Web UI Guide

About this guide

This guide provides information about the web-based user interface (Web UI) for the ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances.

The purpose of this guide is to help users understand the ExtraHop system architecture and functionality as well as learn how to operate the controls, fields, and options available throughout the Web UI.

Additional resources are available through the following links:

Introduction to the ExtraHop system

The ExtraHop system helps you to monitor network activity and all your applications. For example, you can learn how well applications are consuming network resources, how systems and devices are communicating with each other, and how to identify transactions that are flowing across the data link layer (L2) up to application layer (L7) in your network.

Overall, the ExtraHop platform works in the following ways:
  • Collecting data from transactions observed on your wire data capture feed or receiving NetFlow and IPFIX traffic from remote flow networks
  • Automatically discovering and classifying devices that are communicating on the network
  • Providing you with 4,000 built-in metrics for dozens of protocols
  • Enabling you to create custom metrics, alerts, and reports
Note:To learn more about how ExtraHop works, view the following training modules:

ExtraHop platform architecture

The ExtraHop platform comprises a suite of appliances that are designed to passively monitor the network traffic in your environment in real time. The ExtraHop system provides you with top-level and detailed metrics about the devices on your network, which you can analyze to determine where problems in your network might be developing.

ExtraHop Discover appliance

The ExtraHop Discover appliance (EDA) provides the ability to analyze and visualize all of your network, application, client, infrastructure, and business data. The Discover appliance passively collects unstructured wire data—all of the transactions on your network—and transforms this data into structured wire data.

Deploy a single Discover appliance, either physical or virtual, anywhere in your network environment.

ExtraHop Explore appliance

The ExtraHop Explore appliance (EXA) integrates with the ExtraHop Discover appliance to store transaction and flow records sent from the Discover appliance. You can see, save, and search the structured flow and transaction information about events on your network with a simple, unified UI, with no modifications to your existing applications or infrastructure. Deploy a cluster of three or more Explore appliances to take advantage of data redundancy and performance improvements.

ExtraHop Trace appliance

The ExtraHop Trace appliance (ETA) continuously collects network packets and integrates with the ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances to enable you to quickly retrieve all packets that match a set of search criteria within a given time interval. You can then download the packet capture file for further inspection in a packet analyzer, such as Wireshark.

Deploy a Trace appliance when you need access to more than the summary data collected by the Discover appliance.

ExtraHop Command appliance

The ExtraHop Command appliance (ECA) provides centralized management and reporting across multiple ExtraHop Discover appliances that are distributed across datacenters, branch offices, and the public cloud.

You can pair an Explore appliance or cluster to multiple Discover appliances, and then query the records stored by each Discover appliance from the Command appliance.

When you add a Trace appliance, you can search, download, and analyze the collected packets to gain further insight about the information flowing across your network.

For most large ExtraHop deployments, a dedicated Command appliance is the most efficient way to manage all of your remote appliances.

To learn more about the ExtraHop platform, view the following training modules:

Data sources in the ExtraHop system

ExtraHop enables you to collect and analyze both wire and machine data. Wire data is observed in real time, which provides information about what’s happening on your network. Flow data, a type of machine data, can also be collected from a network device and sent to the ExtraHop for analysis or storage. Flow data is an alternative option if wire data cannot be collected from a remote network.

Wire data

With wire data, the ExtraHop system passively collects a copy of unstructured packets through a port mirror or tap and stores the data in the appliance datastore. The copied data goes through real-time stream processing, which transforms the packets into structured wire data through the following stages:
  1. TCP state machines are recreated to perform full-stream reassembly.
  2. Packets are constructed into flows.
  3. The structured data is analyzed and processed in the following ways:
    1. Transactions are identified
    2. Devices are automatically discovered by MAC and IP address and then classified by their activity.
    3. Metrics are generated and associated with protocols and sources, and the metric data is then aggregated into metric cycles. For more information, see the Sources and groups section.
      Note:Aggregation roll ups, also referred to as metric cycles, help determine the granularity of metric data in time series analyses. For more information, see the Time interval and data roll up section.
  4. As new metrics are generated and stored, and the datastore becomes full, the oldest existing metrics are overwritten according to the first-in first-out (FIFO) principle.

Flow data

A flow is a set of packets that are part of a single transaction between two endpoints. Similar to how the ExtraHop system can identify flows from wire data, flows from machine data on remote networks can be sent to a Discover appliance for analysis. Flows are identified through their unique combination of IP protocol (TCP/UDP), source and destination IP addresses, and source and destination ports.

The ExtraHop system supports the following types of flow data:
NetFlow v5
The Cisco proprietary protocol that defines a flow as a unidirectional flow of packets all sharing the following values: Ingress interface, source and destination IP address, IP protocol, source and destination ports, and the type of service. NetFlow v5 has a fixed record format with 20 fields and cannot be customized.
NetFlow v9
An adapted version of NetFlow v5 where the record format is template based. NetFlow v9 has 60+ fields in the records and can be customized. In the Discover appliance, these records are only partially parsed until the template packet is detected.
IPFIX
An open standard based on the NetFlow v9 standard. ExtraHop supports only the native format; formats where the Enterprise bit is set outside of a trigger is not supported.
AppFlow
The Citrix implementation of IPFIX with customized extensions to include application-level information such as HTTP URLs, HTTP request methods, status codes, and so on.
sFlow
A sampling technology for monitoring traffic in data networks. sFlow samples every nth packet and sends it to the collector whereas NetFlow sends data from every flow to the collector. The primary difference between sFlow and NetFlow is that sFlow is network layer independent and can sample anything. NetFlow v5 is IP based, but v9 and IPFIX can also look at Layer 2.

The Discover appliance enables you to add any of the above flow data sources. You can then view metrics for flow networks and their interfaces.

Flow networks
A flow network is a network device that sends information about flows seen across the device. Similar to how the ExtraHop system can identify flows from wire data, the ExtraHop system can receive flow information from remote network devices, also called flow exporters.
Flow interfaces
A flow network device can have multiple interfaces. Instead of looking at flow information for the entire device, you can look at flow information for a specific interface on the device.
A typical flow monitoring setup consists of three main components:
Flow exporter
Aggregates packets into flows and exports the flow network traffic to one or more flow collectors. A flow exporter might be a router or switch on remote network that has been configured to send NetFlow or AppFlow traffic to your Discover appliance.
Flow collector
Receives, stores, and pre-processes flow network traffic received from a flow exporter.
Flow analyzer
Analyzes received flow network traffic in the context of intrusion detection, resource management, or traffic profiling.

With the Discover appliance working as a flow collector and analyzer, you can collect the flow network traffic through the following stages:

  1. Flow exporters detect and format traffic, caching information about the flow, including source and destination IP addresses, port, IP protocol, and number of bytes and packets.
  2. The flow exporter sends the cached information from the flow network to the Discover appliance, which acts as a collector and analyzer for the flow data.
  3. The flow network traffic is analyzed, flows are identified, and metrics are aggregated for the total number of bytes and total number of packets in each flow.

For example, when a client initiates a request to a server, the packet is sent to the router, which directs the packet to the destination server through the network topology. If that router is configured to be a flow network exporter, information about the flow is then formatted and sent to the Discover appliance for analysis.

By analyzing flows of network traffic, such as NetFlow traffic, an administrator can identify the top network flows (most bytes consumed), top network talkers (highest throughput), total number of bytes, and the total number of packets per router interface.

Device discovery

The ExtraHop system automatically discovers devices based on what is happening on the network. There are two device discovery modes: layer 2 (L2) discovery and layer 3 (L3) discovery. The default discovery mode is L3 discovery.

L2 discovery
Creates an L2 device for every locally observed MAC address over the wire. All IP addresses associated with a MAC address are aggregated into one device.
L3 discovery
Creates an L3 device for every locally observed IP address over the wire that meets the following criteria:
  • A device responds to an Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) request for the IP address, allowing the ExtraHop appliance to associate the IP address with an MAC address.
  • The associated MAC address is not the MAC address of an L3-routing device.

In addition to creating L3 devices, the Discover appliance also creates an L2 device for each unique MAC address. If the MAC address and IP address are associated with the same device, the Discover appliance links the parent L2 device and the child L3 device. The following characteristics apply to L2 devices created by L3 device discovery mode:

  • The parent-child relationship is shown in the detail page for each device.
  • L2 metrics that cannot be associated with a particular child L3 device (for example, L2 broadcast traffic) are associated with the parent L2 device.
  • In the device list view, you can filter the full device list for L2 devices only, L3 devices only, or both types of devices.
  • L2 devices that exist solely as parents to L3 child devices do not count against licensed device count limits.

After a device is discovered, the ExtraHop system tracks all of the wire data traffic associated with the device. Based on the type of traffic, the ExtraHop system assigns a device type to the device, such as a gateway, file server, database, or load balancer.

A device can be identified by multiple names, which are all searchable. The ExtraHop system discovers device names by passively monitoring naming protocols, including DNS, DHCP, NETBIOS, and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). If a name is not discovered through a naming protocol, the default name is derived from the device attributes (MAC address for L2 devices and the IP address for L3 devices). You can also create a custom name for a device on the Devices page.

By default, all IP addresses that are observed outside of locally-monitored broadcast domains are aggregated at one of the incoming routers in your network. To identify and learn about individual devices outside of these routers, which are beyond your local network, you can create custom devices and enable reporting on these devices. For example, you can create a single device encompassing several known IP addresses for a remote site or cloud service. For more information on how to create a custom device, see the Custom devices section. You can also create a remote network with the Administration UI that defines a range of IP addresses that are not on the local network. The ExtraHop system will then discover remote devices by their IP address.

Software frame deduplication

The ExtraHop system removes duplicate L2 and L3 frames and packets when metrics are collected and aggregated from your network activity by default. L2 deduplication removes identical Ethernet frames (where the Ethernet header and the entire IP packet must match); L3 deduplication removes TCP or UDP packets with identical IP ID fields on the same flow (where only the IP packet must match).

The ExtraHop system checks for duplicates and removes only the immediately-previous packet both on the flow (for L3 deduplication) or globally (for L2 deduplication) if the duplicate arrives within 1 millisecond of the original packet.

By default, the same packet traversing different VLANs is removed by L3 deduplication. In addition, packets must have the same length and the same IP ID, and TCP packets also must have the same TCP checksum.

L2 duplication usually only exists if the exact same packet is seen through the data feed, which is typically related to an issue with port mirroring. L3 duplication is often the result of mirroring the same traffic across multiple interfaces of the same router, which can show up as extraneous TCP retransmissions in the ExtraHop system.

The System Health page in the ExtraHop Web UI contains charts that display L2 and L3 duplicate packets that were removed by the ExtraHop system. Deduplication works across 10Gbps ports by default and across 1Gbps ports if software RSS is enabled. L3 deduplication currently is supported only for IPv4, not IPv6.

Introduction to the ExtraHop Web UI

The ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances provide access to your network, application, client, and infrastructure data through a dynamic and highly customizable Web UI.

After you log into the ExtraHop appliance with a browser over HTTPS, you can immediately view your network activity through built-in system dashboards. If your environment includes a Command appliance, you can monitor all of the activity on your distributed Discover appliances from a single, centralized Command appliance.

Log into the ExtraHop Web UI and explore your network environment through the following options:

Top-down workflows
Start with high-level charts and device groups that display all of the activity on your network. When you see something interesting, you can drill-down to specific devices and transaction details.
Bottom-up workflows
Search for a particular device, URI, or database. You can then explore real-time metrics and activity associated with that device, and pivot to different devices and protocols to learn more.
Review system dashboards
When you log into the ExtraHop system, you will see the Activity dashboard. This dashboard is a good starting point because it shows you everything happening on your network. For more information about this dashboard, and how to build your own, see the Get started with dashboards section.
Drill down on interesting data
When you see a spike in traffic or other interesting data, you can drill down to see which devices are associated with that data. For more information, see the Drill-down functionality section.
Explore activity groups
Another way to get a top-down view of specific activity is to explore activity groups. For more information, see the Activity groups section.
Search for a device
ExtraHop automatically discovers devices that communicate on the network. You can search for devices by IP address, URI, or other attributes. For more information, see the Search for a device section.
Create a group
After you have found devices that are important to you, you can build a device group of devices and track their activity. For more information, see the Device groups section.
Build a dashboard
You can create a custom dashboard view of your devices to see real-time information that is most relevant to you. For more information, see the Dashboards section.
Set up alerts
Configure threshold and trend-based alerts that notify you when there is a potential issue with a network device. For more information, see the Alerts section.
Create reports
Generate reports on network metrics for a particular time interval, and export the information as a PDF file or as CSV data. For more information, see the Reports section.
Build a geomap
Geomaps display metrics across a global map, which indicates where metrics activity has occurred. For more information, see the Geomaps section.
Apply a bundle
Bundles are system objects saved as a JSON file. A bundle contains information about a selected ExtraHop system configuration, such as triggers, dashboards, applications, or alerts. Apply a bundle to your ExtraHop system, or create a bundle to share with others. For more information, see the Bundles section.
Build a trigger
Create a custom metric with a trigger. Triggers are custom scripts that perform an action upon a pre-defined event. Triggers require planning to make sure a trigger doesn’t negatively impact system performance. For more information, see the Triggers section.

In addition, if your ExtraHop Discover appliance is connected to an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can directly access stored transaction records through the Discover Web UI. Or, if you are monitoring multiple Discover appliances through a Command appliance, you can retrieve record information by node through the Command Web UI.

The ExtraHop Web UI provides a framework of elements that remain static as you move around the system. The information and options in the left and content panes of the Web UI change based on your selections in the top menu.

The following figure identifies both global navigation elements and the areas of the Web UI that will change based on your selection.

Top menu

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI.

Dashboards
Provides built-in system dashboards that give you an instant view of the activity on your network. You can also create and share dashboards with other users.
Metrics
Provides access to system metrics sources, group metrics, and record queries.
Records
Runs a record query for the selected time interval and displays the New Record Query page, where you can add filters to refine your search.
Packets
Runs a packet query for the selected time interval and displays the New Packet Query page, where you can add filters to refine your search.
Global search field
Enables you to type any object or search criteria and find a match on your Discover appliance. If you have an ExtraHop Explore appliance configured, you can also search for saved records.
Community icon
Launches a new tab in your web browser to the ExtraHop forums and to other external resources.
Help icon
Launches documentation for the page that you are currently viewing.
System Settings
Provides access to system configuration options.
User Icon
Enables you to log in and log out of your Discover appliance or Command appliance, change your password, and access API options.

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI, below the top menu.

Pane toggle
Enables you to collapse or expand the left pane.
Global Time Selector
Enables you to determine the global time interval that is applied to all system metrics.
Recent Pages
Enables you to see the most recent pages you visited. Repeated pages are deduplicated and condensed to save space.
Navigation Path
Displays where you are in the system and provides available pivot points so you can search for the same metrics across multiple protocols, devices, or other swappable criteria.
Command menu drop-down
Appears throughout the Web UI and contains context-sensitive actions for the area you are in. For example, when you click the Dashboards top menu, the command menu at the end of the navigation bar provides options to view dashboard properties and to create a new dashboard.

The left pane and content pane change based on your selections. See the following sections to learn more about each feature.

Time Selector

The Time Selector enables you to specify a time interval for the collection and presentation of network data. There are two types of Time Selectors: a Global Time Selector for specifying global time intervals, and a Region Time Selector for specifying region time intervals.

The Global Time Selector is located at the top-left of the navigation bar. Access the Region Time Selector by clicking the command menu next to the region name and selecting Use Region Time Selector.

A global time interval is applied across the Discover appliance. Navigating from one area to another will not change the time interval for the metrics you are viewing. This means that the same time interval applies whether you are viewing different metrics across the Web UI or if you are drilling-down to view detailed metrics.

Note:Logging out of the Discover appliance will reset the global time interval to the Last 30 minutes. However, global time interval information is included at the end of the URL. To maintain a specific global time interval after logging out, copy or bookmark the URL. Make sure that the entire URL is copied to maintain the specified global time interval.

A region time interval is applied by dashboard region and you can set different time intervals per-region. When you add a widget to an existing region, the widget inherits the time interval for that region.

You can apply either a global time interval or a region time interval to a dashboard region. To toggle between time intervals, start by clicking the command menu in the region header. To apply a region time interval, select Use Region Time Selector. To apply a global time interval, select Use Global Time Selector. When the Region Time Selector disappears from the region header, this indicates that the global time interval is applied to the region.

Displaying running time and snapshot time intervals

For dashboards and top-level metrics pages—where metrics are polled automatically—you will see the running time for the global time interval displayed in the Global Time Selector.

For a detailed metric page or a records query results page—where metrics are not polled automatically—you will see the snapshot of the global time interval, which includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the metric or record query was last polled. To reload the metrics or query for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display.

Specify a global or region time interval

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or the Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, select one of the following options:
    Last 30 minutes
    Displays the last 30 minutes of data collected.
    Last 6 hours
    Displays the last six hours of data collected.
    Last day
    Displays the last 24 hours of data collected.
    Last week
    Displays the last seven days of data collected.
    Last
    Displays the data collected within a customized unit of time. For more information, see the Specify a custom time interval section.
    Custom time range
    Displays the data collected within a fixed date and time range. For more information, see the Specify a custom time range section.
  3. Click Save.
    Note:You can view metrics in charts with different levels of granularity based on the time interval that you specify. For more information, see the Time interval and data roll up section.

Specify a previous time interval

Time intervals are preserved across a login session. The five most recent unique time intervals are also saved in the History tab of the Time Selector.

To select a previous time interval:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. Click History.
  3. Select a time interval. You selection will be applied to the options on the Time Interval tab.
  4. Click Save.

Specify a custom time interval

To view metrics that occurred in a specific unit of time that is not available by default, such as microseconds or months, you can modify the settings in the custom time interval option.

To specify a custom time interval for a global or region time interval:

  1. Click the Global or Region Time Selector and select the Last radio button in the Time Interval tab.
  2. Type the number of units of time.
  3. Click the drop-down list and select microseconds, milliseconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years.
  4. Click Save.

Specify a custom time range

To view metrics that occurred during a specific time, you can specify a custom time range or you can zoom in on a chart.

To specify a custom time range:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, and select Custom Time Range.
    The drop-down field will display a default time range.
  3. Click the drop-down field. A calendar dialog box opens.
  4. Click a day to specify the start date for the range. One click will specify a single day. Clicking another day will specify the end date for the range.
    Note:Use the back and forward arrows on the calendar to change the month displayed on the calendar.
  5. Click Save.

Zoom in on a time range

You can click-and-drag across a region in a line chart to zoom in and specify a custom time range in the Time Selector. For example, if you observe a spike in a chart, you can click-and-drag across the spike to zoom in on the activity that occurred in that time range.

Note:This option is only available for time-series charts. It is not available for bar charts, text widgets, or tables.

If you are zooming in on a chart within a dashboard region that has a region time interval applied to it, this time range will become the region time interval for every widget in that region (unless you have applied a global time interval to that dashboard region). The ability to zoom in on a time range is useful for observing other metric activity that occurred in that same time range. For more information, see the Time Selector section.

