups. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server adds devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP server.
      Device Type
      Adds devices that are classified as a gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, or custom device.
      Note:When the Include custom devices checkbox is selected, custom devices are added to your group.
      Class
      Adds devices that are classified as node, remote, custom, or pseudo.
      Vendor
      Adds devices that match a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
    • In the second drop-down field, type the text you want to match for the dynamic group. For example, if you selected IP address from the list, type the IP address that you want to set as a criteria for this group in the field.
  6. Click Save.
Modify a device group name

You can only modify a device group name from a Device Group protocol page.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. From the top menu, click Metrics and then click Device Groups in the left pane.
  3. Click the name of the device group you want to modify.
    A Device Group page appears.
  4. In the upper right corner, click Properties.
  5. In the Group Name field, type a new name for the device group.
  6. Click Save.
Modify a device group description
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click the name of the device group you want to modify.
    A Device Group page appears.
  3. In the upper right corner, click Properties.
  4. In the Group Description field, type a new description for the device group.
  5. Click Save.
View device group metrics

You can view all the protocol activity associated with a device group. You can also drill down by group member and navigate to a Device page to view metrics for an individual device.

  1. Log into the Web UI on the Discover appliance.
  2. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups in the left pane.
  3. The Device Groups list page displays all device groups on the appliance.
  4. Optional: To filter the contents of the table, select a field and an operator, and then enter a search term.
  5. Click the device group name. A Device Group page appears, which displays traffic and protocol metrics associated with the device group.

Trouble groups

The Discover appliance automatically generates trouble groups based on network traffic that meet specific criteria indicating potential problems.

The Trouble Groups table has the following information:

Name
Specifies the name of the trouble group.
Count
Identifies the number of devices that belong to this group.

Refer to the specific trouble group sections for the criteria that defines that group.

View trouble groups

To view details about the devices in a trouble group:

  1. Click Metrics and then click Trouble Groups.
  2. Click the trouble group name to view the list of devices in the group.
  3. On the device list page, click the device name.
When you click a device name from the device list page, you are redirected to the Devices page where device statics are displayed.
Aborted HTTP/DB transactions

Aborted HTTP/DB transactions indicate a high level of aborts during active HTTP or database transactions. Aborts are generally initiated by clients, so this might indicate that the server hangs on the response or does not complete the response in a timely manner.

Criteria Check for high levels of Requests Aborted or Responses Aborted
Devices Devices that show HTTP or DB server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions For HTTP transactions, check for URLs that take along time to process. For database transactions, check for long-running stored procedures
ADC SNAT pool too small

ADC SNAT pool too small indicates that a connection failed to initiate because the current device interpreted the SYN as belonging to a previous connection.

Criteria Check for any PAWS-Dropped-SYNs (In)
Devices Known ADCs only (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller (ADC), the SNAT pool size should be increased
ADC TCP connection throttling

ADC TCP connection throttling indicates that the connections are stalling in the Application Delivery Controller (ADC) and it is unable to keep up with the rate of data sent.

Criteria Check for Zero Windows (Out) as a factor of the number of established connections
Devices Known ADCs only (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller (ADC), the proxy_buffer_high setting in the TCP profile should be increased
Database server backups

Database server backups are caused by backups taking place over CIFS, NFS, or Veritas on active database servers.

Criteria Detect large amount of storage traffic exchanged from the server
Devices Devices that show CIFS, NFS, or TCP port 13724 activity (Veritas) and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Every 30 minutes
Remedial Actions Throttle down backups and schedule them during times with lower traffic
DNS missing entries

DNS missing entries might indicate a service availability problem.

Criteria Compare DNS NXDOMAINS responses with the total number of responses
Devices Devices that show DNS server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions If these queries are intended, add an entry to DNS. If not, find the clients making erroneous DNS requests and configure them to stop making these requests
Excessive CIFS metadata queries

Excessive CIFS metadata queries indicate a high level of file metadata queries compared to read/write activity (or "goodput") on a CIFS server.

Criteria Compare FSInfo to the number of Read and Write bytes
Devices Devices that show CIFS server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Check clients that generate large numbers of CIFS for configuration issues that would cause them to perform an overly high level of directory scans
Excessive HTTP authorizations

Excessive HTTP authorizations should be checked for large numbers of HTTP authorization errors, which might indicate break-in attempts.

Criteria Check for 401 errors and compare them with the number of valid responses
Devices Devices that show HTTP server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Log these HTTP authorization errors, as these errors might indicate break-in attempts

HTTP broken links indicate that a resource has been moved or deleted but the document might still points to the old location.