If the specified time range is valid it appears green. If the specified time range is less than one minute, the range is invalid and appears red.

Note:Data might not be available for the zoomed time range.
  1. Click and drag your mouse across the chart to select a time range.
  2. Release the mouse button. The graph is redrawn to the specified time range.

The scales on the chart’s axes update to reflect the range of values in the zoomed time range. In addition, the Custom Time Range value in the Time Selector adjusts to reflect the time range in the chart.

If you want to revert from the zoomed time range back to your original time interval, click the undo icon—a magnifying glass with a minus sign—in the Time Selector. For example, if you originally specified Last 30 minutes as your time interval, and then perform a series of zoom operations on a chart, you can revert back to your original 30-minute time interval with one click on the undo icon.

Dashboards

A dashboard is an HTML page that displays real-time and historic data for any built-in or custom metric in the ExtraHop platform. In a dashboard, data is displayed in widgets, and widgets are assembled in regions.

Dashboards are stored separately for each user that accesses the ExtraHop Discover appliance. After you build a custom dashboard, you can share it with other ExtraHop users.
Tip:Essentials dashboards are created by ExtraHop staff to display common and related network metrics. A set of dashboards are available in the Essentials bundle on your ExtraHop appliance. For more information, see the Essentials bundle section.

This section contains information about system dashboards and procedures on how to create and manage custom dashboards.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules:

Get started with dashboards

The ExtraHop Discover appliance provides expansive and granular metrics about the traffic on your network. The possibilities are endless, but the initial view can be overwhelming.

A dashboard is a customizable HTML page that displays different views of your network through widgets such as charts. Dashboards are a powerful feature that can help showcase the data that is most relevant to your daily operations in real-time and manage the signal to noise ratio of your network activity.

The information in the following sections will help you get started.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules.

Types of dashboards

The ExtraHop appliance provides built-in system dashboards, but you can also create custom dashboards to display only the metrics you want to see.

System dashboards
Any ExtraHop user with an active account can log in and view system dashboards, which are built into the ExtraHop system. The Activity dashboard and Network dashboard are system dashboards that provide a top-down perspective of all the activity happening on your network.
Custom dashboards
ExtraHop users can create a custom dashboard, which is one of the most effective ways to create a single view of protocols, metrics, and devices that are the most important to your organization. Before you create a custom dashboard, we recommend that you first determine which metrics you want to visualize and monitor in your dashboard. For example, it helps to have a question you want to answer, or an idea of which metric sourcesapplications, devices, groups, and networks—that you want to monitor on a regular basis.
Activity dashboard page

The built-in Activity dashboard displays the following information about your network.

Traffic Overview
View the types of traffic on your network. For example, the Top L7 Protocols chart displays the most active application protocols. The protocol with the most area, or color, in the chart has the highest volume of packet transmissions during the selected time interval. In the Alert History widget, you can also view up to 40 of the latest alerts that were generated, and their severity levels.
Active Protocols
View important metrics and activity about specific application protocols.
Note:In the ExtraHop Command appliance, you can display the Activity dashboard for each Discover appliance. The appliance name appears in the navigation bar; click the down arrow next to the node name to pivot the display to other Discover appliances.
Network dashboard page

The built-in Network dashboard displays the following information about your network.

Network L2 metrics
View raw data throughput at the data link layer (L2). You can view throughput, the packet rate, and the breakdown of frame counts by distribution and type.
Network L4 metrics
View TCP activity through connection, request, and response metrics. This data can indicate how effectively data is being sent and received across the transport layer (L4) in your network.
Network Performance
View overall network performance by reviewing the throughput per application protocol and the magnitude of high TCP round trip times.
Network L3 metrics
View data throughput at the Internet layer (L3), and see packets and traffic by TCP/IP protocols.
DSCP
View a breakdown of packets and traffic by Differentiated Services code points, which is part of the DiffServ network architecture. Every IP packet contains a field to express the priority of how the packet should be handled, which are called differentiated services and the values for the priorities are called code points.
Multicast Groups
View traffic that is sent to multiple receivers in a single transmission, and see packets and traffic by each receiver group. Multicast traffic on a network is organized into groups based on destination addresses.
Note:In the ExtraHop Command appliance, you can display the Network dashboard for each Discover appliance. The appliance name appears in the navigation bar; click the down arrow next to the node name to pivot the display to other nodes.

When you log into the ExtraHop appliance for the first time, you will see the Activity dashboard, which a built-in system dashboard that displays a high-level overview of all the activity happening on your network.

There are several ways to explore dashboards and the metrics displayed in them. The following figure shows the available navigation options that you can interact with to configure and view metrics.

Dashboard dock
Access and organize custom, built-in, and shared dashboards. For more information, see the Organize dashboards section.
Global Time Selector
Change the time interval for the entire dashboard. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
Region header
Change the time interval for the region, rename the region, modify sources, or delete the region.
Chart legend
Drill down on metrics, isolate data (hold focus), and view metric definitions.
Command menu
Edit the dashboard layout and dashboard properties, create a dashboard, or copy, print, present, share, or delete your dashboard.
Chart title
Edit, print, copy, and rename charts. You can also navigate to protocol pages associated with chart sources (Go to...), export chart data, and view metric definitions.

Plan a dashboard

Building a custom dashboard is one of the most effective ways to monitor high-priority network traffic and troubleshoot an issue.

There are four basic steps to building a custom dashboard from the Dashboard page:

  1. Identify the devices or traffic that you want to monitor. For example, there are three categories of metrics you might want to start with:
    • Availability metrics: These metrics track client requests and server responses and help answer the question, is my server offline or unavailable?
    • Reliability metrics: These metrics track error rates for server responses and help answer the question, is my server functioning properly?
    • Performance metrics: These metrics track server performance by measuring server processing times for sending response to requests and help answer the question, is my server properly resourced?
  2. Create a dashboard, which will provide an empty region containing an empty chart and empty text box widget.
  3. Add data to the empty chart with the Metric Explorer, which provides options for configuring metric sets and chart types.
    • Select a metric source, which might be an important server (such as web server, database, or LDAP server) or a group of devices generating specific traffic (such as all HTTP clients).
    • Select metrics, which might be about availability (such as HTTP request and response rates), reliability (such as database errors over time), or performance (such as server processing times).
    • Select a chart type.
  4. Configure a dashboard, by adding more widgets and regions.
    Tip:Consider adding multiple chart types for a single metric to create multiple views of that data.
Note:You can also build a dashboard from a protocol page. This method enables you to quickly add charts to a new or existing dashboard around an application, device, network, or group that you are exploring in the Web UI. For more information, see the Create a chart from a protocol page section.
Note:Learn more by taking the Build Your First Dashboard training.

Dashboard components

Dashboards are composed of customizable regions and widgets. Regions are spaces that hold and compartmentalize widgets. Widgets are objects contained within regions. A widget is a chart, text box, alert history list, activity group list, or network list. Understanding how these components work and the type of information each widget displays can help you build your dashboard.

Region

A region is a compartment that contains widgets.

You can modify regions in the following ways:
  • Apply a specific time interval or range to all of the widgets within a region.
    Note:See the Time Selector section to learn about the differences between the global time interval and region time interval.
  • Rename the title of your region.
  • Modify the metric source for all of the widgets within a region.
  • Delete a region, which will also delete all of the widgets within that region.
  • You can click and drag from the lower right corner of the region to resize the compartment and make room for additional widgets. For more information, see the Edit a dashboard layout section.
Widget

Widgets are configurable dashboard components that can be added to a region for different functions. Drag-and-drop different types of widgets into a region, or drag-and-drop a new region onto your dashboard.

The following widget types are available:

Chart widget
A chart contain metrics. When you configured the chart for the first time, you need to select which chart is best for visualizing data. For example, candlestick chart is effective for seeing outliers easily. For more information, see Edit a chart widget section.
Text box widget
A text box contains that text that you write and format in Markdown. Text boxes are useful for adding descriptive information about charts and regions. For more information, see Edit a text box widget section.
Alert History widget
Displays details about active alerts for metric sources on your network. For example, with this widget, you can quickly identify emergency alerts that have fired, and then navigate to the source of the alert.
Activity Groups widget
Displays the number of devices in activity groups. The Discover appliance automatically generates activity groups, which are groups of devices based on the type of network traffic they generate. A device might appear in more than one activity group if it has multiple types of traffic. For example, with this widget, you can see how many CIFS clients are actively generating requests on your network.
Networks widget (Command appliance only)
Displays the details about network captures that the Command appliance is configured to monitor. You can see how many devices and applications are active on each network.

Create a dashboard

When you create a dashboard, a region containing an empty chart and text widget appear for you to configure. You can expand the region to include a maximum of six charts that are of minimum width. Region and dashboard length are unlimited.

  1. On the Dashboards page, create a dashboard by:
    • Click New Dashboard at the bottom of the left pane (dashboard dock).
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select New Dashboard.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, review the following:
    Title
    Type a name for the dashboard.
    Author
    Type your name.
    Description
    Type a brief description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    (Optional) To change the five-character unique identifier, also known as a short code, click the link and type a meaningful name. The identifier appears after /Dashboard in the URL.
    Note:The permalink can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: ._-+)[]. The name cannot contain spaces.
    Editors
    Specifies the names of users that have editing access for the dashboard. The default editor is the author. Add editors to your dashboard by sharing your dashboard. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Theme
    Select a radio button to specify a style for the dashboard. Select Light, Dark, or Space.
  3. Click Create.
    The new dashboard is populated with a region that contains an empty chart and text box widget. You can now edit your chart and edit your text box.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode when you are satisfied with your changes.
    Important:You can also build a dashboard from protocol page for an application, device, network, or device group. This method enables you to quickly add charts to a new or existing dashboard as you discover interesting metrics while browsing the Web UI. For more information, see the Create a chart from a protocol page section.

Edit a chart widget

The following steps show the general flow for editing a chart widget in the Metric Explorer tool. Begin by specifying sources and metrics to add data to your chart. Then choose a chart type to visualize the data. Finally configure data calculations and adjust the chart appearance.

Note:You can display rates (such as an average rate, maximum rate, or minimum rate) or percentiles in your chart, depending on the metric you select. For more information, see the Display rates or counts in a chart and Display percentiles or a mean sections.
  1. Open the Metric Explorer by completing one of the following steps:
    • Click the chart title and then select Edit.
    • On the Dashboard page, click the command menu in the upper right corner and select Edit Layout. Click anywhere within a chart.
  2. Add sources and metrics to your chart by completing the following steps:
    1. Click Add Source.
    2. In the source search field, type the name of a source, such as an application, device, device group, or network.
      Tip:Underneath the search field, click Any Type to filter search results to a specific source type.
    3. Select the source you want to add.
    4. In the metric search field, type the keywords for the metric you want to view. For example, to view HTTP transaction data coming from a client to your web servers, type HTTP requests.
      Tip:Underneath the search field, click Any Protocol to filter search results to a specific protocol or custom metric.
    5. Select the metric you want to add.
      Note:To remove a metric, click the x icon in the upper left corner in the metric field. Or, to replace a metric, click the metric name to open a new search.
    6. Optional: To add more metrics to your metric set, click Add Metric and then search for the metric you want to include in the metric set.
    7. To add more sources to your chart, click Add Application, Add Device, Add Group, or Add Network, and then search for and select the source you want to add.
      Note:

      You can only select the same source type that is currently in your metric set. A metric set contains one source type and metrics. For example, if you select the All Activity application as the source, you can only add more applications to that metric set. To include a different source type in your chart, such as a device, click Add Source to start a new metric set.

      Tip:If you are displaying more than one source in your chart, such as two applications, you can create an ad hoc source group by selecting Combine Sources. You can then view a single metric value for both applications.
  3. Select a chart type from the bottom of the Metric Explorer.
    Note:Some charts might not be compatible with your selected metrics. For example, the heatmap chart can only display dataset metric data, such as Server Processing Time. For more information about charts and compatible metrics, see the Chart types section.
  4. Modify how data is displayed by doing the following optional steps:
    1. Drill down to display detail metrics for the metric set or individual metrics.
    2. Drill down on a device group.
    3. Display rates or counts in a chart.
    4. Display percentiles or a mean.
    5. Add a dynamic baseline.
    6. Add a static threshold line.
  5. Modify chart properties by doing the following optional steps:
    1. Change chart title.
    2. Change chart appearance to grayscale.
    3. Change a metric label in a chart legend.
    4. Change drill-down chart labels.
    5. Hide chart legend.
    6. Change chart units.
    7. Sort chart data.
  6. Optional: In the preview pane, click Last 30 minutes to select a different time interval and see how your data appears at different time points.
    Note:The time interval you preview in the Metric Explorer does not apply to your saved dashboard.
  7. Click Save.

Dynamic baseline

Dynamic baselines help distinguish between normal and abnormal activity in your chart data.

Select a baseline type that best fits your environment. For example, if you regularly see dramatic changes from one day to another, select an hour-of-week baseline that compares activity seen on specific days of the week. If HTTP activity spikes on Saturdays, this baseline can compare the current spike in HTTP activity with the level seen on other Saturdays at the same hour.

Discover appliances calculate dynamic baselines based on historical data. To generate a new data point on a dynamic baseline, an appliance calculates the median value for a specified period of time. The following table displays how each type of baseline is calculated:

Type Sample window Compares Baseline updated
Hour of day 10 days The same hour of the day. For example, every day at 2:00 PM. Every hour
Hour of week 5 weeks The same hour of week. For example, every Wednesday at 2:00 PM. Every hour
Short-term trend 1 hour Every minute. Every 30 seconds

For example, assume you configure an hour-of-week baseline for HTTP responses on a Sunday. At 10:00 PM, the appliance determines how many HTTP responses there were at 10:00 PM for the last 5 Sundays and calculate the median value; the median number of responses then appear as the baseline value for that hour.

Discover appliances do not begin calculating a dynamic baseline until the setting is enabled. Therefore, dynamic baselines only appear for time periods that occur after the baseline was enabled. Keep in mind that an appliance can begin building a dynamic baseline only if the necessary amount of data has been collected. For example, if you create an hour-of-day baseline, and the Discover appliance has only been collecting data for six days, the appliance will not begin drawing the baseline until four more days have passed because an hour-of-day baseline requires at least 10 days of data.

Dynamic baselines require a Discover appliance to calculate and store baseline data. Therefore, creating a baseline consumes system resources, and configuring too many baselines might degrade system performance.

If two identical dynamic baselines exist in separate dashboards, the dashboards reuse the baseline data; however, the baselines must be identical. If you select a new baseline type, the new dynamic baseline will not share data with the previous dynamic baseline.

Note:Dynamic baselines will not appear on a chart while comparing metric deltas.
Add a dynamic baseline

You can add a dynamic baseline to a chart to help distinguish between normal and abnormal activity.

Warning:Deleting or modifying a dynamic baseline can remove dynamic baseline data from the system. If a dynamic baseline is not referenced by any dashboards, the data will be removed from the system to free unused system resources.
Note:Baselines are only supported in area, candlestick, column, line, and line & column charts.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Analysis.
  3. Under Dynamic Baselines, select the type of dynamic baseline you want to add.
    Option Description
    Hour of day Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for a given hour of the day. This option is most useful if activity in your environment usually follows a consistent daily pattern. If you regularly see dramatically different levels of activity on different days of the week, this option is less useful because the baseline usually does not match the current values.
    Hour of week Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for a given hour on a specific day of the week. This option is most useful if you regularly see significantly different levels of traffic during each day of the week.
    Short-term trend Creates a dynamic baseline that displays the median value for the last hour. This option is useful for smoothing chart data to reveal short-term trends.
  4. Click Add to Dashboard.

Add a static threshold line

Displaying a static threshold line in a chart can help you determine which data points are either below or above a significant value.

For example, you can create a line chart for server processing time to help you monitor the performance of an important database in your network environment. By adding a threshold line that defines an service level agreement (SLA) boundary of acceptable processing time, you can see when database performance is slowing down and address the issue.

You can add one or more threshold lines as you edit a chart. These lines are local to the chart and not associated with other widgets or alerts. Threshold lines are only available for the following charts:

  • Area
  • Candlestick
  • Column
  • Line
  • Line & Column
  • Status

To add a static threshold line to an existing chart:

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Analysis.
  3. In the Static Thresholds section, click Add Threshold Line.
  4. In the Value field, type a number that indicates the threshold value for the line. This value determines where the line appears on the y-axis of your chart.
    Note:For charts that display only count metrics (such as bytes, errors, and responses), the value of the threshold line automatically scales based on data calculations that are configured in the chart. When the Show as rate (per second) option is not selected, the line value automatically scales to the roll up period (either 30 seconds, 5 minutes, 1 hour, or 1 day). The roll up period is determined by the time interval you specified.
  5. In the Label field, type a name for your threshold line.
  6. In the Color field, select a color (options are gray, red, orange, or yellow) for your threshold line.

Display rates or counts in a chart

In a chart, count metric data can be calculated as an average rate per second or displayed as a total number of events over time. After configuring your initial selection, you can toggle between these data views in the chart. In addition, you can display the maximum rate, minimum rate, and average rate in a chart for high precision, or 1-second, Network Bytes and Network Packets metrics.

Note:Depending on the count metric you select, you will see the following default displays:
Count
For the majority of count metrics, such as errors, requests and responses, the total count is automatically displayed.
Average rate
For network and packet-related count metrics, the average rate per second is automatically displayed.
Rate summary
For specific 1-second throughput (Network Bytes) and packet (Network Packet) count metrics, the maximum, minimum, and average rates is automatically displayed.
Tip:For charts with more than one count metric selected, avoid displaying rates and counts together in the same chart. It can skew the scale of the y-axis. The y-axis will include a "/s" on tick labels only if all metrics are displaying rates.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select a count metric.
    Note:A count metric is associated with specific number of events that occurred over time. For example, a byte is recorded as a count metric, and can either represent a throughput rate (as seen in a time series chart) or total traffic volume (as seen in a table). Errors, packets, requests, and responses are also recorded as count metrics.
  3. Select a chart type that is compatible with count metrics (includes line, value, column, bar, pie, and list charts).
  4. Select a data calculation to display in your chart:
    • To display the average rate per second, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Average Rate.
    • To display the count, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Count.
    • To display a maximum rate, minimum rate, and average per second, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Rate Summary, Maximum Rate, or Minimum Rate. These types of rates are only available for the following sources and metrics:
      • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
      • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
      • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
      • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)
    Note:Charts that were configured in a previous version of ExtraHop firmware, with the Show as rate option selected, now display the Average rate.

Display percentiles or a mean

You can configure a chart to display statistical calculations for metric data, such as percentiles or a mean. A percentile is a statistical measure to determine if a data point falls below or above a given percentage amongst all of the data in a dataset metric type. A mean is the calculated average of all of the data in a sampleset metric type. You can also view the standard deviation for a sampleset metric type only.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select a source and then a dataset or sampleset metric. The median (50th percentile) automatically displays for dataset metrics in most charts. The mean automatically displays for sampleset metrics.
    Note:A dataset metric is usually associated with time, such as server processing time or round trip time. Sampleset metrics are often the detail metrics for dataset metrics. Only compatible metrics are displayed in metric search results when you select a percentile-based chart, such as a heatmap, candlestick, or histogram chart.
  3. Select a chart type that is compatible with dataset or sampleset metric (includes all chart types except for the pie chart).
  4. Select a statistical calculation to display in your chart:
    • To display a summary of percentiles (from the 5th to 95th percentiles), click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Summary.
    • To display a specific percentile, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Percentile. In the Set Percentiles field, type numbers separated by a comma. For example, to view the 10th, 30th, and 80th percentiles, type 10, 30, 80.
    • To display the 100th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Maximum.
    • To display the 0th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Minimum.
    • To display the 50th percentile value, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Median.
    Note:

    The median, percentile, maximum, and minimum displays are unavailable for heatmap and histogram charts.

Filter outliers

Histogram and heatmap charts display a distribution of data. However, outliers can skew how the distribution displays in your chart, making it difficult to notice patterns or average values. The default filter option for these charts excludes outliers from the data range and displays the 5th-95th percentiles. You can change the filter to view the full range of data (Min to Max), including outliers, in your chart through the following procedure.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the histogram or heatmap chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. From the Default filter drop-down list in the Filters section, select Min to Max.
  5. Click Save.

Drill down to display detail metrics in a chart

After selecting metrics to display in your chart, you can drill down to display detail metrics by key. Detail metrics provide top key values for a specific time interval. You can view up to 20 key values in a chart. A key can be a client IP address, hostname, method, URI, referrer, or more. For example, if your chart displays a total count for HTTP Requests, you can drill down by client to view the IP addresses that sent the most requests to your web servers.

  1. In the Details section, click Drill down by <None>, where <None> is the name of the detail metric currently displayed in your chart.
  2. Select a detail metric from the drop-down list.
    Note:If you have more than one source selected in your metric set, such as two devices, the sources will be automatically combined into an ad hoc source group as you drill down. You cannot deselect the Combine Sources checkbox. To view detail metrics per source, you must remove a source from the metric set and then click Add Source to create a new metric set.
    If detail metric data for a common key is available for all the metrics in a metric set, then the detail metrics automatically appear in the drop-down list, as shown in the following figure. If a detail metric in the list is grayed out, data is unavailable for all of the metrics in that metric set. For example, client, server, and URI data are available for both HTTP Requests and HTTP Responses metrics in the metric set.

  3. You can filter detail metric keys with an approximate match, regular expression (regex), or exact match through one of the following steps:
    1. In the Filter field, select the icon to display keys by an approximate match or with regex.
      Note:You must omit forward slashes with regex in the approximate match filter.
    2. In the Filter field, select the = icon to display keys by an exact match.
      Note:Regex is unsupported in the exact match filter.
  4. Optional: In the top results field, enter the number of keys that you want to display. These keys will have the highest values.
  5. To remove a drill-down selection, click the x icon.
    Note:You can display an exact key match per metric, as shown in the following figure. Click the detail metric name (for example, All Methods) to select a specific detail metric key (for example, GET) from the drop-down list. If a key appears gray (for example, PROPFIND), detail metric data is unavailable for that specific key. You can also type a key that is not in the drop-down list.

Regular expression filter examples

Regular expression (regex) is supported in the Metric Explorer when drilling down for detail metrics. The following examples will help you create simple and effective regex strings for filtering detail metrics keys, such as IP addresses.

Note:In the ExtraHop system, regex is most effective when you want to filter metric data by a parameter contained within the metric key, such as a number within any IP address. Regex is not effective for filtering for details by an exact match, such as filtering to specify an exact IP address.
Chart Scenario Regex filter How it works
Compare HTTP status codes 200 to 404. (200|404) Matches 200 and 404 codes where the | symbol serves as an OR function.
Display all HTTP 400 and 500 error codes occurring on your network. ^[45] Matches a 4 or 5 in the status code.
Display any IP address with a 187. 187. Matches 1, 8, and 7 characters in the IP address.
Review all IP addresses containing 187.18. 187\.18\. Matches 187 and the character . that follows the 187. For example, this filter returns results for 187.18.0.0.0, 180.187.0.0.0, or 187.180.0.0.0/16.
Display any IP address except 187.18.197.150. ^(.(?!187.18.197.150))*$ Matches anything except 187.18.197.150.
Change drill-down chart labels

Each chart provides an option to display available detail metric key values by hostname or origin. If the hostname or origin value is unavailable, the IP address automatically displays.

Note:This option is not available for candlestick, histogram, heatmap, and status charts.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Labels section, select one of the following options:
    • Hostname if available. Displays the hostname for each device is collected from naming protocols such as DNS and DHCP. If you assigned a custom name to a device, the custom name displays instead of the hostname. Deselect Show custom device names to always display the hostname.
    • Origin if available. Displays the origin for each request, which is collected from values in the HTTP origin header fields such as “X-Forwarded-For” or “X-Client-IP.”
  4. Click Save.

Drill down on a device group

If you are displaying a device group in a chart, but you want to view metrics per device within the group, you can drill down by group member.

Note:If you drill down by group member in a chart, you cannot drill down by a key for those group members. To see detail metrics by key for one or more group members, we recommend creating another chart with specific devices selected as the source.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Make sure a device group is selected as your source. For more information about how to select sources and metrics, see the Edit a chart widget section.
  3. In the Details field, click Drill down by <None>, where <None> is the name of the detail metric currently displayed in your chart. Then select Group Member.
  4. In the top results field, enter the number of group members that you want to display. These devices will have the highest values.
  5. To remove the drill-down selection, click the x icon.

Change chart title

The chart title, which is automatically determined by which source and metrics you select for your chart, can be changed to a custom title.

  1. Click the chart title and select Rename.
  2. In the Display custom title field, type a new chart title.
  3. Click Save.
    Note:To display the automatic title again, select Display default title.

Custom metric labels

You can change the default metric label in a chart to a custom label. For example, you can change "Network Bytes" to "Throughput."

Note:The ability to rename a metric label is not available for box plot, candlestick, heatmap, or status charts.
Custom metric labels only apply to individual charts. A custom label persists if you complete one of the following actions:
  • Add new sources and metrics to your chart
  • Copy the chart to another dashboard
  • Share the dashboard with another user
To prevent the mislabeling or inaccuracy of a custom label when metric data changes, a custom label clears if you change the following data parameters:
  • Source
  • Metric
  • Data calculation. For example, a custom label clears if you change the data calculation from median to percentile. But a custom label persists if you change a count metric to a rate.
  • Drill-downs. For example, the custom label for a top-level metric, such as"Requests," clears when you drill down by key, such as clients.
    Note:If you change the label for a metric after drilling down, and there is no data available for that metric or key, then the top-level label displays.
    Tip:Type the variable, $KEY, into the Display custom name field to change how the drill-down key displays within the custom label. For example:
    • Type $KEY errors to display "172.22.1.81 errors"
    • Type [$KEY] errors to display "[172.22.1.81] errors"
Change a metric label in a chart legend

You can rename the label for metric, which is displayed in a chart legend.

Note:The custom metric label in a chart is not applied globally across the ExtraHop system.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
    Note:For more information, see the Edit a chart widget section.
  2. In the preview pane of the Metric Explorer, click the metric label in the legend, and select Rename.
    Note:You cannot directly edit the labels for delta or trend series. You can change the label for a top-level metric, which all apply to the delta or trend series.
  3. In the Display custom label field, type a custom name.The custom series name must be unique from other series in the chart.
    Note:For detail metrics, the custom label is prepended to the key. You can preview how the custom label appears for all top keys displayed in your chart. For more information, see the Custom metric labels section.
  4. Click Save. A custom label is saved or discarded when the chart changes are saved or discarded.

Change chart appearance to grayscale

Charts display data in color by default, but all charts provide the option to display data in grayscale.

Note:If your chart contains an alert that is assigned to metric data, and that alert status is active, the chart data displays in color and will not display in grayscale. For example, data in the status chart will rarely be displayed in grayscale.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. From the Chart style drop-down list in the Appearance section, select Grayscale (except alert status).

Change chart units

Each chart provides an option to specify the units and scale for data in your chart. You can convert bytes to bits, convert linear scale to log scale, and select the suffix notation from base 2 or base 10.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. Optional: In the Units section, select Convert bytes to bits.
  4. Optional: In the Units section, select Set log scale for y-axis.
    Note:This option is unavailable for histogram charts.
  5. Optional: In the Units section, from the Suffix notation drop-down list, select Base 2 (Ki = 1024) or Base 10 (K = 1000).
    Note:This option is unavailable for histogram and heatmap charts.

Hide chart legend

The area, column, line, line & column, and pie charts provide an option to hide a legend.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Legend section, select Hide legend.

Sort chart data

The bar, list, and value charts provide a sorting option that sorts data by the order in which the metrics were added to your chart, by the detail metric key name, or by the data value (highest to lowest, for example).

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. From the Sort metric by down-down list in the Sort field, select Order Added, Key Name, or Value.
  4. Click Save.

Change percentile precision

The pie chart provides a percentile precision option that specifies the decimal precision, or the number of digits, displayed in your chart. Percentile precision is useful for displaying ratios of data, especially for service-level agreements (SLA) that might require a precise data for reporting.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the pie chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. In the Units section, select Show percents instead of counts.
  5. From the Percent precision drop-down list, select the decimal precision value, such as 0.00% or 0.000%.
  6. Click Save.

Include sparklines

The list and value charts provide an option to include a sparkline for each metric selected in the chart. The sparkline is a small, gray chart that looks similar to an area chart and shows how data changes over time.

  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Select the list or value chart.
  3. Click Options.
  4. In the Layout section, select Include sparklines.
  5. Click Save.

Display alert status in a chart

The list and value charts provide an option to display data with an alert status color. Different colors indicate the severity of the configured alert. For example, you can configure a value chart to display the metric data in red when an alert threshhold is crossed.

For more information about creating and configuring alerts, see the Alert settings section.
Note:Colors for the most severe alert assigned to the source and metric will display in the chart by default.
  1. Click the chart title and then select Edit.
  2. Click Options.
  3. In the Labels section, select Use color to show alert status.
  4. Click Save.

Chart types

Chart types effectively control how your data is displayed in a dashboard. The Metric Explorer has several chart types, some of which carry restrictions. For example, you can only display dataset metric types in a heatmap or histogram chart.
Tip:Hover your mouse over each chart type in the ExtraHop Web UI to learn about any metric or configuration requirements.
Learn more about each chart type in the following sections:
Chart type Description Compatible metrics
Area chart Displays metric values as a line that connects data points over time, with the area between the line and axis filled in with color. Any metric type.
Bar chart Displays the total value of metric data as horizontal bars. Any metric type.
Box plot chart Displays variability for a distribution of metric data as horizontal lines that contain three or five data points. Dataset and sampleset metric types.
Candlestick chart Displays data calculations for a distribution of metric values over time. Dataset metric type and high-precision, or 1-second, network (L2) count metrics.
Column chart Displays metric data as vertical columns over a selected time interval. Any metric type.
Heatmap chart Displays a distribution of metric data over time, where color represents a concentration of data. Dataset metric type only.
Histogram chart Dsplays a distribution of metric data as vertical bars, or bins. Dataset metric type only.
Line chart Displays metric values as data points in a line over time. Any metric type.
Line & column chart Displays metric values as a line, which connects a series of data points over time, with the option to display another metric as a column chart underneath the line chart. Any metric type.
List chart Displays metric data as a list with optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Any metric type.
Pie chart Displays metric data as a portion or percentage of a whole. Count, maximum, snapshot metric types only.
Status chart Displays metric values in a column chart and the status of an alert assigned to both the source and metric in the chart. You can only select one source and metric to display in this chart.
Table chart Displays metric values in a table. Any metric type.
Value chart Displays the total value for one or more metrics. Any metric type.
Area chart

The area chart displays metric values as a line that connects data points over time, with the area between the line and axis filled in with color. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual line, or a series. Each series is stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of the data. Select the area chart to see how the accumulation of multiple metric data points over time contribute to a total value. For example, an area chart can reveal how various protocols contribute to total protocol activity.

Tip:You can isolate individual series in the chart by clicking on the legend.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Bar chart

The bar chart displays the total value of metric data as horizontal bars. Select the bar chart when you want to compare the data for more than one metric for a selected time interval.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Box plot chart

The box plot chart displays variability for a distribution of metric data. Each horizontal line in the box plot includes three or five data points. With five data points, the line contains a body bar, a vertical tick mark, an upper shadow line, and a lower shadow line. With three data points, the line contains a vertical tick mark, an upper shadow, and lower shadow.

Tip:Hover over the line to view all percentiles and count values (total number of events that occurred) for the chart.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with the dataset and sampleset metric types. You can display the following data calculations in this chart:

Summary
For dataset metrics, the Summary displays the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentile values. The line contains five data points. The body represents the range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile. The middle tick mark represents the 50th percentile (median). The upper shadow line represents the 95th percentile. The lower shadow represents the 5th percentile.

For sampleset metrics, the Summary displays the +/-1 standard deviation and the mean values. This line contains a vertical tick mark to represent the mean, and an upper and lower shadow line to represent standard deviation values.

Percentile...
For dataset metrics, the Percentile displays either three or five custom percentiles. Each percentile you enter must be separated by a comma and a space. If you specify three data points, the line represents the range of percentile values. The middle tick mark represents the middle value. The upper shadow represents the top range for your selection. The lower shadow is the bottom range of your selection.
Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Candlestick chart

The candlestick chart displays variability for a distribution of metric data over time. Vertical lines at each time interval displays three or five data points. If the line has five data points, it contains a body, middle tick mark, an upper shadow line, and a lower shadow line. If the line has three data points, it contains a middle tick mark. Select the candlestick chart to view the variability of data calculations for a specific period of time.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with the dataset metric type and high-precision, or 1-second, network (L2) count metrics.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include:

Summary
Summary displays the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentile values for dataset metrics. The line will contain five data points. The body represents the range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile. The middle tick mark represents the 50th percentile (median). The upper shadow line represents the 95th percentile. The lower shadow represents the 5th percentile.
Percentiles...
Percentile displays either three or five custom percentiles for dataset metrics. Each percentile you enter must be separated by a comma and space. If you specify three data points, the line represents the range of percentile values. The middle tick mark represents the middle value. The upper shadow represents the top range for your selection. The lower shadow is the bottom range of your selection.
Rate summary
The Rate Summary displays the maximum, minimum, and average rates for the following 1-second network bytes and packets metrics:
  • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
  • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
  • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)

The upper and lower parts of the line represent the range from the maximum and minimum rates. A middle tick mark represents the average rate.

Tip:Hover over a line to view the values of percentiles and count (total number of events that occurred) for a data point.
Column chart

The column chart displays metric data as vertical columns over a selected time interval. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual column, or a series. Each series is stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of the data. Select the column chart to compare how accumulation of multiple metric data points at a specific time point contribute to a total value.

Tip:Click the legend to isolate individual series.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Heatmap chart

The heatmap chart displays a distribution of metric data over time, where color represents a concentration of data. The heatmap legend displays the color gradient that corresponds to the data range in the chart. For example, the darker color on the heatmap indicates a higher concentration of data points. Select the heatmap when you want to identify patterns in the distribution of data.

Note:The dashboard properties theme, such as Light, Dark, or Space, affects whether a darker or lighter color indicates a higher concentration of data points.
The chart displays a default data range between the 5th and 95th percentiles, which filters outliers from the distribution. Outliers can skew the scale of data displayed in your chart, making it more difficult to spot trends and patterns for the majority of your data. However, you can choose to view the full range of data by changing the default filter in the Options tab. For more information, see the Filter outliers section.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart requires a dataset metric type only.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include include percentiles.
Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Histogram chart

The histogram chart displays a distribution of metric data as vertical bars, or bins. The default view displays a data range from the 5th to 95th percentile (5th-95th), which filters outliers from the distribution. The minimum to maximum (Min-Max) view displays the full data range. Click the magnifying glass in the upper right corner of the chart to toggle between the two views. Select the histogram chart to view the shape of how data is distributed.

Note:Your toggle selection (between the 5th-95th and Min-Max views) will persist for your chart, but not for the users that you shared your dashboard and chart with. To set a persistent toggle selection before sharing a dashboard, see the Filter outliers section.

Data is distributed into bins on a linear or log scale. First, the data range automatically determines whether the chart has a linear or log scale. Then, data is placed into bins. When the data range spans several orders of magnitude, data is placed into bins on a log scale, and Min-Max (log) appears in the upper right corner of the chart. Typically, the 5th to 95th percentile data range does not require a log scale.

Click-and-drag to zoom in on multiple bins or a specific bin. Click the magnifying glass again in the upper right corner of the chart to zoom out to the original view (either 5th-95th or Min to Max).

Note:Zooming in to view a custom time interval does not change the global or region time interval.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart requires a dataset metric type only.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include include percentiles.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Line chart

The line chart type displays metric values as data points in a line over time. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric is displayed as an individual line, or a series. Each series overlaps. Select the line chart to compare changes over time.

Tip:Click the legend to isolate individual series.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Line & column chart

The line & column chart type displays metric values as a line, which connects data points over time, with the option to display another metric as a column chart underneath the line chart. If your chart contains more than one metric (for example, HTTP Requests and HTTP Errors), you can select Display as Columns to display one of the metrics as a column chart underneath the line chart. Select the line & column chart to compare different metrics at different scales in one chart. For example, you can view error rates and the total number of HTTP responses in one chart.

Note:Columns are displayed in the color red by default. To remove the red color, click Options and clear Display columns in red.
Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

List chart

The list chart displays metric data as a list with optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Select the list chart to view long lists of metric values, such as detail metrics.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Pie chart

The pie chart displays metric data as a portion or percentage of a whole. If your chart contains more than one metric, data for each metric will be represented as single slice, or series, in the pie chart. Select the pie chart to compare the metric values that are mutually exclusive, such as status code detail metrics for the top-level HTTP Response metric.

You can configure your pie chart to display as a donut chart by selecting Show total value from the Option tab.

To set a specific number of digits displayed in your chart, see the Change percentile precision section.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is requires a count, maximum, snapshot metric type only.

You can only view rates and count in this chart.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Status chart

The status chart type displays metric values in a column chart and the status of an alert assigned to both the source and metric in the chart. The color of each column represents the most severe alert status of the configured alert for that time interval. Select the status chart to see how data and the alert status for your metric change over time.

For more information about configuring alerts, see the Alert settings section.

To view the status of all of the alerts associated with the selected metric category, click Show Related Alerts. A list of alerts will then be displayed underneath the column chart.

Available metrics for this chart

You can only select one source and metric to display in this chart. This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean. However, you cannot display a summary of percentiles (from the 5th to 95th percentiles).

Note:This chart does not support baselines.
Table chart

The table chart displays metric values across rows and columns in a table. Add rows to the table by selecting more than one source. Add columns to the table by adding metrics.