Criteria Check for 404s and compare it with the number of valid responses
Devices Devices that show HTTP server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Track down the source of 404s
Path MTU mismatch

Path MTU mismatch displays the list of devices for which path MTU mismatch was detected. These devices are not respecting the Fragmentation Needed ICMP announcements.

Criteria Check for ICMP type 3 code 4
Devices All devices
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Check documentation for devices that are not respecting path MTU announcements for configuration options
Problematic TCP offloading engine

Problematic TCP offloading engine. Indicates that the current device is sending too much data resulting in network congestion and dropped packets. This behavior has been seen with a number of TCP offloading engines.

Criteria Check for Bad Congestion Control (Out)
Devices NICs known to have problems (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Turn off TCP offloading
Server TCP connection throttling

Server TCP connection throttling is caused by server running out of buffer or CPU resources and throttling network connections as a result.

Criteria Check for the Zero Windows (Out) as a factor of the number of established connections
Devices Devices that are servers and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Every 30 minutes
Remedial Actions Check buffer sizes and CPU, and increase those resources, if necessary
SPAN oversubscription

SPAN oversubscription indicates that data coming over the SPAN port is incomplete. This can happen to data being dropped at the SPAN port due to oversubscription or microbursts.

Criteria Compare the desyncs to the number established connections
Devices All devices
Update Daily
Remedial Actions Filter down data coming over the SPAN port or use a larger capacity SPAN port
SSL Key Size < 2048

SSL key size < 2048 indicates a 1024-bit SSL key. In 2010, 1024-bit public keys have been declared insecure by NIST. As a result, certificate authorities are moving to 2048-bit keys.

Criteria Check for SSL public key size less than 2048 bits
Devices Devices that show SSL server activity and are not gateways
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Deploy 2048-bit keys in place of potentially insecure ones
Virtual packet loss

Virtual packet loss indicates that a virtual instance is overwhelmed and cannot send packets out in a timely fashion. TCP interprets delayed ACKs as packet loss and sends less data.

Criteria Check for large numbers of RTOs coming from devices within virtualized environments
Devices Virtualized devices (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Provide more hardware resources to stressed VMs

Search metrics by protocol

After selecting a source, such as an application, device, or group, or network object from the Metrics section, you can access several protocol metrics for your selected source. Click on a protocol in the left pane, such as AAA, CIFS, DNS, or Web (HTTP) to display metrics and built-in charts.

Learn about the new 6.2 layout

We updated the Device and Device Group protocol pages in the ExtraHop Web UI to improve how you navigate and explore key system metrics. The Network and Application protocol pages will be updated in a future release.

Overview and Network Pages

Take a look at the sections below to see where your familiar icons are now located and to learn about changed and deprecated workflows.

Each device and device group has an Overview and Network page in the left pane. These pages now contain the following metrics and menu items that were previously available from the left pane.

New layout

  • L2 metrics, such as Packets, Throughputs, and Frame Counts, are now on the Network page.
  • L3 metrics, such as IP fragments, ICMP, and DSCP, are now on the Network page. Note that the Packet Count by Protocol chart is now the IP Protocols chart. Click Peer IPs from the upper right corner of the page to see the previous Peer Devices table.
  • L7 metrics are now on the Overview page, broken out by traffic in and traffic out. Click Peer IPs from the upper right corner of the page to see the previous Peer Devices table.
  • Alert History is now on the Overview page.
  • Multicast metrics are now on the Network page under Packet Distribution and are called Packet Types.
  • Properties and Assignments are now available from the upper right corner of the Overview page or through the command menu .

Client and Server Metrics

Instead of toggling between Client and Server in the Metric Type drop-down, you can now access client and server metrics pages from the left pane.

Old layout

New layout

Protocol Page Actions

Most of the action icons that appeared on the top of each protocol page have moved to the command menu in the top right corner of the page.

Important:You cannot add protocol pages to reports in the new layout. To add a protocol page to a report, click Switch to old layout in the lower left corner of the page and then add the page to your report through the previous workflow.

Old layout

New layout

Note:On the Command appliance, the menu option is Export to PDF.

Members in a Device Group

The list of members in a device group has moved from the bottom of the protocol pages to a DETAILS section on each protocol page. Click Group Members in the upper right corner of the page to display information about each member. Or, you can click on any metric and select Drill down by… > Group Member.

Old layout

New layout

Drill Down Options

The context-sensitive icons that appeared on the top of each protocol page have moved to the DETAILS section in the top right corner of the page. Note that Errors are now available in a value chart on the page and are no longer available through the link.

Old layout

New layout

Instead of clicking a value to drill down on a metric, click the value to see a menu with drill down options.

Old layout

New layout

Search Records and Packets

The Records and Packet search are still available from protocol pages, but are now in the top right corner of the page in the SEARCH section. These links only appear where records and packets are available.

Records are available in the Network, Server Activity, and Client Activity pages; packets are only available in the Network page. Both records and packets are also available by clicking a metric and selecting from the menu.

New layout

Changed and Deprecated Workflows

Some workflows were deprecated and can only be accessed by switching to the old layout or through a new workflow.

Device Names
Device names were previously changed through the top-level page for the device. Instead, click on the Overview page, and then click Properties in the top right corner to change the name.

New layout

Geomaps
You can no longer assign geomaps to a device and the geomaps assignments tab page was removed. Instead, click a count metric from a chart and then select an option from the menu for a drill down that is associated with an IP address (such as Server). A View on Map button is available below the chart and to the right.

New layout

Custom Pages
You cannot view custom pages for devices or device groups from the new layout. Instead, click Switch to old layout in the lower left corner of the page, and then view custom pages through the previous workflow.

Switch to old layout

We updated the Device and Device Group protocol pages in the ExtraHop Web UI to improve how you navigate and explore key system metrics. However, you might still need to access the old layout for certain workflows.

Revert to the old layout by completing the following steps.
  1. Click Metrics.
  2. Click Devices or Device Groups.
  3. Click the name of a device or device group from the list.
  4. In the lower left corner, click Switch to old layout.

AAA

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) activity.

AAA applications page

Application toolbar
The AAA application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the number of AAA errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists the AAA error messages and number of occurrences.
Clients
The chart displays the processing time for all clients. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client as well as total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart displays the processing time for all servers. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.
Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear through routed traffic. IP addresses that appear through routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu with the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA responses.
Request RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending AAA requests. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending AAA responses. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by AAA clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Response Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers while receiving AAA requests. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
AAA Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of AAA requests.
Responses
The number of AAA responses.
Errors
The number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
The number of aborted AAA sessions.
RADIUS Requests
The number of RADIUS requests.
Diameter Requests
The number of Diameter requests.
Methods
Displays the selected method types for the AAA client or server.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

AAA client page

AAA Summary
Total Transactions
This chart displays the total number of AAA responses the client received and how many of those responses contained errors.
Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Transactions
This chart shows you when AAA errors occurred and how many responses the AAA client received. This information can help you see how active the client was at the time it received the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see Requests and Responses.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Performance (95th)
This chart shows the 95th percentile of timing metrics. The server processing time shows how long servers took to process requests from clients. Processing times are calculated by measuring the time between when the first and last packets of requests and responses are seen by the ExtraHop system, as shown in the following figure:

It can be difficult to tell whether an issue is caused by a network or a device from looking only at the processing time, because this metric alone provides an incomplete picture. Therefore the round trip time (RTT) metric is also included in this chart. RTT metrics are a good indicator of how your network is performing. If you see high processing times, but the RTT is low, the issue is probably at the device-level. However, if the RTT and processing times are both high, network latency might be affecting the transfer and processing times, and the issue might be with the network.

RTT only measures how long an immediate acknowledgement takes to be sent; it does not wait until all packets are delivered. Therefore, RTT is a good indicator of how your network is performing. If you see high processing times, but the TCP RTT is low, the issue is probably at the device-level. Check the network for latency issues if the TCP RTT and processing times are all both.

The RTT metric can help identify the source of the problem because it only measures how long an immediate acknowledgement takes to be sent from the client or server; it does not wait until all packets are delivered.



The processing time might be high because the server took a long time to transmit the response (possibly because the response was very large); however, the processing time could also be high because the response took a long time to travel on the network (possibly because of network congestion).

Learn more about how the ExtraHop system calculates round trip time on the ExtraHop forum.

Metric Description
Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.