Available metrics for this chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type. You can only select one metric set to display in the table. A metric set contains one type of source, such as applications or devices, and metrics.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Value chart

The value chart type displays the total value for one or more metrics. If you select more than one metric, metric values are displayed side-by-side. You can also add optional sparklines that represent data changes over time. Select the value chart to see the total value of important metrics, such as the total number of HTTP errors occurring on your network.

Available metrics for a chart

This chart is compatible with any metric type.

The types of data calculations that you can display in this chart include rates, percentiles, and the mean.

Note:This chart does not support baselines or threshold lines.
Alert history widget

The alert history widget displays details about active alerts that are assigned to a metric source. You can configure the alert history widget with the Metric Explorer.

Note:The alert history widget can only display up to 40 alerts. If you have more than 40 active alerts, click Show All Alerts in the bottom row of the table.
Available metrics for this widget

This widget requires metric sources only. You cannot add metrics to the alert history chart.

Edit a text box widget

The text box widget enables you to type and display custom text in a dashboard region. It is a helpful tool for adding notes about a chart or data in a dashboard.

The text box widget supports the Markdown syntax, which enables you to format text and add metric variables that display updated metric data dynamically. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax that converts plain text into HTML with non-alphabetic characters, such as “#” or “*”. A new text box widget contains sample text that is already formatted in Markdown.
  1. Open the Metric Explorer window by doing one of the following steps:
    • On the Dashboards page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. Click anywhere within the text box widget.
    • Click the title and then select Edit.
  2. In the Metric Explorer: Edit Text Widget window, type and edit text in the left Editor pane.
    The HTML output text dynamically displays in the right Preview pane.
  3. Click Save.

Format text in Markdown syntax

The following table shows common Markdown formats that are supported in the text box widget.

Note:Additional Markdown format examples are provided in the GitHub Guides: Mastering Markdown. However, not all Markdown syntax formatting options are supported in the text box widget.
Format Description Example
Headings Place a number sign (#) before your text to format headings. The level of heading is determined by the amount of number signs. ####Example H4 heading
Unordered lists Place a single asterisk (*) before your text to format bulleted lists. * Example 1 * Example 2
Ordered lists Place a single number and period (1.) before your text to format numbered lists. 1. Example 1 2. Example 2
Bold Place double asterisks before and after your text to format bold. **bold text**
Italics Place an underscore before and after your text to format italics. _italicized text_
Hyperlinks Place link text in brackets before the URL in parentheses. Or type your URL.
Note: Links to external websites open in a new browser tab. Links within the ExtraHop Web UI,such as dashboards or custom pages, open in the current browser tab.

[Visit our home page](https://www.extrahop.com)

https://www.extrahop.com

Blockquotes Place a right angle bracket and a space before your text to format a blockquote.

On the ExtraHop website:

> Access the live demo and review case studies.

Monospace font Place a backtick (`) before and after your text to format in a monospace font. `example code block`
Note:Adding emojis in Markdown syntax is unsupported. However, copying and pasting a Unicode block emoji is supported in the text box widget. For more information, see Unicode Emoji Chart website.

Add images in Markdown syntax

You can add images to the text box widget by linking to them. Make sure your image is hosted on a network that is accessible to the Discover appliance.

Links to images must be specified in the following format:

![<alt_text>](<file_path>)

Where <alt_text> is the alternative text and <file_path> is the path of the image. For example:

![Graph](/images/graph_1.jpg)
Note:You also can add images by encoding them to Base64. For more information, see the following post on the ExtraHop customer forum, “Putting Images in Text Boxes.”

Add metrics in Markdown syntax

You can add metric variables to a text box widget by writing metric queries in Markdown.

The Markdown format for writing metric queries is:

%%metric:<definition>%%

Where <definition> is replaced with a JSON-defined structure that is based on the ExtraHop REST API query structure.

Note:The following metric queries are unsupported in the text box widget:
  • Time-series queries
  • Mean calculations
  • Multiple object_ids
  • Multiple metric_spec
  • Multiple percentiles

A metric query must contain the following parameters:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec

To retrieve the object_type, metric_spec, and metric_category values for a metric name:

  1. Click Settings
  2. Click Metric Catalog
  3. Type the metric name in the search field
  4. Select the metric, and look for the values in the REST API Parameters section.

For more information, see the Metric Catalog section.

You can retrieve object_ids from the URL that you are browsing.

Object Type URL Parameter
Application applicationOID=
Network networkOID=
Group deviceGroupOID=
Device deviceOID=

Metric variable examples

The following examples show you how to write top-level metric queries for application, device, and network objects, and detail metric queries.

Application queries

To specify the All Activity object, the object_ids is “0”.

This example query shows how you can retrieve HTTP metrics from the All Activity object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP requests and [value] HTTP responses from All Activity.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%HTTP requests and
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from All Activity.
Device queries

You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. To retrieve metrics for a specific device, specify the device object ID number in object_ids. To retrieve the device object ID (deviceOid), search for the device object in the ExtraHop global search. Select the device from your search results. The “deviceOid=” value will be embedded in the URL query string.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device client object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [8],
"metric_category": "dns_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device server object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [156],
"metric_category": "dns_server",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.
Network queries

To specify All Networks, the object_type is “capture” and the object_ids is “0.” To specify a specific VLAN, the object_type is “vlan” and the object_ids is the VLAN number.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "net","metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for a specific VLAN and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from VLAN 3.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [3],
"metric_category": "net",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from VLAN 3.
Group queries

To specify a group, the object_type is “activity_group” or “device_group.” You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. The object_ids for the specific group must be retrieved from the REST API Explorer.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "activity_group",
"object_ids": [17],
"metric_category": "http_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.
Detail metric queries

If you want to retrieve detail metrics, your metric query should contain additional key parameters, such as key1 and key2:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec
    • name
    • key1
    • key2
Note:The key parameters act as a filter for displaying detail metric results.
For built-in detail metrics, you can retrieve detail metric parameters from the Metric Catalog. For example, type HTTP Responses by URI, and then look at the parameter values in the REST API Parameters section.
Note:You must supply the object_ids in your query.

This example shows how to retrieve HTTP requests by URI for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"object_type": "application", 
"object_ids": [0],  
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}] 
}%%

This example query shows you how to retrieve HTTP requests by URIs that contain a key value for “pagead2” for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0], 
"metric_specs": [ 
{ 
"name": "req", 
"key1": "/pagead2/" 
} 
] 
}%%

This example query shows how to retrieve count metrics for all networks and displays the following output: “Getting [value] detail ICA metrics on all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name":"custom_count",
"key1":"network-app-byte-detail-ICA"
}]
}%%
detail ICA metrics on all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve a custom dataset statistic with topn keys and percentiles, and displays the following output: “The fifth percentile is: [value].

The fifth percentile is:
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [1],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name": "custom_dset",
"key1": "myCustomDatasetDetail",
"key2": "/10.10.7/",
"calc_type": "percentiles",
"percentiles": [5]
}]
}%%
.
Note:Sampleset metrics are unsupported in the text box widget. For example, adding the “calc_type”: “mean” parameter to your text box query is unsupported.

Edit a dashboard layout

Add and arrange the placement of regions and widgets on your dashboards.
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Click and drag dashboard components, such as a region or widgets, from the bottom of the page to add them to your custom dashboard.
    Note:For more information, see the Add a region, Delete a region, Add a widget, and Delete a widget sections.
  3. To arrange dashboard components, click and drag the edge of a region or widget to resize them. Click the header of a region or widget to drag them into a different location.
    Note:If dashboard components overlap, they will be outlined in red. You must click and drag the sides of the widgets and regions to make room.
  4. Click Remove Extra Space to remove the empty vertical white space around widgets.
    Note:Empty vertical white space will be removed from every region on the dashboard.
  5. After making your changes, click Exit Layout Mode.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.

Add a region

  1. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. From the bottom of the page, click and drag a region onto the dashboard.
  3. Click the Exit Layout Mode button in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
    You can now add widgets to your empty region and rename it. When you are finished modifying your region, click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.

Copy a region

You can copy a region and paste it into another dashboard or new dashboard. All of the widgets in that region will be copied.
  1. Click the region title.
  2. Hover over Copy to… to expand the menu and make one of the following selections:
    • If you are copying the region to a new dashboard, select New Dashboard. In the Dashboard Properties window, in the Title section, type a name for the new dashboard.
      Tip:You can edit dashboard properties at any time. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties section.
    • If you are copying the region to an existing dashboard, select the dashboard from the menu. The dashboard page opens and displays the location of the copied region. Drag and drop the region to a desired location and then click Exit Dashboard Layout.
      Note:If the copied region is placed on top of another region, it will appear red, indicating that regions are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. Move the region to a new location until it is no longer red.

Delete a region

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. On the region you want to delete, click Delete.
  3. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard.

Rename a region

  1. Do one of the following steps:
    • Click the region title and select Rename.
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. In the region toolbar, click Rename.
  2. Type the new name for your region.
  3. Click Save.

Modify sources

You can change the sources for charts and widgets within a region without opening the Metric Explorer for each chart. This feature helps you to quickly update a copied dashboard.

  1. Complete one of the following steps:
    • Click the region title and select Modify Sources
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. In the region toolbar, click Modify Sources.
  2. In the Modify Sources window, select the object that you want to change from the list on the right and choose a new metric source.
    Tip:You can also change the title of the region by clicking on the region name to the right.
  3. Click Save Dashboard.

Add a widget

  1. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Drag-and-drop one of the following widget types onto the region.
    Chart
    This widget is user-defined. For information, see Edit a chart widget section.
    Alert History
    This widget displays the alert history information about the objects in the list. Click Add metric source to customize the alert history.
    Activity Groups
    This widget displays a list of all activity during the specified time interval and cannot be configured.
    Text Box
    This widget provides a space for typing and displaying custom text in a dashboard region. You can format text with the Markdown syntax. For more information, see the Edit a text box widget section.
    Note:If you place a widget on top of another widget, it will appear red, indicating that widgets are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. To create more space in the region for the new widget, expand the region size and then move the widget to a new location until it is no longer red.
  3. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to Dashboards page.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.

Copy a widget

  1. Click the widget title.
  2. Hover over Copy to… to expand the menu and make one of the following selections:
    • If you are copying the widget to a new dashboard, select New Dashboard. In the Dashboard Properties window, in the Title section, type a name for the new dashboard.
      Tip:You can edit dashboard properties at any time. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties section.
    • If you are copying the widget to an existing dashboard, select the dashboard from the menu. The dashboard page opens and displays the location of the copied widget within a new region. Rename the region and then click Exit Dashboard Layout.
      Note:If the copied region is placed on top of another region, it will appear red, indicating that regions are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. Move the region to a new location until it is no longer red.

Delete a widget

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the widget and select Delete.
  3. Click Delete Widget.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
  1. Click the widget or chart title and then select Print.
    The print preview appears in a new window.
  2. Click Print Widget.

Change dashboard properties

After you created a dashboard, you can modify the metadata that is associated with that dashboard through the dashboard properties options.

  1. On the Dashboards page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Dashboard Properties.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, you can modify the following fields:
    Title
    Change the dashboard name.
    Author
    Change the author name.
    Description
    Change the description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    Change the URL for the dashboard. By default, the permalink, also known as a short code, is a five-character unique identifier that appears after /Dashboard in the URL. You can change the short code to a friendly name.
    Note:The permalink can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: ._-+)[]. The name cannot contain spaces.
    Sharing
    To share a dashboard with users who can view and edit, click the link. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Editors
    View the list of ExtraHop Web UI users with editing access to the dashboard. To change the users, click Sharing.
    Theme
    Select Light, Dark, or Space to change the colors and appearance of the dashboard.
  3. Click Save.

Share a dashboard

You can share custom dashboards with other ExtraHop users and groups and decide whether to give them view or edit access. User group information is imported from LDAP (such as OpenLDAP or Active Directory).

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the dashboard page and select Share.
  4. To grant viewing access to specific users or groups, do one of the following steps:
    • To allow specific users or groups to view the dashboard, click Only specified users or groups can view or edit. In the Specify users and groups field, type the name of a user or group, and select the name from the drop-down list. Select Can view and click Add User or Add User Group. Repeat this process for additional users and groups.
    • To allow all users and groups to view the dashboard, select All users and groups can view; only specified users and groups can edit.
  5. To grant editing access to specific users or groups, do the following steps:
    1. In the Specify users and groups field, type the name of a user or group.
    2. Select the name from the drop-down list.
    3. Select Can edit.
    4. Click Add User or Add User Group.
    5. Repeat the process for additional users and groups.
    Note:Users and groups that can edit a dashboard can also view the dashboard. You can change the view or edit access for users that you have shared your dashboard with at any time.
  6. Click Save.
    Tip:
    • To remove a specific user or group, click the delete (X) icon next to the name.
    • To remove all users and groups, click Remove All.

Remove access to a dashboard

You can modify the view and edit access privileges for dashboards that you granted to specific users and groups.
  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page and select Share.
  4. Modify the access privileges by selecting from the following options:
    • Click the red delete (x) icon next to the user or group name to remove all access.
    • Modify the access privileges by selecting either Can edit or Can view from the drop-down list next to the user or group name.
  5. Click Save.

View a dashboard

There are several ways to view information in a dashboard and present dashboard information to others. For example, you can opt to display hover-over descriptions of protocols and metrics in dashboards. You can also select between two presentation options to view dashboards: presentation mode or widget slideshow. Alert statuses can also be viewed in dashboards through widgets.

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. To see definitions of the protocol and metrics displayed in charts, do the following steps:
    1. Click the chart title or legend label.
    2. Hover over Descriptions. The protocol and metric definition will be displayed.
      Note:You can also view descriptions in charts that display traffic from individual ports. Descriptions are provided for protocols that the Discover appliance parses.
  3. To present a full-screen display of your dashboard, do the following steps:
    1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page.
    2. Select Presentation Mode.
    3. Click Exit Presentation Mode in the upper right corner to return to the previous display.
      Note:You can open a dashboard in presentation mode directly by appending /presentation to the URL. For example: https://<extrahop_ip>/extrahop/#/Dashboard/437/presentation.
  4. To view a dashboard as a widget slideshow, do the following steps:
    1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page.
    2. Select Widget Slideshow.
    3. Select a time increment to view a slideshow of widgets within the current region.
    4. Click the x icon in the upper right corner of the screen to return to the previous display.
  5. To display alert statuses for metrics, you can configure the status chart or alert status display options in dashboard charts such as the list and value chart. For more information, see the Status chart and Display alert status in a chart sections.

Organize dashboards

To organize dashboards in the dashboard dock (left pane), you can create folders, copy dashboards, filter dashboards, and sort dashboards in ascending, descending, or custom order.

The following fields and controls are available in the dashboard dock.
Filter dashboards... field
Enables you to limit the displayed list of items.
Dashboard sort buttons
Enables you to switch between ascending, descending, and custom sort views. For more information, see the Sort dashboards section.
Dashboard Inbox
Displays a list of dashboards that have been shared with you by other users. The Dashboard Inbox appears only if the inbox contains one or more dashboards. To share your dashboard with others, see the Share a dashboard section.
My Dashboards
Displays a list of dashboards that you created. To organize your dashboards within custom folders, you can create a folder, add a dashboard to a folder, and arrange folders within the dashboard dock. You can keep these dashboards private or share them with other users. Editing access to your dashboard can be granted on a per-user or user group basis. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
System Dashboards
Displays the default built-in dashboards that provide you with a high-level overview of everything happening on your network in real-time. The two system dashboards, which are the Activity dashboard and the Network dashboard, cannot be deleted, modified, or shared. For more information, see the Types of dashboards section.
New Dashboard
Enables you to create a new dashboard.

Create a folder for dashboards

  1. In the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu.
  2. Click New Folder.
    Note:To add a new folder through a keyboard shortcut, type N then F.
  3. Type a name for the folder and click Save.

Add a dashboard to a folder

  1. In the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu.
  2. Click Edit Dock.
    Tip:To add a new folder through a keyboard shortcut, type O then D.
  3. Drag-and-drop dashboards that you created into a folder.
    Note:If dashboards are sorted in ascending or descending order, the drag-and-drop functionality is disabled. To enable this functionality again, click the sort icon in the upper right header of the dashboard dock until the custom sort icon displays.
  4. Click the Exit Edit Mode icon in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock to save your changes and exit edit mode.
    Note:You cannot click-and-drag system dashboards or shared dashboards to a new folder.

Arrange dashboard folders

To change the location of folders in the dashboard dock:
  1. Click the command menu in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock.
  2. Click Edit Dock.
  3. Click and drag the folders to change their location.

Copy a dashboard

  1. Select a dashboard.
  2. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the dashboard page.
  3. Click Copy and do one of the following steps:
    • Click Keep Sources to maintain chart and widget configurations in the new dashboard.
    • Click Modify Sources to update charts and widgets with new sources in the new dashboard.
      1. In the Modify Sources window, click the source name.
      2. Search for a new source (either an application, device, or network) that you want to replace the original source with.
      3. Click Create Dashboard.
      Tip:You can also change the title of the dashboard by clicking on the pencil icon next to the dashboard name.
  4. To change the new dashboard title, select the dashboard and update its dashboard properties. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties topic.
    Note:You cannot drag a dashboard to a folder to copy it.

Sort dashboards

You can reorganize the order in which dashboards appear in the dashboards dock.

In the top right corner of the dashboards dock, click the sort icon.
The dashboard will be reorganized according to one of the following sorting modes:
Ascending
Lists dashboards in ascending alphabetical order.
Descending
Lists dashboards in descending alphabetical order.
Custom Order
Lists dashboards according to a customized order.

To modify the order, in the bottom corner of the dashboard dock, click the command menu, and then click Edit Dock. Make sure that the sorting mode is set to Custom Order, and then click and drag to reorganize dashboards and folders. You can also move dashboards from one folder to another; however, you cannot move dashboards into or out of the System Dashboards folder.

Filter dashboards

You can filter the dashboards that are displayed in the dashboard dock to locate a specific dashboard.

In the dashboard dock, in the Filter dashboards... field, type all or part of a dashboard name or folder.
Only dashboards or folders that contain the specified string will appear in the dashboard dock.

Export dashboard data

You can export data from charts or tables to a CSV or Excel file. You cannot export content from a text box widget or a heatmap chart.

  1. Click the chart or table title that you want to export.
  2. Select Export to CSV or Export to Excel.
The file will be downloaded to your local computer.

In the Discover appliance, you can print dashboards from your browser or from the command menu on the Dashboard page.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner and then select Print.
    Tip:To print through a keyboard shortcut, type pp.
    The print preview appears in a new window.
  2. Click Print Page.

In the Command appliance, you can print dashboards from your browser. You can also export dashboards directly to a PDF file by performing the following steps.