The Performance (95th percentile) chart shows the highest value for a time period while filtering outliers; the 95th percentile is the highest value that falls below 95% of the values for a sample period. By displaying the 95th value, rather than the true maximum, the chart gives you a more accurate view of the data:

Performance (95th Percentile)
If a client is acting slow, performance summary metrics can help you figure out whether the network or servers are causing the issue. These metrics show the median amount of time that servers took to process requests from the client versus the median time that packets from those requests (and their respective responses) took to be transmitted across the network. High server processing times indicate that the client is contacting slow servers. High TCP round trip times indicate that the client is communicating over slow networks.
Metric Description
Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
AAA Details
Top Methods
This chart shows which AAA methods the client called the most by breaking out the total number of requests the client sent by method.
Top Error Types
This chart shows which AAA error types the client received the most by breaking out the number of responses returned to the client by error type.
AAA Performance
Server Processing Time Distribution
This chart breaks out server processing times in a histogram to show the most common processing times.
Metric Description
AAA Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Server Processing Time
This chart shows the median processing time for the client.
Metric Description
AAA Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Round Trip Time Distribution
This chart breaks out round trip times in a histogram to show the most common round trip times.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Round Trip Time
This chart shows the median round trip time for the client.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Network Data

This section shows you TCP information that is related to the current protocol. In general, host stalls indicate that there is an issue with either the server or the client, and network stalls indicate that there is an issue with the network.

Host Stalls
This chart shows the number of zero windows that were advertised or received by the device. Devices control the amount of data they receive by specifying the number of packets that can be sent to them over a given time period. When a device is sent more data than it can process, the device advertises a zero window to ask its peer device to stop sending packets completely until the device catches up. If you see a large number of zero windows, a server or client might not be not fast enough to support the amount of data being received.
Metric Definition
Zero Windows In The number of Zero Windows that were sent to the device to stop the flow of data over the connection. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows in indicates that a peer device was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Zero Windows Out The number of Zero Windows that were sent from the device to stop the flow of data. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows out indicates that the client was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Network Stalls

This chart shows the number of retransmission timeouts that occurred. Retransmission timeouts (RTOs) occur when a network drops too many packets, usually due to packet collisions or buffer exhaustion. If a device sends a request or response and does not receive confirmation within a specified amount of time, the device retransmits the request. If too many retransmissions are unacknowledged, an RTO occurs. If you see a large number of RTOs, the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity.

Metric Definition
RTOs In The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as peers were sending data to the current device. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs in, the device did not send an acknowledgement to the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

RTOs Out The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as the device was sending data to its peers. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs out, the device did not receive an acknowledgement from the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

AAA Metric Totals
Requests and Responses

Requests and responses represent the conversation taking place between clients and servers. If there are more requests than responses, the client might be sending more requests than the servers can handle or the network might be too slow. To identify whether the issue is with the network or the server, check RTOs and zero windows in the Network Data section.

Note:It is unlikely that the total number of AAA requests and responses will be exactly equal, even in a healthy environment. For example, you might be viewing a time period that captures a response to a request that was sent before the start of the time period. In general, the greater the difference between responses and errors, the greater the chance that there is an issue with those transactions.
Metric Description
Requests The number of total requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Diameter Request The number of Diameter requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
RADIUS Request The number of RADIUS requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Aborts The number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA client.
Where to look next

Drill down on a metric: You can get more information about a metric by clicking the metric value or name and selecting an option from the Drill down by menu. For example, if you are looking at the total number of errors, click the number and select Servers to see which servers returned the errors.

Search the Metric Explorer: Built-in protocol pages include the most commonly referenced metrics for a protocol, but you can see additional metrics in the Metric Explorer. Click any chart title on a protocol page and select Create chart from.... When the Metric Explorer opens, click Add Metric in the left pane to display a drop-down list of comprehensive metrics for the device. If you find an interesting metric, click Add to Dashboard to add the metric to a new or existing dashboard.

Create a custom metric: If you want to view a metric that is not included in the Metric Explorer, you can create a custom metric through a trigger. For more information, see the following resources:

Check the Solution Bundles Gallery: Many bundles on the Solution Bundles Gallery contain custom metrics. Before you create your own custom metric, check to see if someone has already created a similar metric.

AAA server page

AAA Summary
Total Transactions

This chart displays the total number of AAA responses the server sent and how many of those responses contained errors.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors The number of response errors that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Transactions
This chart shows you when AAA errors occurred and how many AAA responses the server sent. This information can help you see how active the server was at the time it returned the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see Requests and Responses.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors The number of response errors that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Performance (95th)
This chart shows the 95th percentile of timing metrics. The server processing time shows how long servers took to process requests from clients. Processing times are calculated by measuring the time between when the first and last packets of requests and responses are seen by the ExtraHop system, as shown in the following figure:

It can be difficult to tell whether an issue is caused by a network or a device from looking only at the processing time, because this metric alone provides an incomplete picture. Therefore the round trip time (RTT) metric is also included in this chart. RTT metrics are a good indicator of how your network is performing. If you see high processing times, but the RTT is low, the issue is probably at the device-level. However, if the RTT and processing times are both high, network latency might be affecting the transfer and processing times, and the issue might be with the network.

RTT only measures how long an immediate acknowledgement takes to be sent; it does not wait until all packets are delivered. Therefore, RTT is a good indicator of how your network is performing. If you see high processing times, but the TCP RTT is low, the issue is probably at the device-level. Check the network for latency issues if the TCP RTT and processing times are all both.

The RTT metric can help identify the source of the problem because it only measures how long an immediate acknowledgement takes to be sent from the client or server; it does not wait until all packets are delivered.



The processing time might be high because the server took a long time to transmit the response (possibly because the response was very large); however, the processing time could also be high because the response took a long time to travel on the network (possibly because of network congestion).

Learn more about how the ExtraHop system calculates round trip time on the ExtraHop forum.

Metric Description
AAA Server Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA server, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the received request and first packet of the sent response.
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA server sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the server received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.

The Performance (95th percentile) chart shows the highest value for a time period while filtering outliers; the 95th percentile is the highest value that falls below 95% of the values for a sample period. By displaying the 95th value, rather than the true maximum, the chart gives you a more accurate view of the data:

Performance (95th Percentile)
If a server is acting slow, performance summary metrics can help you figure out whether the network or the server is causing the issue. The performance summary metrics show the median amount of time the server took to process requests from clients versus the median time that packets from those requests (and their respective responses) took to be transmitted across the network. High server processing times indicate that the server is slow. High RTTs indicate that the server is communicating over slow networks.
Metric Description
AAA Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA server, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the received request and first packet of the sent response.
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA server sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the server received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
AAA Details
Top Methods
This chart shows which AAA methods were called on the server the most by breaking out the total number of requests the server received by method.
Top Error Types
This chart shows which AAA error types the server returned the most by breaking out the total number of responses the server sent by error type.
AAA Performance
Server Processing Time Distribution
This chart breaks out server processing times in a histogram to show the most common processing times.
Metric Description
AAA Server Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA server, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the received request and first packet of the sent response.
Server Processing Time
This chart shows the median processing time for the server.
Metric Description
AAA Server Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA server, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the received request and first packet of the sent response.
Round Trip Time Distribution
This chart breaks out round trip times in a histogram to show the most common round trip times.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA server sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the server received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Round Trip Time
This chart shows the median round trip time for the server.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when an AAA server sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the server received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Network Data

This section shows you TCP information that is related to the current protocol. In general, host stalls indicate that there is an issue with either the server or the client, and network stalls indicate that there is an issue with the network.

Host Stalls
This chart shows the number of zero windows that were advertised or received by the device. Devices control the amount of data they receive by specifying the number of packets that can be sent to them over a given time period. When a device is sent more data than it can process, the device advertises a zero window to ask its peer device to stop sending packets completely until the device catches up. If you see a large number of zero windows, a server or client might not be not fast enough to support the amount of data being received.
Metric Definition
Zero Windows In The number of Zero Windows that were sent to the device to stop the flow of data over the connection. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows in indicates that a peer device was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Zero Windows Out The number of Zero Windows that were sent from the device to stop the flow of data. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows out indicates that the client was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Network Stalls

This chart shows the number of retransmission timeouts that occurred. Retransmission timeouts (RTOs) occur when a network drops too many packets, usually due to packet collisions or buffer exhaustion. If a device sends a request or response and does not receive confirmation within a specified amount of time, the device retransmits the request. If too many retransmissions are unacknowledged, an RTO occurs. If you see a large number of RTOs, the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity.

Metric Definition
RTOs In The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as peers were sending data to the current device. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs in, the device did not send an acknowledgement to the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

RTOs Out The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as the device was sending data to its peers. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs out, the device did not receive an acknowledgement from the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

AAA Metric Totals
Requests and Responses

Requests and responses represent the conversation taking place between clients and servers. If there are more requests than responses, clients might be sending more requests than the server can handle or the network might be too slow. To identify whether the issue is with the network or the server, check RTOs and zero windows in the Network Data section.

Note:It is unlikely that the total number of AAA requests and responses will be exactly equal, even in a healthy environment. For example, you might be viewing a time period that captures a response to a request that was sent before the start of the time period. In general, the greater the difference between responses and errors, the greater the chance that there is an issue with those transactions.
Metric Description
Requests The number of total requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Responses The number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors The number of response errors that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Diameter Request The number of Diameter requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
RADIUS Request The number of RADIUS requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Aborts The number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA server.
Where to look next

Drill down on a metric: You can get more information about a metric by clicking the metric value or name and selecting an option from the Drill down by menu. For example, if you are looking at the total number of errors, click the number and select Servers to see which servers returned the errors.