  1. Click the command menu icon in the upper right corner of the page and select Export to PDF.
    Tip:To access the export to PDF option through a keyboard shortcut, type pp.
  2. Type a custom name for your PDF file or accept the default name.
  3. Depending on the arrangement of widgets and the width of your dashboard, choose one of the following page width options:
    Narrow
    Displays large text in chart titles and labels, but provides less space for displaying chart data. Long chart titles and labels might be truncated.
    Medium
    (Recommended) Displays an optimized view of chart titles, legends, and data.
    Wide
    Displays small text in chart titles and labels, but provides more space for displaying chart data.
  4. Depending on the number of regions in your dashboard, choose one of the following pagination options:
    Single page
    Displays the entire dashboard on a single, continuous page.
    Page break per region
    Displays the dashboard by region, separated with a page break for each region.
  5. Click Export to PDF.
    Note:The process for generating a PDF might take several seconds.
    The PDF file will download to your local computer. Each PDF file includes the dashboard title and time interval. Click View report on ExtraHop to open the original dashboard set to the time interval specified in the PDF file.

Delete a dashboard

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page, and select Delete.
  2. Click Delete Dashboard in the Confirm delete dialog box.

Compare metric deltas

From the Dashboards page, you can compare a single metric data across two time intervals.

Delta comparison is only available for dashboards. If you save a comparison and navigate to another area of the Discover appliance, the comparison will be disabled temporarily. When you return to the Dashboards area, the delta comparison you saved will be enabled again.
Note:Dynamic baselines will not appear on a chart while comparing metric deltas.

To create a delta comparison for a dashboard region:

  1. Locate the dashboard region containing the metrics you want to compare.
  2. Click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
    Note:For more information, see the Time Selector section.
  3. In the Time Interval tab, click Compare.
  4. In the Delta Comparison tab, select the time interval to use for comparison to the original time interval.
  5. Click Save.
    A new chart with a delta comparison time interval will be placed on the original chart.

  6. To remove the delta comparison, complete the following steps:
    1. Click the time interval to open the Time Selector.
    2. Click Remove Delta.
    3. Click Save.

Drill down on dashboard metrics

If you see interesting activity in a dashboard chart, you can explore which devices or factors contributed to the activity. Drill down on a top-level metric to view a page containing detail metric values for that activity by key, such as clients, servers, URIs, methods, and status codes.

  1. Click on a metric label in the chart legend.
    Note:Drill down by chart legend is unavailable for the box plot, candlestick, heatmap, and histogram charts.
  2. In the Drill down by… field, select a key. You will navigate to a detail page that contains a table of metric values keys from a topnset.
    Note:You can view up to 1,000 key values in a topnset.
    Note:For drill-down metric values, which are not polled automatically, you will see the snapshot of the global time interval, which includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the metric or record query was last polled. To reload the metrics for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display.
  3. To pivot between related detail metrics, select a different key in the left pane.
  4. To filter keys from the detail metric table, type a search string in the filter field. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
    Note:Regular expression is supported in the Metric Explorer. For more information, see the Regular expression filter examples section.
  5. Optional: If available, you can drill down again by another key to view a topntset. Select the key from the filter drop-down list next to the filter field. For example, if you are viewing HTTP requests by server, select a method, such as CONNECT, from the filter drop-down list. You will then see a topntset of HTTP CONNECT requests by server in the table.
  6. To change the data calculation of metric values, do one of the following steps:
    • If you have a count metric selected, click Count and select Average Rate. For more information, see Display rates or counts in a chart.
    • If you have a dataset metric selected, click Mean and select Summary. When you select Summary, you can view the mean and the standard deviation.
  7. To navigate to the protocol page associated with the chart source, click the name of the source in the left pane. For example, click All Activity at the top of the left pane.
    From the protocol page, you can find related metrics and devices associated with your source, and pivot across protocols. For more information, see the Metrics section.
  8. To return to your chart, click Back to dashboard.
    Note:You can also edit a dashboard chart to display up to 20 key values. For more information, see the Edit a chart widget and Drill down to display detail metrics in a chart sections.

Metrics

Metrics are measurements of network behavior. Metrics help you to gain visibility into what is happening in your network in real-time. In the ExtraHop system, metrics are calculated from wire data, and then associated with devices and protocols. The ExtraHop system provides a large number of metrics, which you can explore from protocol pages in the Metrics section of the ExtraHop Web UI. You can also search for metrics in the Metric Catalog, in the Metric Explorer, and by searching for metrics by source and then protocol.

Protocol pages for sources and groups
To investigate metrics for individual devices or groups of devices, visit the Metrics section of the Discover appliance Web UI. Select an application, network, device, or device group, and then explore metrics by protocol for your selected source. Drill down or pivot on interesting metrics and devices.
Metric Catalog
To look up information about a custom or built-in metric, visit the Metric Catalog. Enter the name of a metric that you are looking for in the search field. The Metric Catalog will display an entry for each metric that provides information about metric parameters, such as the source type, metric type, and detail relationships. This information can be useful for writing API queries and adding metric variables in a text box widget. You also can delete and edit custom metrics through the Metric Catalog.
Metric Explorer
To visualize how metric data changes over time, visit the Metric Explorer. The Metric Explorer is a tool for creating and editing charts. Access the Metric Explorer when you click Create Chart from the command menu in a protocol page, or when you edit dashboard charts.

With the Metric Explorer, you can add metrics to a chart and immediately visualize how metric data behaves for the selected time interval. The preview pane dynamically updates as you make metric and chart type selections. You have the option to then save your chart to a dashboard.

Get started with metrics

The ExtraHop system provides you with 4,000 built-in metrics for over a dozen protocols. A metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Because the ExtraHop system provides so many L2 through L7 protocol metrics to view, it can be challenging to know where to find the metrics that are most important to you.

Top-level metrics and detail metrics

Top-level metrics and detail metrics provide different views about network activity. Top-level metrics provide you with a big-picture value to help identify what is happening on your network. You can then drill down on a top-level metric to view detail metrics. Detail metrics provide you with a value for a specific key (such as a client or server IP address), which gives you insight into how a specific device, method, or resource is affecting the network.

On the Dashboard page, you can configure charts to display either top-level or detail metrics. On protocol pages, you can view top-level metrics and then drill down to view detail metrics.

A top-level, or base, metric gives you a sum of data for a specified time period. The ExtraHop system provides you with real-time updates about top-level metrics. For example, you can view the total number of HTTP requests sent by a device for the last 30 minutes.

In the following figure, a bar chart displays the top-level metric for the total number of HTTP requests that were sent to a web server during a specific time period.

Detail metrics provide you with a metric value for a specific key, such as a client IP address, server IP address, URI, hostname, referrer, certificate, or method. For example, you can drill down on the total number of HTTP requests to break out the number of requests sent per client. When you drill down, the ExtraHop system provides you with a topnset of detail metrics. A topnset is the top 1,000 key-value pairs calculated for the time interval you specify in the Time Selector. A topnset is not a complete data set because a topnset only represents the key-values that are recorded for a specific aggregation roll up (based on a specified time interval), and is limited to up to 1,000 keys per topnset.

In the following figure, a Bar chart displays detail metric values by client (which is a key) after drilling down on the top-level metric for HTTP requests. Specifically, the chart displays eight clients that sent the most requests to the web server during a specific time period. You can configure charts to show you either a specific key or a specific number of keys from a topnset.

Note:When drilling down to detail metrics from protocol pages, you might encounter a chart that includes more than 1,000 keys. Some charts in the ExtraHop system combine topnsets for multiple detail metrics into one table. You can then sort keys by detail metrics. For example, when you drill down on the responses metric by URI from the Metrics > Applications > All Activity > Web page, the chart displays both a topnset of URIs for HTTP Responses and a topnset of URIs for Server Processing Time.
Types of top-level metrics

Each top-level metric in the ExtraHop system is classified into a metric type. Understanding the distinctions between metric types can help you configure charts or write triggers to capture custom metrics. For example, a heatmap chart can only display dataset metrics.

Count
The number of events that occurred over a specific time period. You can view count metrics as a rate or a total count. For example, a byte is recorded as a count, and can either represent a throughput rate (as seen in a time series chart) or total traffic volume (as seen in a table). Rates are helpful for comparing counts over different time periods. A count metric can be calculated as a per-second average over time. When viewing high-precision, or 1-second, bytes and packet metrics, you can also view a maximum rate and minimum rate. Count metrics include errors, packets, and responses.
Dataset
A distribution of data that can be calculated into percentiles values. Dataset metrics include processing time and round trip time.
Maximum
A single data point that represents the maximum value from a specified time period.
Sampleset
A summary of data about a detail metric. Selecting a sampleset metric in a chart enables you to display a mean (average) and standard deviation over a specified time period.
Snapshot
A data point that represents a single point in time.
Tip:Visit the Tip of the Week: Metric Types post on the ExtraHop community forum.

Time interval and data roll up

The time interval you specify in the Time Selector determines how metric data is aggregated, or rolled up into buckets. The aggregation roll up, also known as a metric cycle, provides information about the level of granularity for count metric data shown in time-series charts.

Note:The aggregation roll up is not displayed in list and value charts.

The following table provides information about how data will be rolled up for a specific time interval.

Time Interval Aggregation Roll Up (if available) Notes
Less than six minutes 1-second A 1-second roll up is only available for custom metrics and for the following built-in throughput and packet metrics:
  • Network source > Network Bytes (total throughput)
  • Network source > Network Packets (total packets)
  • Device source > Network Bytes (combined inbound and outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes In (inbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Bytes Out (outbound throughput by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets (combined inbound and outbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets In (inbound packets by device)
  • Device source > Network Packets Out (outbound packets by device)
120 minutes or less 30-second If a 30-second roll up is not available, a 5-minute or 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Between 121 minutes and 24 hours 5-minute If 5-minute roll up is not available, a 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Greater than 24 hours 60-minute  
Note:If you have an extended datastore that is configured for 24-hour metrics, a specified time interval of 30 days or longer will display a 24-hour aggregation roll up.

Explore how metric data changes over different time intervals with the Time Selector.

Drill-down functionality

You can drill down on high-level information in the ExtraHop Web UI to identify root causes of interesting activity. Specifically, you can drill down on the top-level metrics you see in the ExtraHop system to view detail metrics, which provide you with a value for a specific key (such as a client or server IP address).

For example, if you see a large number of DNS request timeouts in a dashboard chart, you can drill down on this chart data to see the top DNS servers in your environment that are associated with this metric, as well as the number of times each server did not respond to repeated DNS requests.

Note:If your Discover appliance is connected to an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can drill down on a protocol or metric to view stored records. For more information, see the Records section.

The following information shows you how to drill down from different parts of the system.

In the Discover and Command appliances, you can search for metrics by source, such as an application, device, flow network, or a group of devices, and then by protocol.

To view all the metrics collected by the ExtraHop system for a source, click Metrics from the top menu.

The following fields and controls are available in the left pane:

Sources
Enables you to view metrics for applications, devices, and networks.
Groups
Enables you to view metrics for groups of devices based on their activity. You can also create a custom device group and view metrics associated with those groups. You can also view trouble groups, which are automatically generated based on network traffic. Trouble groups represent a collection of devices that meet specific criteria indicating potential problems.
Alerts
Enables you to view the alert history for saved alerts.

As you specify the sources or group of devices that you want to explore in the left pane, the center pane displays the available protocol pages associated with your selection. Select a protocol page to display all available metrics in tables, lists, and charts.

Tip:When looking for metrics that are relevant to you, start with a device you are already familiar with. Search for a device in the global search field, and then click on the device name. On the device protocol page, you can pivot across protocols in the left pane and view top-level metrics and charts in the center pane to see all of the network activity associated with your device.
Note:If there are no results for a metric, or if a protocol appears to be missing, the ExtraHop system did not detect any related activity or traffic for that source. To learn more about how the ExtraHop system collects metrics, see the Data sources in the ExtraHop system section.

Dashboards are another way to explore the metrics that are most relevant to you. For example, you can plan and build a custom dashboard with charts that highlight your top devices and most critical network traffic. For more information, see the Get started with dashboards section.

Metric Catalog

The Metric Catalog enables you to view information about built-in and custom metrics in the ExtraHop system. This information can be useful for writing API queries and adding metric variables in a text box widget. You also can delete and edit custom metrics through the Metric Catalog.

Note:For information on modifying custom metrics in the Metric Catalog, see the Custom metrics section.

Search for metrics by typing a keyword or metric name into the filter field. Click the command menu next to the Type to filter... field for sorting options.

When you select a metric from the search results, information about that metric displays in the right pane in the following sections.

The Parameter section provides the following information about the selected metric:

Source
Specifies how the metric was created. If the source is builtin, the selected metric is one of 4,000 metrics already built into the ExtraHop system. If the source is trigger, the selected metric is a custom metric created by a user.
Metric
Specifies the API parameter name of the selected metric.
Source Type
Specifies the source type (application, device, or network) that is associated with the metric.
Metric Type
Specifies the type of base (top-level) metric (such as a count or dataset) that is associated with the selected metric.
Type
Specifies whether the metric is a base (top-level) metric or a detail metric.

The Display section provides information about how the selected metric will be displayed in the Web UI:

Name
Specifies the display name of the metric.
Units
Specifies the unit for the metric, if available.
Description
Specifies a description for the metric.

The Detail Relationships section provides the name of the base (top-level) metric or detail metric that is related to the selected metric.

The REST API Parameter section provides an example of a JSON query structure for the selected metric with API parameters.

Metric Explorer

The Metric Explorer is a tool for creating and editing dashboard charts. In the Metric Explorer, you can add metrics to a chart and immediately view how metric data will appear in a preview pane. The preview pane dynamically updates as you make metric and chart type selections, which enables you to explore and change how your data is visualized in a dashboard.

The Metric Explorer provides the following components for configuring a chart.

Metrics tab
Add metric sets to your chart. A metric set consists of a single type of source and one or more metrics.
Note:You can add multiple metric sets to display in a single chart. For example, one metric set can contain a mix of device sources (such as servers) and another metric set can contain application sources.
Source
In the Source section, add a metric source, such as an application, device, group, or network capture.
Metric
In the Metric section, search for and select compatible metrics for the source. Depending on the type of metric you select, data calculation options are listed underneath the metric name. For example, when you select whether you select a count metric type (such as HTTP Requests or Network Bytes), you can select to display a rate or count. When you select a dataset metric type (such as Server Processing Time), you can choose to display a summary of percentile values or a specific percentile value.
Detail
Optionally, in the Detail section, drill down to display detail metrics for the entire metric set in your chart.
Time interval
Specify a time interval to view presentation of network data in your chart. You can change the time interval, but your changes will not be saved with other chart configurations. You must change the time interval with the Time Selector in your dashboard.
Analysis tab
Add a static threshold line and a dynamic baseline to your chart.
Options tab
Select configuration options, such as changing a chart title, units, and labels.
Preview section
Preview how metric data will display in your chart. The chart dynamically updates as you add and remove metrics from the Metrics tab.
Chart section
Select a chart type to display data. Toggle between different time-series and non time-series chart types to determine which chart is the best choice for visualizing the data you are interested in.
Note:Some charts have specific metric requirements.

The following figure displays a configured line chart. The chart is displaying data for one metric set, Application Metrics, the average rate data calculation for the HTTP Responses metric, and detail metric keys for client IP addresses.

Sources and groups

In the ExtraHop system, a metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Metrics are generated from network traffic, and then each metric is associated with a source, such as an application, device, or network. When you select a source from the Metrics section of the Web UI, or in the Metric Explorer when building a chart, you can view metrics associated with that source. Each source provides access to a different collection of metrics.

Select from the following sources and groups as you configure dashboard widgets or navigate across protocol pages.

Applications

Applications are user-defined containers for metrics that are associated with multiple devices and protocols. These containers can represent distributed applications on your network environment. In the ExtraHop system, applications are created through triggers, which are custom scripts. Triggers can collect metrics across multiple types of network traffic to capture information with cross-tier impact. For example, if you want a unified view of all the network traffic associated with a website—from web transactions to DNS requests and responses to database transactions—you can write a trigger to create a custom application that contains all of these related metrics. The Applications page displays the default All Activity application, which contains metrics for every device on your network, and all custom applications created through triggers.

Note:For information about creating applications with triggers, see the Triggers section.

The table on the Applications page provides the following information:

Name
The name assigned to the application through the trigger. Click on an application name to navigate to the metric page associated with the application.
Capture
On a Discover appliance, this column identifies the wire data feed that is the source for the application. On a Command appliance, this column identifies the Discover appliance where the application was created.
Description
A user-defined description that is assigned to the application through a trigger.
You can filter applications by application name, network capture, or application description. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or .
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, the search results return all devices with a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
Note:Learn more by taking the Creating and Using App Containers training.

Devices

Devices are objects on your network with a MAC address and IP address that have been automatically discovered and classified by the ExtraHop system. Metrics are available for every discovered device on your network. An L2 device has a MAC address only; an L3 device has an IP address and MAC address.

Note:For more information about how devices are automatically discovered and classified by the ExtraHop system, see the Device discovery section.
You can filter devices on the Devices page by name, MAC address, VLAN, IP address, or node, and then click Search. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or Any Device.
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.

The table on the Devices page contains the following columns:

Name
The primary name for the device on the network. Click a device name to navigate to a metrics page where you can view protocol metrics.
MAC Address
The MAC address is a unique identifier for the device network interface.
VLAN
The virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) for the device. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves the tag on the mirror port.
Note:By default, this column does not appear on Discover appliances and values are set to null on Command appliances. VLAN information is displayed for devices only if the devices_accross_vlans setting is set to true through the Running Config.
IP Address
The last IP address the device communicated from on the network.
Node
(Command appliance only) The name of the Discover appliance associated with the device.
Discovery Time
The date and time when the device was first discovered.
Description
An optional, user-defined description.

The counter at the bottom of the table identifies the number of devices currently displayed in the table. The table can display up to 1,000 devices per page.

Search for a device

You can filter devices in the Devices page. By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the Find text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.

  1. Click on Metrics and then click on Devices.
  2. Optional: Click on Any Column to select the following device attributes:
    Any Column
    Matches a substring in any device element.
    Name
    Matches a substring in the device name.
    MAC address
    Matches a substring in the device MAC address.
    VLAN
    Matches a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag.
    IP address
    Matches a substring in the device IP address. The IP address criteria can include CIDR notation in IP address or subnet prefix length format. For example, 10.10.0.0/16 for IPv4 networks or 2001:db8::/32 for IPv6 networks.
    Node
    (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in the node name.
    Tag
    Matches a substring in the user-defined device tag.
    Type
    Matches a substring to a specified device attribute type that you select from the drop-down list. Select from the following options:
    Activity
    Specify active metrics. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server returns devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP server.
    Device Type
    Specify a device type, such as gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, and custom device types.
    Class
    Specify a device class, such as node, remote, and custom devices.
    Vendor
    Matches a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
  3. Click All Devices to filter by L2 or L3 devices. For more information about these types of devices, see the Device discovery section.
  4. Click Search.

Networks

The Networks page provides information about network capture and flow network sources discovered by the ExtraHop system. A network capture is the entry point into network devices and virtual LANs (VLANs) that are detected from wire data by the ExtraHop system. A flow network is a network device, such as a router or switch, that sends information about flows seen across the device. A flow network can have multiple interfaces. Click a network capture or flow interface to view protocol metrics about the data from those traffic sources.

This section describes the source attributes available on the Networks page.