Search the Metric Explorer: Built-in protocol pages include the most commonly referenced metrics for a protocol, but you can see additional metrics in the Metric Explorer. Click any chart title on a protocol page and select Create chart from.... When the Metric Explorer opens, click Add Metric in the left pane to display a drop-down list of comprehensive metrics for the device. If you find an interesting metric, click Add to Dashboard to add the metric to a new or existing dashboard.

Create a custom metric: If you want to view a metric that is not included in the Metric Explorer, you can create a custom metric through a trigger. For more information, see the following resources:

Check the Solution Bundles Gallery: Many bundles on the Solution Bundles Gallery contain custom metrics. Before you create your own custom metric, check to see if someone has already created a similar metric.

AAA client group page

Learn about charts on this page
AAA Summary for Group
Total Transactions
This chart shows you when AAA errors occurred and how many responses the AAA clients received. This information can help you see how active the clients were at the time they received the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see the Metric Totals section below.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Server Processing Time
If a client group is acting slow, the server processing time can help you figure out whether the issue is with the servers. The Server Processing Time chart shows the median amount of time servers took to process requests from the clients. High server processing times indicate that the clients are contacting slow servers.
Metric Description
Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
AAA Metric Totals
Requests and responses represent the conversation taking place between clients and servers. If there are more requests than responses, the clients might be sending more requests than servers can handle or the network might be too slow.
Note:It is unlikely that the total number of requests and responses will be exactly equal, even in a healthy environment. For example, you might be viewing a time period that captures a response to a request that was sent before the start of the time period. In general, the greater the difference between responses and errors, the greater the chance that there is an issue with those transactions.
Requests The number of total requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Diameter Request The number of Diameter requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
RADIUS Request The number of RADIUS requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Aborts The number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA client.
AAA Details for Group
Top AAA Clients in Group
This chart shows which AAA clients in the group were most active by breaking out the total number of AAA requests the group sent by client.
Top Methods
This chart shows which AAA methods the group called the most by breaking out the total number of requests the group sent by method.
Top Error Types
This chart shows which AAA error types the group received the most by breaking out the number of responses returned to the group by error type.
Where to look next

Drill down on a metric: You can get more information about a metric by clicking the metric value or name and selecting an option from the Drill down by menu. For example, if you are looking at the total number of errors, click the number and select Servers to see which servers returned the errors.

Search the Metric Explorer: Built-in protocol pages include the most commonly referenced metrics for a protocol, but you can see additional metrics in the Metric Explorer. Click any chart title on a protocol page and select Create chart from.... When the Metric Explorer opens, click Add Metric in the left pane to display a drop-down list of comprehensive metrics for the device. If you find an interesting metric, click Add to Dashboard to add the metric to a new or existing dashboard.

Create a custom metric: If you want to view a metric that is not included in the Metric Explorer, you can create a custom metric through a trigger. For more information, see the following resources:

Check the Solution Bundles Gallery: Many bundles on the Solution Bundles Gallery contain custom metrics. Before you create your own custom metric, check to see if someone has already created a similar metric.

AAA server group page

Learn about charts on this page
AAA Summary for Group
Total Transactions
This chart shows you when AAA errors occurred and how many AAA responses the servers sent. This information can help you see how active the servers were at the time they returned the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see the Metric Totals section below.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors The number of response errors that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Server Processing Time
The Server Processing Time chart shows the median amount of time the servers took to process requests from clients. High server processing times indicate that the servers in a group are slow.
Metric Description
AAA Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an AAA server, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the received request and first packet of the sent response.
AAA Metric Totals
Requests and responses represent the conversation taking place between clients and servers. If there are more requests than responses, clients might be sending more requests than the servers can handle or the network might be too slow.
Note:It is unlikely that the total number of requests and responses will be exactly equal, even in a healthy environment. For example, you might be viewing a time period that captures a response to a request that was sent before the start of the time period. In general, the greater the difference between responses and errors, the greater the chance that there is an issue with those transactions.
Metric Description
Requests The number of total requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Responses The number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors The number of response errors that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Diameter Request The number of Diameter requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
RADIUS Request The number of RADIUS requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Aborts The number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA server.
AAA Details for Group
Top AAA Servers in Group
This chart shows which AAA servers in the group were most active by breaking out the total number of AAA responses the group sent by server.
Top Methods
This chart shows which AAA methods were called on servers in the group the most by breaking out the total number of requests the group received by method.
Top Error Types
This chart shows which AAA error types the groups returned the most by breaking out the total number of responses the group sent by error type.
Where to look next

Drill down on a metric: You can get more information about a metric by clicking the metric value or name and selecting an option from the Drill down by menu. For example, if you are looking at the total number of errors, click the number and select Servers to see which servers returned the errors.

Search the Metric Explorer: Built-in protocol pages include the most commonly referenced metrics for a protocol, but you can see additional metrics in the Metric Explorer. Click any chart title on a protocol page and select Create chart from.... When the Metric Explorer opens, click Add Metric in the left pane to display a drop-down list of comprehensive metrics for the device. If you find an interesting metric, click Add to Dashboard to add the metric to a new or existing dashboard.

Create a custom metric: If you want to view a metric that is not included in the Metric Explorer, you can create a custom metric through a trigger. For more information, see the following resources:

Check the Solution Bundles Gallery: Many bundles on the Solution Bundles Gallery contain custom metrics. Before you create your own custom metric, check to see if someone has already created a similar metric.

AAA devices page

Note:This help topic describes a page in the ExtraHop Web UI that is available only when switched to the deprecated page layout.
AAA Device Toolbar
The AAA device toolbar includes the following controls:
AAA Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an AAA client or AAA server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.
  • Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records.
  • Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA client.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA server.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.
Status Codes
The AAA status codes for the selected time interval.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a boxplot of times it took the server to process requests. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

AAA groups page

Note:This help topic describes a page in the ExtraHop Web UI that is available only when switched to the deprecated page layout.
AAA Groups Toolbar
The AAA groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list and select either Client or Server to display metrics for devices in the current group acting as an AAA client or AAA server, respectively.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current member over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.

Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records. Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.

Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.

AMF

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Action Message Format (AMF) activity.

AMF client page

AMF Summary
Transactions
This chart shows you when AMF errors occurred and how many responses the AMF client received. This information can help you see how active the client was at the time it received the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see Requests and Responses.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Transaction Summary
This chart displays the total number of AMF responses the client received and how many of those responses contained errors.
Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Performance (95th)
If a client is acting slow, performance summary metrics can help you figure out whether the network or servers are causing the issue. These metrics show the median amount of time that servers took to process requests from the client versus the median time that packets from those requests (and their respective responses) took to be transmitted across the network. High server processing times indicate that the client is contacting slow servers. High TCP round trip times indicate that the client is communicating over slow networks.
AMF Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Round Trip Time The time between when a AMF client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Performance (95th Percentile)
This chart shows the 95th percentile of timing metrics. The transfer and processing time metrics show parts of a complete transaction. The request transfer time shows how long the client took to transmit requests onto the network; the server processing time shows how long servers took to process the requests; and the response transfer time shows how long servers took to transmit responses onto the network.

Transfer and processing times are calculated by measuring the time between when the first and last packets of requests and responses are seen by the ExtraHop system, as shown in the following figure:

It can be difficult to tell whether an issue is caused by a network or a device from looking only at transfer and processing times, because these metrics alone provide an incomplete picture. Therefore the round trip time (RTT) metric is also included in this chart. RTT metrics are a good indicator of how your network is performing. If you see high transfer or processing times, but the RTT is low, the issue is probably at the device-level. However, if the RTT, processing, and transfer times are all high, network latency might be affecting the transfer and processing times, and the issue might be with the network.

The RTT metric can help identify the source of the problem because it only measures how long an immediate acknowledgement takes to be sent from the client or server; it does not wait until all packets are delivered.

The ExtraHop system calculates the RTT value by measuring the time between the first packet of a request and the acknowledgement from the server, as shown in the following figure:

The request transfer time might be high because the client took a long time to transmit the request (possibly because the request was very large); however, the transfer time could also be high because the request took a long time to travel on the network (possibly because of network congestion).

Learn more about how the ExtraHop system calculates round trip time on the ExtraHop forum.

AMF Client Request Transfer Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the first packet and last packet of sent requests. A high value may indicate a large request or network delay.
AMF Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
AMF Client Response Transfer Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the first packet and last packet of received responses. High values may indicate a large response or network delay.
Round Trip Time The time between when a AMF client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.