Note:When starting from the Network page, keep in mind that information collected through network captures and flow networks are determined by port mirror configuration or flow configuration in the Admin UI.

In addition, if your organization manages multiple capture points or remote flow networks through the Command appliance, the Networks page displays a table of all capture points and flow networks for your entire networking environment.

The Network table provides the following information:

Name
The name of a network capture or flow interface. Click the drop-down icon next to a network capture or flow network to display VLANs or flow interfaces, respectively.

Click a network capture or VLAN to navigate to a protocol page and view top-level and detail protocol metrics.

Click a flow network or flow interface to navigate to a summary page and view top-level metrics.

Select the checkbox next to a network capture or flow network to access the following configuration options:

Devices
The number of devices in the network capture. This attribute does not apply to flow networks.
IP Address
The IP address of the Discover appliance responsible for the network capture or flow network.
Description
An optional description of the network obtained from the network capture or VLAN protocol page.
You can filter network captures and flow networks by name, devices, IP address, description, or application description. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or .
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
View configured network captures
View a list of configured network captures and their associated VLANs. To configure network capture settings, see the Capture section in the Admin UI Guide.
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, the table provides the following information about the capture:
    Name
    Displays the name of the capture.
    Type
    Displays the whether the network is a Wire Network or a Flow Network.
    Devices
    The number of devices in the network capture.
    IP Address
    Displays the IP address of the Discover appliance providing wire data for the capture.
    Description
    An optional detailed description of the network. Click on the capture name to open an overview page where you can modify this description.
    Interface Speed
    This field is not applicable to network captures.
    Note:On a Command appliance, the table displays the capture for each Discover appliance.
  3. Click the drop-down arrow next to the capture name to see a list of associated VLANs.
  4. Click the capture name or VLAN name to view more information and built-in charts.
Change the name of a network capture or VLAN
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a single capture or VLAN.
  3. Click Rename in the upper right corner.
  4. Type a new name and then click OK.
View configured flow networks
View a list of configured flow networks and their attributes. To configure a flow network, see the Flow Networks section in the Admin UI Guide.
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, for each configured flow network, the table provides the following information:
    Name
    Displays the name of the flow network.
    Type
    Displays the whether the network is a Wire Network or a Flow Network.
    Devices
    This field is not applicable to flow networks.
    IP Address
    Displays the IP address of the flow network device.
    Description
    This field is not applicable to flow networks.
    Interface Speed
    Displays the speed of the network interface on the remote device. This setting requires SNMP to be enabled through the Admin UI of the Discover appliance.
  3. Click the drop-down arrow next to the flow network name to see a list of flow interfaces and their attributes.
  4. Click the flow network name or flow interface name to view built-in charts on summary pages.
Change the name of a flow network
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a single flow network or flow interface in the table.
  3. Click Rename.
  4. Type a new name and then click OK.
Assign triggers to a flow network or flow interface
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, select the checkbox for a flow network or flow interface.
  3. Click Assign Trigger.
  4. Select the checkboxes for the triggers that you want to assign to the flow network, and then click Assign Triggers.
Set a custom speed for a flow interface

Bandwidth utilization metrics about flow interfaces are calculated through the interface speed. If you have configured SNMP for your flow network, by default, the interface speed is set through SNMP. However, you can also set a custom speed for your flow interfaces on the ExtraHop Discover appliance.

For information on how to configure SNMP for your flow network, see the Flow networks section of the ExtraHop Admin UI Guide.
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. In the content pane, click on a flow network to expand the list of available flow interfaces.
  3. Select the checkbox for the flow interface you want to customize.
  4. Click Automatically set interface speed through SNMP.
  5. Select Manually set interface speed.
  6. Type a custom speed for the interface, and then click Set Interface Speed.
Flow network summary pages

Summary pages provide built-in charts for the IP traffic that exits and enters through remote network devices, such as NetFlow traffic, for configured flow networks and flow interfaces.

Summary pages contain three regions with charts for top-level, summary data:

Overview
View the total amount of network throughput (average bits per second) traveling in and out of either the flow network or flow interface. For flow interfaces only, you can also view the bandwidth utilization of throughput traveling in and out of the flow interface.
Protocols
IP flow packets are typically transferred across the flow network or flow interface by UDP and TCP ports. View the total amount of traffic for each protocol and port that is transferring data in the bar chart. In the line chart, compare protocol and port throughput changes over time. You can also hover over the protocol and port name in the legend of the line chart to isolate protocol data in the chart.
Endpoints
View the amount data that devices (endpoints) are sending and receiving across the flow network or flow interface in the following ways.
  • Top talker charts display individual devices with the highest volume of throughput.
  • Top sender charts display the throughput for devices sending data.
  • Top receiver charts display the throughput for devices receiving data.
  • Conversation charts display the highest volume of throughput by flow between two devices (endpoints).
  • Compare the top talkers, senders, and conversations in the bar chart.
  • In the line chart, compare changes in throughput activity for individual devices over time.
  • Hover over a device IP address in the line chart to isolate throughput data in the chart.

To create your own dashboard charts from the summary page or preview data in different chart types, see the following sections:

To configure the time interval for a specific region, see the Time Selector section.

Modify flow network chart display

Summary pages for flow networks and flow interfaces have built-in charts, and you can modify a limited set of options on the page to see how your data might display differently. If you like a different view, you can then create a custom dashboard chart with those settings.

  1. Click Metrics, and then click Networks.
  2. Click on a flow network or flow interface.
  3. On the Summary page, click a chart title.
  4. Select from the chart type options at the bottom of the page or select from the available Metrics options in the left pane.
    Note:Not all chart types are compatible for all metrics options. Warning icons appear when the chart type is incompatible with the selected option.
  5. Optional: If you want to save the modified chart to a new custom dashboard, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the chart, and select Create a chart from….
    1. Edit the chart as needed.
    2. When you finish configuring the chart, click Add to Dashboard.
    3. Either select New Dashboard to create a new dashboard with your chart, or select an existing dashboard name listed beneath New Dashboard.
Create a chart from flow network data

If you find interesting NetFlow traffic on your flow network or flow interface summary pages, you can modify the built-in charts and save the modified charts to an existing or new dashboard.

  1. Click Metrics, and then click Networks.
  2. Click on a flow network or flow interface.
  3. On the Summary page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of a chart.
  4. Select Create a chart from….
  5. Edit the chart as needed.
  6. When you finish configuring the chart, click Add to Dashboard:
    • Select New Dashboard to create a new dashboard.
    • Select an existing dashboard name from the list below New Dashboard.
Drill down on flow network data

You can view detail metrics about the built-in charts on the flow network and flow interface summary page by drilling down on metrics. You can then analyze the detail metrics for peer IP addresses, protocols and ports, conversations, and sender and receiver IP addresses.

For example, in the Endpoints region, click the chart title for Top Talkers to expand the chart widget and modify your view of chart types, detail metrics, and filters. Or, click on any IP address in the Top Talker chart legend to view peer IP addresses.
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. Click on a flow network or flow interface.
  3. On the Summary page, click a chart title to expand the chart widget.
  4. Modify the following options to change the display:
    • Select from the chart types.
    • In the Details section, click Drill down by <Name>, where <Name> is the name of the detail metric currently displayed in your chart. Then, select a detail metric from the drop-down list.
    • Filter the detail metric keys with an approximate match, regular expression (regex), or exact match. In the Filter field, select the icon to display keys by an approximate match or with regex. Or, select the = icon to display keys by an exact match.
      Note:You must omit forward slashes with regex in the approximate match filter. Regex is unsupported in the exact match filter.
    • In the top results field, enter the number of keys that you want to display. These keys will have the highest values in the topnset of detail metrics.

Next steps

Tip:
To remove a drill-down selection, click the x icon.

Activity groups

Activity groups contain devices that are automatically grouped together based on their network traffic. A device with multiple types of traffic might appear in more than one activity group.

You can filter activity groups by name or count. To adjust filter criteria, click Any Column or .
Note:By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the filter text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.
The table on the Activity group page provides the following information:
Name
Specifies the name of the activity group, which is based on the type of protocol activity of the devices in the group. The name also indicates whether the group contains client or server devices. Click on the name of an activity group to navigate to a page where you can view protocol metrics for that group. For example, click the TCP Devices activity group to see the L4 TCP protocol metrics page, which lists all of the devices with TCP traffic.
Count
Specifies the number of devices that belong to the activity group.

Device groups

Device groups, also known as custom groups, can be static or dynamic. A static device group is defined by identifying and manually assigning individual devices to a group. A new static device group does not have any assigned devices; you must select the devices to add.

A dynamic device group automatically adds devices to the group that matches criteria that you define. The criteria can be a hostname, IP address, MAC address, or any of the filter criteria listed for the device on the Devices page. For example, you can create a dynamic group and then configure a rule to add all devices within a certain IP address range to that group automatically.

The Device Groups table includes the following information:

Name
Displays the name of the device group. The icon next to the name indicates whether the device group is a static or dynamic group. Click on the name to view the Assignments page for the device group, which has criteria for the group among other settings.
Count
Displays the number of devices that belong to the device group.
Description
Displays an optional, user-defined description for the device group.
Note:Learn more by taking the Working with Device Groups training.
Create a static device group
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Name field, type a name for the new group.
  4. For the Group Type option, select Static (add and remove devices manually).
  5. In the Description field, add a brief description for the device group.
  6. Click OK.
    Your device group is now created. The next step is to assign devices to your group.
  7. Click Metrics and then click Devices.
  8. Select the checkbox next to the devices you want to add to your group.
  9. At the top of the device table, hover over the icons and click the Assign to Group icon.
  10. Select your device group from the Select a group... drop-down list.
  11. Click Add to Group.
Add devices to a static device group

You can only assign devices to a static device group.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Devices.
  2. Select the checkbox next to the devices that you want to add to a static device group.
  3. At the top of the device table, hover over the icons and click the Assign to Group icon.
  4. Select your device group from the Select a group... drop-down list.
  5. Click Add to Group.
Remove devices from a static device group

You can remove devices from static groups only. You cannot remove individual devices from dynamic groups.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click on the name static device group with devices that you want to remove.
    You will navigate to the device group overview page.
  3. In the left pane, click Devices.
  4. Select the checkbox next to the devices you want to remove.
  5. Click the Select Action drop-down list and select Remove.
Create a dynamic device group
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click Add.
  3. In the Name field, type a name for the new group.
  4. In the Group Type field, select the option for Dynamic with criteria.
  5. Click the drop-down list and select from one of the following criteria:
    IP address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device IP address in IPv4, IPv6, or CIDR block.
    Name
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device name.
    Node
    (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in the node name.
    MAC address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device MAC address.
    Tag
    Adds devices that match a substring in the user-defined device tag.
    Type
    Select the following options from the drop-down lists:
    Activity
    Adds devices that are associated with active metrics. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server adds devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP Server.
    Device type
    Adds devices that are classified as a gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, or custom device.
    Note:When the Include custom devices checkbox is selected, custom devices will be added to your group.
    Class
    Adds devices that are classified as node, remote, custom, or pseudo.
    Vendor
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
    VLAN
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves them on the mirror port.
  6. In the Description field, add a brief description for the new group.
  7. Click OK.
Modify dynamic device group criteria
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click the name of a dynamic device group.
    You will navigate to the Assignments page for the device group.
  3. Click the edit icon to the right of the Criteria field.
  4. Click the Criteria drop-down list and select from the following criteria:
    IP address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device IP address in IPv4, IPv6, or CIDR block.
    Name
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device name.
    Node
    (Command appliance only) Matches a substring in the node name.
    MAC address
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device MAC address.
    Tag
    Adds devices that match a substring in the user-defined device tag.
    Type
    Select the following options from the drop-down lists:
    Activity
    Adds devices that are associated with activity groups. For example, selecting Activity: HTTP Server adds devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP Server.
    Device type
    Adds devices that are classified as a gateway, firewall, load balancer, file server, or custom device.
    Note:When the Include custom devices checkbox is selected, custom devices will be added to your group.
    Class
    Adds devices that are classified as node, remote, custom, or pseudo.
    Vendor
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
    VLAN
    Adds devices that match a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves them on the mirror port.
  5. In the field next to the criteria type you selected, type the text you want to match for the dynamic group. For example, if you selected IP address from the list, type the IP address that you want to set as a criteria for this group in the field.
  6. Click OK.
Modify a device group name
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click the name of the device group you want to modify.
    You will navigate to the Assignments page for the device group.
  3. Click the edit icon to the right of the Name field.
  4. Type a new name for the device group.
  5. Click OK.
Modify a device group description
  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. Click the name of a device group.
    You will navigate to the Assignments page for the device group.
  3. Click the edit icon to the right of the Description field.
  4. Type a description for the device group in the field.
  5. Click OK.
View device groups

You can view device groups that were created on a Discover appliance.

  1. Click Metrics and then click Device Groups.
  2. The Device Groups page displays all device groups on the appliance.
    To filter the contents of the table, select a field and an operator, and then enter a search term.
Click on a group name to display information about the group.

Trouble groups

The Discover appliance automatically generates trouble groups based on network traffic that meet specific criteria indicating potential problems.

The Trouble Groups table has the following information:

Name
Specifies the name of the trouble group.
Count
Identifies the number of devices that belong to this group.

Refer to the specific trouble group sections for the criteria that defines that group.

View trouble groups

To view details about the devices in a trouble group:

  1. Click Metrics and then click Trouble Groups.
  2. Click the trouble group name to view the list of devices in the group.
  3. On the device list page, click the device name.
When you click a device name from the device list page, you are redirected to the Devices page where device statics are displayed.
Aborted HTTP/DB transactions

Aborted HTTP/DB transactions indicate a high level of aborts during active HTTP or database transactions. Aborts are generally initiated by clients, so this might indicate that the server hangs on the response or does not complete the response in a timely manner.

Criteria Check for high levels of Requests Aborted or Responses Aborted
Devices Devices that show HTTP or DB server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions For HTTP transactions, check for URLs that take along time to process. For database transactions, check for long-running stored procedures
ADC SNAT pool too small

ADC SNAT pool too small indicates that a connection failed to initiate because the current device interpreted the SYN as belonging to a previous connection.

Criteria Check for any PAWS-Dropped-SYNs (In)
Devices Known ADCs only (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller (ADC), the SNAT pool size should be increased
ADC TCP connection throttling

ADC TCP connection throttling indicates that the connections are stalling in the Application Delivery Controller (ADC) and it is unable to keep up with the rate of data sent.

Criteria Check for Zero Windows (Out) as a factor of the number of established connections
Devices Known ADCs only (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller (ADC), the proxy_buffer_high setting in the TCP profile should be increased
Database server backups

Database server backups are caused by backups taking place over CIFS, NFS, or Veritas on active database servers.

Criteria Detect large amount of storage traffic exchanged from the server
Devices Devices that show CIFS, NFS, or TCP port 13724 activity (Veritas) and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Every 30 minutes
Remedial Actions Throttle down backups and schedule them during times with lower traffic
DNS missing entries

DNS missing entries might indicate a service availability problem.

Criteria Compare DNS NXDOMAINS responses with the total number of responses
Devices Devices that show DNS server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions If these queries are intended, add an entry to DNS. If not, find the clients making erroneous DNS requests and configure them to stop making these requests
Excessive CIFS metadata queries

Excessive CIFS metadata queries indicate a high level of file metadata queries compared to read/write activity (or "goodput") on a CIFS server.

Criteria Compare FSInfo to the number of Read and Write bytes
Devices Devices that show CIFS server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Check clients that generate large numbers of CIFS for configuration issues that would cause them to perform an overly high level of directory scans
Excessive HTTP authorizations

Excessive HTTP authorizations should be checked for large numbers of HTTP authorization errors, which might indicate break-in attempts.

Criteria Check for 401 errors and compare them with the number of valid responses
Devices Devices that show HTTP server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Log these HTTP authorization errors, as these errors might indicate break-in attempts

HTTP broken links indicate that a resource has been moved or deleted but the document might still points to the old location.

Criteria Check for 404s and compare it with the number of valid responses
Devices Devices that show HTTP server activity and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Track down the source of 404s
Path MTU mismatch

Path MTU mismatch displays the list of devices for which path MTU mismatch was detected. These devices are not respecting the Fragmentation Needed ICMP announcements.

Criteria Check for ICMP type 3 code 4
Devices All devices
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Check documentation for devices that are not respecting path MTU announcements for configuration options
Problematic TCP offloading engine

Problematic TCP offloading engine. Indicates that the current device is sending too much data resulting in network congestion and dropped packets. This behavior has been seen with a number of TCP offloading engines.

Criteria Check for Bad Congestion Control (Out)
Devices NICs known to have problems (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Turn off TCP offloading
Server TCP connection throttling

Server TCP connection throttling is caused by server running out of buffer or CPU resources and throttling network connections as a result.

Criteria Check for the Zero Windows (Out) as a factor of the number of established connections
Devices Devices that are servers and are not gateways or load balancers
Update Every 30 minutes
Remedial Actions Check buffer sizes and CPU, and increase those resources, if necessary
SPAN oversubscription

SPAN oversubscription indicates that data coming over the SPAN port is incomplete. This can happen to data being dropped at the SPAN port due to oversubscription or microbursts.

Criteria Compare the desyncs to the number established connections
Devices All devices
Update Daily
Remedial Actions Filter down data coming over the SPAN port or use a larger capacity SPAN port
SSL Key Size < 2048

SSL key size < 2048 indicates a 1024-bit SSL key. In 2010, 1024-bit public keys have been declared insecure by NIST. As a result, certificate authorities are moving to 2048-bit keys.

Criteria Check for SSL public key size less than 2048 bits
Devices Devices that show SSL server activity and are not gateways
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Deploy 2048-bit keys in place of potentially insecure ones
Virtual packet loss

Virtual packet loss indicates that a virtual instance is overwhelmed and cannot send packets out in a timely fashion. TCP interprets delayed ACKs as packet loss and sends less data.

Criteria Check for large numbers of RTOs coming from devices within virtualized environments
Devices Virtualized devices (based on MAC address OID lookup)
Update Hourly
Remedial Actions Provide more hardware resources to stressed VMs

Search metrics by protocol

After selecting a source, such as an application, device, or group, or network object from the Metrics section, you can access several protocol metrics for your selected source. Click on a protocol in the left pane, such as AAA, CIFS, DNS, or Web (HTTP) to display metrics and built-in charts.

AAA

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) activity.

AAA applications page

Application toolbar
The AAA application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the number of AAA errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists the AAA error messages and number of occurrences.
Clients
The chart displays the processing time for all clients. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client as well as total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart displays the processing time for all servers. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.
Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear through routed traffic. IP addresses that appear through routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu with the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA responses.
Request RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending AAA requests. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending AAA responses. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by AAA clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Response Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers while receiving AAA requests. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
AAA Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of AAA requests.
Responses
The number of AAA responses.
Errors
The number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
The number of aborted AAA sessions.
RADIUS Requests
The number of RADIUS requests.
Diameter Requests
The number of Diameter requests.
Methods
Displays the selected method types for the AAA client or server.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

AAA devices page

AAA Device Toolbar
The AAA device toolbar includes the following controls:
AAA Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an AAA client or AAA server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.
  • Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records.
  • Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA client.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA server.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.
Status Codes
The AAA status codes for the selected time interval.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a boxplot of times it took the server to process requests. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

AAA groups page

AAA Groups Toolbar
The AAA groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list and select either Client or Server to display metrics for devices in the current group acting as an AAA client or AAA server, respectively.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current member over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.

Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records. Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.

Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.

CIFS

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Common Internet File System (CIFS)/Server Message Block (SMB) activity. ExtraHop appliances support SMB, SMB2 and SMB3.

Important:Access time is the time it takes for a CIFS server to receive a requested block. There is no access time for operations that do not access actual block data within a file. Processing time is the time it takes for a CIFS server to respond to the operation requested by the client, such as a metadata retrieval request.

There are no access times for SMB2_CREATE. SMB2_CREATE creates a file that is referenced in the response by an SMB2_FILEID. The referenced file blocks are then read from or written to the NAS-storage device. These file read and write operations are calculated as access times.

CIFS devices page

CIFS Devices Toolbar
The CIFS device page toolbar includes the following controls:
CIFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a CIFS client or CIFS server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by the current device for the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name and file access time.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the file server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval. The access time indicates the time to access a file on a CIFS partition and is measured by timing the first READ or WRITE on every flow.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This might occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the mount or a cd command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.

Click the counters next to individual CIFS metrics to show the IP Address CIFS Metrics details for CIFS peer devices. For CIFS servers, the peer devices are CIFS clients. For CIFS clients, the peer devices are CIFS servers.

IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
CIFS Server
Displays additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a CIFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS server.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the CIFS server over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
FSInfo
Specifies the number of file system metadata queries that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
CIFS Client
Displays additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a CIFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS client.

CIFS groups page

CIFS Groups Toolbar
The CIFS groups toolbar includes the following controls:
CIFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices in the current group acting as a CIFS client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by devices in the current group over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by devices in the current group over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by devices in the current group during the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the file server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval. Access Time indicates the time it took for the server to access a file on disk.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This might occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.

CIFS Server
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the CIFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS server.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by devices in the CIFS server over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested from the CIFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested from the CIFS server.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operations requested from the CIFS server.
CIFS Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the CIFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS client.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the CIFS client over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested by the CIFS client.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested by the CIFS client.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operations requested by the CIFS client.
Methods
Displays the CIFS methods for the selected time interval.

Click the counter next to the method to break it down by group members in the table.

Database

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about database activity. Activity for the following databases is aggregated and displayed under Database metrics in the ExtraHop Web UI:

  • IBM DB2
  • IBM Informix
  • Microsoft SQL Server
  • MySQL
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL
  • Sybase ASE
  • Sybase IQ
Note:ExtraHop Discover appliances also monitor MongoDB database activity, which is displayed through a separate set of metrics specific to MongoDB.

Learn more by taking the Database Quick Peek training.

The following sections describe the top metrics that you should investigate for problems related to databases.

Errors

Database errors occur when a database request cannot be completed by the server. Errors can indicate a minor issue, such as a single log-in failure, or a more severe issue, such as an overloaded database server.

When investigating database errors, you can start by reviewing the total number of errors in your environment on the Metrics > Applications > All Activity > Database page. You can view details about each error, including the raw error message reported by the database, by clicking the Errors icon.

On the Applications > All Activity > Database page, you can break out metrics by database server by hovering over the Response Errors value and clicking By Server IP. You can then sort by the number of errors. If one database server is returning a large number of errors, you can click the server name, and then click the Errors icon to view the total number of errors for that server. However, if no server is contributing a large number of errors, the issue might be more complex, and you should investigate which methods were called on each database.

Methods

You can view which methods were called on databases in your environment. Poorly-formed database calls can cause performance issues, even if no errors exist. To see all methods that were called in your environment over a specified time interval, go to the Metrics > Applications > All Activity > Database page and click Methods.

If a method is called on a table, the table name is displayed after an @ symbol. For example, CREATE @ Configuration displays metrics about how many times the CREATE method was called on a table named Configuration. Methods can be sorted by processing time, which is the amount of time between when a server receives a request and when the server sends a response. Long processing times can indicate that the database is poorly optimized or that statements are poorly formatted.

Custom metrics and records

If the processing time for a database method is continuously long, you might want to investigate further by collecting the raw SQL statements that contain the method. You can record and view raw SQL statements by creating a custom metric or by generating records through a trigger. A custom metric enables you to view a graphical representation of the information; for example, you could create a chart of how many slow database requests occurred over time and break out each response by the SQL statement. Records enable you to view individual records of each event; for example, you could view exactly how much time it took the server to respond to each SQL statement.

The following trigger runs when a database response event occurs. If a database server takes more than 100 milliseconds to respond to a SELECT request on the Configuration table, the trigger records the SQL statement of the request in a custom metric. The trigger also records the total number of database requests that took the server more than 100 milliseconds to respond to.

// Event: DB_RESPONSE
if (DB.processingTime > 100 && DB.method == "SELECT" && DB.table == "Configuration") {

  // Record a custom metric.
  Device.metricAddCount('slow_performers', 1);
  Device.metricAddDetailCount('slow_performers_by_statement', DB.statement, 1);
}

The next trigger generates similar information, but in the form of a record for all database responses. The records contain the processing time, method, table name, and SQL statement for each response. After the records are collected, you can view the SQL statements for all SELECT requests on the Configuration table that took the server more than 100 milliseconds to respond to.

// Event: DB_RESPONSE
DB.commitRecord()
Note:Your Discover appliance must be connected to an Explore appliance to generate records.

After you create a trigger, you must assign the trigger to the devices you want to monitor. If you create a custom metric, you must create a dashboard to view the custom metric.

For more information about triggers, see Get started with triggers.

For more information about dashboards, see Get started with dashboards.

For more information about records, see Get started with records.

Database applications page

Database Application Toolbar
The Database application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the total count for DB errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists DB error messages and the number of occurrences.
Methods

The chart displays responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists methods, number of responses, total time, and processing time (ms) associated with each method. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Users
The chart displays the number of responses and errors for all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table displays the list of users, and the number of responses and errors associated with each user.
Clients

The chart displays the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers

The chart displays the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with database requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with database responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with database requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with database responses.
Request RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending database requests. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending database responses. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by database clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Response Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers while receiving database requests. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
DB Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of database requests.
Responses
The number of database responses.
Response Errors
The number of database response errors.
Transaction Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Database devices page

Database Devices Toolbar
The Database device toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays statistics for the current device acting as a database client or database server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of names and the associated number of responses and errors.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the database server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.

Click the counters next to individual database metrics to show the IP Address Database Metrics for database peer devices. For database servers, the peer devices are database clients. For database clients, the peer devices are database servers.

Device Details
Click the counters next to individual database metrics to show the IP Address Database Metrics for database peer devices. For database servers, the peer devices are database clients. For database clients, the peer devices are database servers.
By IP
Displays database metrics by IP address.
By Database
Displays database metrics by database. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Database Client
If you select Client for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a database client. Click to display the list of servers from which responses were sent.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors for the selected time interval. Click to display the list of servers for which there were errors.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database client.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database client.
Database Server
If you select Server for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a database server. Click to display the list of clients to which responses were sent.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors for the selected time interval. Click to display the list of clients for which there were errors.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database server.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database server.
Methods
Displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Methods will vary for each specific device.
Transaction Metrics
Displays the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Move the mouse pointer over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
The request transfer time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
The server processing time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
The response transfer time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse over the chart to see the five-number summary. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device, database, or IP address.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse over the chart to see the five-number summary. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean response size for each peer device, database, or IP address.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of database protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red data points to list the peer devices associated with the errors at this point in time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region. Select a database from the Databases drop-down list and then click the red data points to display results associated with that database only. For detailed error information, click Errors.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Database devices timing page

The timing charts draw data from the Time Selector drop-down list on the navigation toolbar. The events observed during this interval are used to fill the bins of a histogram that displays a distribution of timing data. Timing charts use a logarithmic horizontal axis that simultaneously displays events that took milliseconds and those that took seconds.

Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Database devices all methods page
Database Devices Toolbar
The Database devices toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current devices acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Methods
This section displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Click to display additional per-client or per-server details.

Database groups page

Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of names and the associated processing times for the stored procedures executed within the databases belonging to the current group during the selected time interval.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the database servers in this group and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Database Client
If you select Client for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of database protocol responses received by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors received by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that members of the group began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database client.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that members of the group began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database client.
Database Server
If you select Server for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of database protocol responses sent by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors sent by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that members of the group began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database server.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that members of the group began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database server.
Methods
Displays the database methods for the selected time interval.
Database groups all methods page
Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Methods
This section displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Click to display additional per-client or per-server details.
Database Client
This table lists the peer members associated with the database client.
Database Server
This table lists the peer members associated with the database server.
Database groups processing time page
Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

DHCP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) activity.

DHCP applications page

DHCP Applications Toolbar
The DHCP applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
Displays a chart of the number of DHCP errors.
Clients

Displays chart and table information about DHCP client activity. The chart displays the total number of client responses compared to processing time.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of requests by each client, and total processing time.

Servers

Displays chart and table information about DHCP server activity. The chart displays the total number of server responses compared to processing time. The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DHCP requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DHCP responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with DHCP requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with DHCP responses.
DHCP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of DHCP requests.
Responses
The number of DHCP responses.
Errors
Displays the number of DHCP errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time
Displays the median processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics.

DHCP devices page

DHCP Devices Toolbar
The DHCP devices toolbar includes the following controls:
DHCP Metric Type
From the drop-down menu, select the type of metrics for the current device.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DHCP Server
Requests
Displays the number of requests that the device received.
Responses
Displays the number of responses that the device sent.
Response Errors
Displays the number of response errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a box plot of the server time taken to process requests.
Requests by Record Type
Displays the categorization of all request types sent or received by the current device.
Responses by Record Type
Displays the categorization of all response types sent or received by the current device.

DHCP groups page

DHCP Groups Toolbar
The DHCP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
DHCP Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a DHCP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the time interval.
DHCP Client
If you select Client for the DHCP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers to which requests were sent.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers from which the responses were received.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers associated with the errors.
DHCP Server
If you select Server for the DHCP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients from which requests were received.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients to which the responses were sent.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients associated with the errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
DHCP groups processing time page
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

DICOM

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) activity.

Note:ExtraHop appliances do not include any built-in metric pages for DICOM. However, you can view DICOM metrics by adding them to a custom page or dashboard.

DNS

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Domain Name System (DNS) activity.

Learn more by taking the DNS Quick Peek training.

DNS applications page

DNS Applications Toolbar
The DNS applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
Displays a chart that shows the number of errors.
Host Queries
The chart displays the total number of host queries compared to processing time during the selected time interval. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists DNS hosts, number of host queries, and the processing time.

Clients
Displays a chart with the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
Displays a chart with the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Host Query
Displays application metrics by host query.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
DNS Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Request Timeouts
The number of request timeouts. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request.
Truncated Requests
The number of requests that were sent but were truncated in transit. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Response Errors
The number of response errors.
Truncated Responses
The number of responses that were sent but were truncated in transit. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Requests by Opcode
Displays all request opcode types sent or received by the current application. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.
Query
Number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by the current application. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Responses by Response Code
Displays all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by the current device. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.

The response code bar categories include the following:

NOERROR
Successful transaction; no error.
FORMERROR
Format Error.
SERVFAIL
DNS Server Failed.
NXDOMAIN
No such domain.
NOTIMPL
No handler implemented for this query type.
REFUSED
Query administratively refused.
UPDATEERR
Error in handling UPDATE request.
TSIGERR
Error in handling TSIG request.
OTHER
All other response code types.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time
Displays the mean processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

Click the graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

DNS devices page

DNS Devices Toolbar
The DNS devices toolbar includes the following controls:
DNS Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a DNS client or DNS server.
Errors
Displays the list of DNS queries made to or from this device, sorted by Host Query frequency. Click the Query Errors header to sort the list by the number of DNS errors encountered.
Servers
When acting as a DNS client, displays a chart showing the total number of responses compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Clients
When acting as a DNS client, displays a chart showing the total number of responses compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DNS Client
If you select Client for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. For each field, click to display the devices to which these requests were made.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DNS client.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of request timeouts when the device is acting as a DNS client. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request. A high number here might indicate server unresponsiveness or a client misconfiguration.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of requests that were sent, but were truncated in transit, when the device is acting as a DNS client. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DNS client.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of responses received with a code other than NOERROR, when the device is acting as a DNS client.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of truncated responses that the device received when acting as a DNS client. A truncated response is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
DNS Server
If you select Server for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. For each field, click to display the devices from which these requests were received.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as a DNS server.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of request timeouts when the device is acting as a DNS server. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request. A high number here might indicate a problem with this DNS server.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of requests that were received, but were truncated in transit, when the device is acting as a DNS server. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a DNS server.
Response Errors
When the device is acting as a DNS server, specifies the number of responses sent with a code other than NOERROR.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent, but later truncated, when the device is acting as a DNS server. A truncated response is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Requests by Opcode
Displays all request opcode types sent or received by the current device. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.
Query
Specifies the number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Notify
Specifies the number of DNS NOTIFY Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Notify is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Update
Specifies the number of DNS UPDATE Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Update is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Other
Specifies the number of other miscellaneous DNS Opcodes sent or received by the current device.
Responses by Response Code
Displays all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by the current device. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.

The response code bar categories include:

NOERROR
Successful transaction; no error.
FORMERROR
Format Error.
SERVFAIL
DNS Server Failed.
NXDOMAIN
No such domain.
NOTIMPL
No handler implemented for this query type.
REFUSED
Query administratively refused.
UPDATEERR
Error in handling UPDATE request.
TSIGERR
Error in handling TSIG request.
OTHER
All other response code types.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of DNS transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red data points to list the peer devices associated with the errors at this point in time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Requests by Record Type
Shows the categorization of all request types sent or received by the current device. Click a bar to display the device to which (if client) or from which (if server) the query was sent.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Record Type
Shows the categorization of all response types sent or received by the current device. Click a bar to display the device from which (if client) or to which (if server) the response was sent.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • Other. All other categories

It is possible for multiple answers to be sent in response to a single query.

DNS groups page

DNS Groups Toolbar
The DNS groups toolbar includes the following controls:
DNS Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a DNS client or DNS server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the number of query errors by host.
Host Queries
Displays the list of DNS queries made to or from any member in the current group. The list is sorted by Host Query frequency. Click the Query Errorsheader to sort the list by the number of DNS errors encountered.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DNS Client
If you select Client for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the metric to break down DNS requests by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of DNS requests made by all members of the group.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of DNS requests made by any member of the group to which no response was received.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS requests sent by any member of the group.
Responses
Specifies the number of DNS responses received by all members of the group.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of DNS response errors received by all members of the group.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS responses received by all members of the group.
DNS Server
If you select Server for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the metric to break down DNS requests by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of DNS requests received by all members of the group.
Request Timteouts
Specifies the number of DNS requests received by any member of the group to which no response was sent.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS requests received by all members of the group.
Responses
Specifies the number of DNS responses sent by all members of the group.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of DNS response errors sent by all members of the group.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS responses sent by all members of the group.
Requests by Opcode
Shows the breakdown of all opcodes sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. For each opcode, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Query
Specifies the number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Notify
Specifies the number of DNS NOTIFY Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Notify is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Update
Specifies the number of DNS UPDATE Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Update is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Other
Specifies the number of other miscellaneous DNS Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group.
Requests by Record Type
Shows the breakdown of all request types sent or received by members in the selected group. For each query type, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Record Type
Shows the breakdown of all record types sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. For each query type, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Response Code
Shows the categorization of all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD.

The response code bar categories include:

  • NOERROR. Successful transaction; no error.
  • FORMERROR. Format Error.
  • SERVFAIL. DNS Server Failed.
  • NXDOMAIN. No such domain.
  • NOTIMPL. No handler implemented for this query type.
  • REFUSED. Query administratively refused.
  • UPDATEERR. Error in handling UPDATE request.
  • TSIGERR. Error in handling TSIG request.
  • OTHER. All other response code types.

Click the counter next to the response code to break it down by group members in the table.

DNS groups processing time page
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

FIX

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Financial Information Exchange (FIX) activity.

FIX applications page

FIX Applications Toolbar
The FIX applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the number of FIX errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists FIX error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Senders
The chart displays showing the number of FIX senders. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists senders and the count associated with each sender.
Targets
The chart displays the number of FIX targets. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists targets and the count associated with each target.
Clients
The chart displays the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart displays the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Target
Displays application metrics by target.
By Sender
Displays application metrics by sender.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DNS requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DNS responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with DNS requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with DNS responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
FIX Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests for the application.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses for the application.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of responses by error for the application.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

FIX devices page

FIX Devices Toolbar
The FIX device toolbar includes the following controls:
FIX Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices acting as a FIX client or FIX server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of FIX session-level reject reasons (error messages) sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. These metrics do not include the processing of order and trade errors.
Senders
Click the Senders button to display a list of institutions sending the FIX message as it appears in the SenderCompID field.
Targets
Click the Targets button to display a list of institutions receiving the FIX message as it appears in the TargetCompID field.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

FIX Details specifies the type of additional FIX information displayed. Moving the cursor over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays FIX metrics by IP addresses.
By Sender
Displays FIX metrics by sender.
By Target
Displays FIX metrics by target.

For example, FIX Responses is a top-level metric showing how many responses were received by the FIX server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the FIX Responses counter displays which IP addresses originated these responses. Selecting By IP from the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the FIX Responses counter displays the IP addresses of the responses.

FIX Metrics by IP Address
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the FIX server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the FIX server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding FIX server device.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Metrics by Sender
Click By Sender in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Sender
Displays a list of senders.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Metrics by Target
Click By Target in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Target
Displays a list of targets.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
FIX Servers
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Versions
FIX versions used over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

FIX groups page

FIX Groups Toolbar
The FIX groups toolbar includes the following controls:
FIX Metric Type
Displays metrics for groups acting as a FIX client or FIX server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of FIX session-level reject reasons (error messages) sent to or received by the current group over the selected time interval. These metrics do not include the processing of order and trade errors.
Senders
Click the Senders button to display a list of institutions sending the FIX message as it appears in the SenderCompID field.
Targets
Click the Targets button to display a list of institutions receiving the FIX message as it appears in the TargetCompID field.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FIX Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
FIX Servers
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

FTP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about File Transfer Protocol (FTP) activity.

Learn more by taking the FTP Quick Peek training.

FTP applications page

FTP Applications Toolbar
The FTP application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the number FTP errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists FTP error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Warnings
The chart displays the FTP warnings (4xx error messages) transferred. The table lists the FTP warning messages and the number of times each occurred.
Users
The chart displays the number of responses and errors for all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists users and the number of responses and errors associated with each user.
Clients
Displays a chart with the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
Displays a chart with the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Users
Displays application metrics by user.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
FTP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Response Warnings
The number of responses with an FTP status code of 4xx.
Response Errors

The number of FTP response errors.