The Performance (95th percentile) chart shows the highest value for a time period while filtering outliers; the 95th percentile is the highest value that falls below 95% of the values for a sample period. By displaying the 95th value, rather than the true maximum, the chart gives you a more accurate view of the data:

AMF Performance
Server Processing Time Distribution
This chart breaks out server processing times in a histogram to show the most common processing times.
Metric Description
AMF Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Server Processing Time
This chart shows the median processing time for the client.
Metric Description
AMF Client Server Processing Time When the device is acting as an HTTP-AMF client, the time between the ExtraHop system detecting the last packet of the sent request and the first packet of the received response.
Round Trip Distribution
This chart breaks out round trip times in a histogram to show the most common round trip times.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when a AMF client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Round Trip Time
This chart shows the median round trip time for the client.
Metric Description
Round Trip Time The time between when a AMF client sent a packet that required an immediate acknowledgment and when the client received the acknowledgment. Round trip time (RTT) is a measurement of network latency.
Network Data

This section shows you TCP information that is related to the current protocol. In general, host stalls indicate that there is an issue with either the server or the client, and network stalls indicate that there is an issue with the network.

Host Stalls
This chart shows the number of zero windows that were advertised or received by the device. Devices control the amount of data they receive by specifying the number of packets that can be sent to them over a given time period. When a device is sent more data than it can process, the device advertises a zero window to ask its peer device to stop sending packets completely until the device catches up. If you see a large number of zero windows, a server or client might not be not fast enough to support the amount of data being received.
Metric Definition
Zero Windows In The number of Zero Windows that were sent to the device to stop the flow of data over the connection. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows in indicates that a peer device was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Zero Windows Out The number of Zero Windows that were sent from the device to stop the flow of data. A device advertises a Zero Window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.

A large number of zero windows out indicates that the client was too slow to process the amount of data received.

Network Stalls

This chart shows the number of retransmission timeouts that occurred. Retransmission timeouts (RTOs) occur when a network drops too many packets, usually due to packet collisions or buffer exhaustion. If a device sends a request or response and does not receive confirmation within a specified amount of time, the device retransmits the request. If too many retransmissions are unacknowledged, an RTO occurs. If you see a large number of RTOs, the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity.

Metric Definition
RTOs In The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as peers were sending data to the current device. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs in, the device did not send an acknowledgement to the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

RTOs Out The number of retransmission timeouts (RTOs) caused by network congestion as the device was sending data to its peers. An RTO is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.

If you see a large number of RTOs out, the device did not receive an acknowledgement from the server quickly enough, or the network might be too slow to support the current level of activity. Depending on the timeout value configured in the operating system, this delay can be anywhere from 1 to 8 seconds.

AMF Metric Totals
Requests and Responses
Requests and responses represent the conversation taking place between clients and servers. If there are more requests than responses, the client might be sending more requests than the servers can handle or the network might be too slow. To identify whether the issue is with the network or the server, check RTOs and zero windows in the Network Data section.
Note:It is unlikely that the total number of AMF requests and responses will be exactly equal, even in a healthy environment. For example, you might be viewing a time period that captures a response to a request that was sent before the start of the time period. In general, the greater the difference between responses and errors, the greater the chance that there is an issue with those transactions.
Metric Description
Requests The number of requests that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses Without Length The number of responses that had no length, that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Requests Without Length The number of requests that had no length, that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Request and Response Size
This chart shows the average size of requests and responses.
Metric Description
Request Size The distribution of sizes (in bytes) of requests that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Response Size The distribution of sizes (in bytes) of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Where to look next

Drill down on a metric: You can get more information about a metric by clicking the metric value or name and selecting an option from the Drill down by menu. For example, if you are looking at the total number of errors, click the number and select Servers to see which servers returned the errors.

Search the Metric Explorer: Built-in protocol pages include the most commonly referenced metrics for a protocol, but you can see additional metrics in the Metric Explorer. Click any chart title on a protocol page and select Create chart from.... When the Metric Explorer opens, click Add Metric in the left pane to display a drop-down list of comprehensive metrics for the device. If you find an interesting metric, click Add to Dashboard to add the metric to a new or existing dashboard.

Create a custom metric: If you want to view a metric that is not included in the Metric Explorer, you can create a custom metric through a trigger. For more information, see the following resources:

Check the Solution Bundles Gallery: Many bundles on the Solution Bundles Gallery contain custom metrics. Before you create your own custom metric, check to see if someone has already created a similar metric.

AMF server page

AMF Summary
Transactions
This chart shows you when AMF errors occurred and how many AMF responses the server sent. This information can help you see how active the server was at the time it returned the errors.

In a healthy environment, the number of requests and responses should be roughly equal. For more information, see Requests and Responses.

Metric Description
Responses The number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors The number of response errors that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Transaction Summary

This chart displays the total number of AMF responses the server sent and how many of those responses contained errors.