Methods
Displays the FTP commands for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP commands:

CWD
Allows the user to work with a different directory or dataset for file storage or retrieval without altering his log on or accounting information.
DELE
Causes the file specified in the path name to be deleted at the server site.
EPSV
Puts connection into extended passive mode.
LIST
Gets information for a specific working directory, if explicitly specified, or the current one if none is specified.
MDTM
Gets last-modified time of a file.
MLSD
Gets the contents of a directory.
PASS
Is a Telnet string specifying the user's password. This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command.
PASV
Requests the server-DTP to "listen" on a data port (which is not its default data port) and to wait for a connection rather than initiate one on receipt of a transfer command.
PORT
Is a HOST-PORT specification for the data port to be used in data connection.
PWD
Causes the name of the current working directory to be returned in the reply.
QUIT
Terminates a USER, and if file transfer is not in progress, the server closes the control connection. If file transfer is in progress, the connection will remain open for the result response, and the server will then close it.
RETR
Causes the server-DTP to transfer a copy of the file, specified in the path name, to the server.
SIZE
Gets the size of a file.
STOR
Causes the server-DTP to accept the data transferred via the data connection, and to store the data as a file at the server site.
SYST
Used to find out the type of operating system at the server.
TYPE
Puts the transfer mode into ASCII or Binary mode.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP reply codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP reply codes:

1xx
Positive Preliminary reply
2xx
Positive Completion reply
3xx
Positive Intermediate reply
4xx
Transient Negative Completion reply
5xx
Permanent Negative Completion reply
6xx
Protected reply

Examples of specific reply codes:

200
OK
221
Service closing control connection
225
Data connection open
226
Closing data connection
227
Entering passive mode
230
User logged in – proceed
250
Requested file action okay
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized. This might include errors such as command line too long.
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502
Command not implemented
503
Bad sequence of commands
504
Command not implemented for that parameter
530
Not logged in
550
Requested action not taken – file not available
553
Requested action not taken – filename not allowed
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

FTP devices page

Note:Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This notation might occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.
FTP Devices Toolbar
The FTP metrics toolbar includes the following controls:
FTP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an FTP client or server.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed, associated bytes sent and received, and associated errors for the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FTP Details
Specifies the type of additional FTP information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By IP
Displays FTP metrics by IP addresses.
By User
Displays FTP metrics by user name.For example, FTP Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the FTP server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the FTP Requests counter displays which IP addresses originated these requests. Selecting By User in the drop-down list while mousing over the FTP Requests counter displays which FTP user names originated these requests.
IP Address FTP Metrics
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the HTTP server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the FTP server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding FTP server device. For local FTP servers, the link leads to the FTP server device. For remote FTP servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
<Metric Value>
Displays the value of the selected metric
FTP Metrics by User
Click By User in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Users
Represents FTP user names that originated these requests.
<Metric Value>
Displays the value of the selected metric.
IP Address FTP Metrics
When you click the counters next to individual FTP metrics, the IP Address FTP Metrics table shows details about FTP peer devices. For FTP servers, the peer devices are FTP clients. For FTP clients, the peer devices are FTP servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
FTP Server
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the total number of FTP requests received on the command connection when the device is acting as an FTP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an FTP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the FTP server.
FTP Client
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the total number of FTP requests sent on the command connection when the device is acting as an FTP client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an FTP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors received by the FTP client.
Data Channel
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of data channel requests sent or received by the current device.
Connects
Specifies the number of responses sent or received by the current device.
Methods
Displays the FTP commands for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP commands:

CWD
Allows the user to work with a different directory or dataset for file storage or retrieval without altering his log on or accounting information.
DELE
Causes the file specified in the path name to be deleted at the server site.
EPSV
Puts connection into extended passive mode.
LIST
Gets information for a specific working directory, if explicitly specified, or the current one if none is specified.
MDTM
Gets last-modified time of a file.
MLSD
Gets the contents of a directory.
PASS
Is a Telnet string specifying the user's password. This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command.
PASV
Requests the server-DTP to "listen" on a data port (which is not its default data port) and to wait for a connection rather than initiate one on receipt of a transfer command.
PORT
Is a HOST-PORT specification for the data port to be used in data connection.
PWD
Causes the name of the current working directory to be returned in the reply.
QUIT
Terminates a USER, and if file transfer is not in progress, the server closes the control connection. If file transfer is in progress, the connection will remain open for the result response, and the server will then close it.
RETR
Causes the server-DTP to transfer a copy of the file, specified in the path name, to the server.
SIZE
Gets the size of a file.
STOR
Causes the server-DTP to accept the data transferred via the data connection, and to store the data as a file at the server site.
SYST
Used to find out the type of operating system at the server.
TYPE
Puts the transfer mode into ASCII or Binary mode.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP reply codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP reply codes:

1xx
Positive Preliminary reply
2xx
Positive Completion reply
3xx
Positive Intermediate reply
4xx
Transient Negative Completion reply
5xx
Permanent Negative Completion reply
6xx
Protected reply

Examples of specific reply codes:

200
OK
221
Service closing control connection
225
Data connection open
226
Closing data connection
227
Entering passive mode
230
User logged in – proceed
250
Requested file action okay
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized. Reasons might include errors such as command line too long.
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502
Command not implemented
503
Bad sequence of commands
504
Command not implemented for that parameter
530
Not logged in
550
Requested action not taken – file not available
553
Requested action not taken – filename not allowed
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Read and Write Bytes
Displays the area chart containing the breakdown of bytes by reads and writes over time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
FTP devices timing page

The timing charts draw data from the Time Selector drop-down list on the navigation toolbar. The events observed during this interval are used to fill the bins of a histogram that displays a distribution of timing data. Timing charts use a logarithmic horizontal axis that simultaneously displays events that took milliseconds and those that took seconds.

Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.

FTP groups page

Note:Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This notation might occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.
FTP Groups Toolbar
The FTP metrics toolbar includes the following controls:
FTP Metric Type
Display metrics for the current device acting as an FTP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed, associated bytes sent and received, and associated errors for the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FTP Client
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests sent by the FTP client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the FTP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors received by the FTP client.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the FTP client.
FTP Server
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests received by the FTP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the FTP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the FTP server.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the FTP server.
Data Channel
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data channel requests sent or received by the current device.
Connects
Specifies the number of responses sent or received by the current device.
Methods
Displays the FTP methods for the selected time interval. Commands include RETR (get), STOR (put), and more. Click the counter next to each method to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP status codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter next to each status code to break it down by group members in the table.
FTP groups processing time page

The Server Processing Time bar graph displays median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

HTTP-AMF

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Action Message Format (AMF) activity.

HTTP-AMF devices page

HTTP-AMF Devices Page
The HTTP-AMF device toolbar includes the following controls:
HTTP-AMF Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an HTTP-AMF client or HTTP-AMF server.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.

HTTP-AMF Details specifies the type of additional HTTP-AMF information displayed. Moving the mouse pointer over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays HTTP-AMF metrics by IP addresses.
By Target URI
Displays HTTP-AMF metrics by Target URI.

For example, HTTP-AMF Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the HTTP server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while moving the mouse pointer over the Requests counter displays which IP addresses originated these requests. Selecting By Target URI from the drop-down list while moving the mouse pointer over the HTTP-AMF Requests counter displays which URIs were accessed by the requesters.

IP Address HTTP-AMF Metrics
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the HTTP-AMF server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the HTTP-AMF server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding HTTP-AMF server device. For local HTTP-AMF servers, the link leads to the HTTP server device. For remote HTTP-AMF servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took for HTTP servers to process requests for the currently selected HTTP client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful HTTP Responses only.
HTTP-AMF Metrics by Target URI
Click By Target URI in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Target URI
Represents the full HTTP target URI.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took to process URIs requested by the currently selected HTTP client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful HTTP Responses only.
HTTP-AMF Client
If you select Client for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of requests that had no length, that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses w/o Length
Number of responses that had no length, that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
HTTP-AMF Server
If you select Server for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of requests that had no length, that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMFs server.
Responses w/o Length
Number of responses that had no length, that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.

HTTP-AMF groups page

HTTP-AMF Client
If you select Client for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of HTTP-AMF requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of HTTP-AMF responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF requests without length.
Responses w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF responses without length.
HTTP-AMF Server
If you select Server for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of HTTP-AMF requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of HTTP-AMF responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF requests without length.
Responses w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF responses without length.

IBMMQ

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about IBM message queue (IBMMQ) activity.

IBMMQ applications page

IBMMQ Applications Toobar
The IBMMQ application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart displays the number of IBMMQ errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists IBMMQ error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Warnings
The chart displays the IBMMQ warnings (4xx error messages) transferred. The table lists IBMMQ warning messages and the number of times each occurred.
PUT/GET Radio
The chart displays the total PUT and GET counts for all server IPs. Mouse-over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, and PUT and GET count for each server.
Clients
The chart displays round-trip time for all clients. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of round-trip time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, and round-trip time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart displays round-trip time for all servers. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of round-trip time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, and round-trip time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Queue
Displays application metrics by queue name.
By Channel
Displays application metrics by channel.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
IBMMQ Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of IBMMQ requests.
Responses
The number of IBMMQ responses.
Client Messages
The number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received.
Server Messages
The number of IBMMQ server messages transferred.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
Server to Server
The number of IBMMQ server-to-server message types transferred.
Client to Server
The number of IBMMQ client-to-server message types transferred.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
MQGET and MQPUT
Displays the GET and PUT count for the current device over the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.

IBMMQ devices page

IBMMQ Devices Toolbar
The IBMMQ device toolbar includes the following controls:
IBMMQ Metric Type
Displays statistics for the current device acting as a IBMMQ client or server.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
PUT/GET Ratio
Displays the PUT and GET counts for each IBMMQ device.

IBMMQ details specify the type of additional IBMMQ information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays IBMMQ metrics by IP addresses.
By Channel
Displays IBMMQ metrics by channel.
By Queue
Displays IBMMQ metrics by queue name.

For example, IBMMQ Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the IBMMQ server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the IBMMQ Requests counter displays which IP addresses originated these requests.

IP Address IBMMQ Metrics
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the IBMMQ server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS hostname of the IBMMQ server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding IBMMQ server device. For local IBMMQ servers, the link leads to the IBMMQ server device. For remote IBMMQ servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took for IBMMQ servers to process requests for the currently selected IBMMQ client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful IBMMQ Responses only.
IBMMQ
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By Channel in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IBMMQ
Represents the channel on which the IBMMQ communication is occurring.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
IBMMQ Metrics by Queue
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By Queue in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IBMMQ Queue
Represents the queue name on which the IBMMQ communication is occurring.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device sent when acting as an IBMMQ client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an IBMMQ client.
Client Messages
Number of client messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBMMQ client.
Server Messages
Number of server messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBMMQ client.
Errors
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ client, the number of responses indicating an error, broken down by specific error.
Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ client, the number of responses received, broken down by IBMMQ warning message.
PCF Errors
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ client, the number of PCF error responses, broken down by specific error. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
PCF Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ client, the number of responses received indicating a PCF warning, broken down by specific warning message. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table below.
Requests
Number of requests that the device received when acting as an IBMMQ server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an IBMMQ server.
Client Messages
Number of client messages that the device sent or received while acting as an IBMMQ server.
Server Messages
Number of server messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBMMQ server.
Errors
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ server, the number of responses indicating an error, broken down by specific error.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBMMQ server, the number of responses sent indicating a PCF warning, broken down by specific warning message. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Message Formats
Displays the IBMMQ message formats for the selected time interval.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
MQGET/MQPUT
Displays the GET and PUT count for the current device over the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.
IBMMQ devices PCF details page

Click the PCF Details node to display information specific to the administrative PCF channel.

IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table below.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Methods
Displays the IBMMQ PCF methods for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Displays the IBMMQ PCF errors for the selected time interval.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
IBMMQ devices error details page

Click the Error Details node to display additional IBMMQ warnings and error details.

IBMMQ groups page

IBMMQ Groups Toolbar
The IBMMQ groups toolbar includes the following controls:
IBMMQ Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as an IBMMQ client or IBMMQ server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current member over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current member over the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client Messages
Number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of IBMMQ server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
Number of IBMMQ PCF requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Client Messages
Number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of IBMMQ server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
Number of IBMMQ PCF requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Message Format
Displays the IBMMQ message formats for the selected time interval.
Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.

ICA

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) activity.

ICA applications page

ICAP Application Toolbar
The ICA application toolbar includes the following controls:
Users
The chart displays the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists users, the number of launches by each user, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each user. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Programs
The chart displays the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists programs, the number of launches by each program, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each program. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Clients
The chart displays the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of launches by each client, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart displays the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of launches by each server, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round trip time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Auth Domains
The chart displays the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists domains, the number of launches by each domain, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each domain. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By User
Displays application metrics by user.
By Program
Displays application metrics by program. When a Citrix flow is opaque to analysis, whether because of lost segments or RC5 encryption, the reported program name is ICA or CGP.
By Auth Domain
Displays application metrics by auth domain.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Client L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes transmitted by the Citrix ICA client.
Server L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes transmitted by the Citrix ICA server.
Client Packets
The number of packets transmitted by Citrix ICA clients.
Server Packets
The number of packets transmitted by the Citrix ICA server.
Client RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending Citrix ICA messages. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Server RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending Citrix ICA messages. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Client Nagle Delays
The number of connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Server Nagle Delays
The number of connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Client Zero Windows
The number of zero window advertisements sent by clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Server Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
ICA Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Client Messages
The number of Citrix ICA client messages transmitted.
Server Messages
The number of Citrix ICA server messages transmitted.
Client CGP Messages
The number of CGP messages sent by the Citrix ICA client. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates Citrix ICA traffic in support of Session Reliability.
Server CGP Messages
The number of CGP messages sent by the Citrix ICA server. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates Citrix ICA traffic in support of Session Reliability.
Launches
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that were launched. This count includes encrypted sessions.
Aborts
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that were initiated but closed before a Citrix program finished loading.
Encrypted
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that used an encryption method other than Basic. Certain metrics are not available for these sessions.
Screen Updates Per Second
Displays the number of screen updates per second as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Load Time (ms)
The amount of time from the beginning of the flow until the Discover appliance detects traffic on one of the following virtual channels: Clipboard, Citrix Windows Multimedia Redirection, Citrix Control Virtual Channel, or Zero Latency Font and Keyboard. Subsequent program data launched over the same session is recorded as a launch but does not factor into the load time. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the load time metrics. Click the chart to display a statistical distribution of load time per program for the selected time interval.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the network latency metrics. Click the chart to display a statistical distribution of client latency per program for the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Program Launches
Displays the number of ICA launches as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate aborts. The volume of aborts is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see per-server or per-client details for errors associated with that dot. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Program Client Bytes
Click the chart to display the total bytes per program transmitted within the selected time interval. Click the legend next to the program name to filter the information by program in the Bytes by Virtual Channels table below.
Program Server Bytes
Click the chart to display the total bytes per program transmitted within the selected time interval. Click the legend next to the program name to filter the information by program in the Bytes by Virtual Channels table below.
Bytes by Virtual Channel
Displays the breakdown of ICA throughput by virtual channel. If a specific program is selected in the App Client Bytes and App Server Bytes charts above, virtual channel information is displayed specific to the selected program.
Name
Name of the program.
Client Bytes
Represents the client byte count for the currently selected program in the above chart.
Server Bytes
Represents the server byte count for the currently selected program in the above chart.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation might be masked by superficially healthy flows.

ICA devices page

The ICA device toolbar includes the following controls:

ICA Devices Toolbar
The ICA device toolbar includes the following controls:
ICA Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices acting as an ICA client or ICA server.
Users
Click the Users button to display the ICA Server or Client: Users information for that device.
All Names
The load time for each user over the selected time interval.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Load Time (ms)
The amount of time to load the program, including the login time. Load time is measured only for the first program that is loaded. Subsequent program data launched over the same session is recorded as a launch but does not factor into the load time.
Login Time (ms)
The amount of time to log in to the program. Login time is a sub-component of the load time. When the user has gained access through a previous launch, there is no login, so login time for that user is 0.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Session Duration (sec)
The duration of each user's session.
Sessions
Click the Sessions button to display the ICA Client or Server: Sessions table for the device.
Name
The program name.
Duration (s)
The session duration by program.
Client Types
Click the Client Types button to display the ICA Client or Server: Client Types information for the device.
All Names
The number of launches for Citrix receivers over the selected time interval.
Name
The name and version of the Citrix receiver.
Count
Number of launches from that particular version of the receiver.
Auth Domain
Click the Auth Domain button to display the ICA Server or Client: Auth. Domain information for that device.
All Names
The load time for each user over the selected time interval.
Name
The device name.
Load Time (ms)
The time from the beginning of the flow until the Discover appliance detects traffic on one of the following virtual channels:
  • Clipboard
  • Citrix Windows Multimedia Redirection
  • Citrix Control Virtual Channel
  • Zero Latency Font and Keyboard
Login Time (ms)
The time between the transmission of the Citrix ICA packet that the client sends to the server with its credentials and the Citrix ICA packet that the server sends back to the client with the user name.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Session Duration (ms)
The duration of each authentication session.

ICA details specify the type of additional ICA information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By User
Displays ICA device information by user.
By Program
Displays ICA device information by program. When a Citrix flow is opaque to analysis, whether because of lost segments or RC5 encryption, the reported program name is ICA or CGP.
By IP
Displays ICA device information by IP address.
By Auth Domain
Displays ICA device information by auth domain.

For example, ICA Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the ICA server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the ICA Requests counter displays which IP addresses originated these requests.

Programs
Contains the following metrics:
Launches
Total number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Total number of Citrix ICA sessions that were initiated but closed before a Citrix program finished loading within the selected time interval.
Encrypted Sessions
Number of encrypted sessions within the selected time interval.
ICA Client or Server
If you select Client or Server for the ICA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Client Messages
Number of ICA client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of ICA server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client CGP Messages
Number of client CGP messages sent by the client within the selected time interval. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates ICA traffic.
Server CGP Messages
Number of CGP messages sent by the server within the selected time interval. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates ICA traffic.

ICA groups page

ICA Groups Toolbar
The ICA groups toolbar includes the following controls:
ICA Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list, and select either Client or Server to display metrics for members in the current group acting as an ICA client or ICA server, respectively.
Programs
Click the Programs button to display the ICA Client or Server: Program table.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Launches
Number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of Citrix session aborts within the selected time interval.
Sessions
Click the Sessions button to display the ICA Client or Server: Sessions table.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Duration (sec)
The session duration by program.
Client Types
Click the Client Types button to display the ICA Client or Server: Client Types table.
Name
The name and version of the Citrix receiver.
Count
Number of launches from that particular version of the receiver.
Launches
Total number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Total number of Citrix session aborts within the selected time interval.
ICA Client or Server
If you select Client or Server for the ICA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Client Messages
Number of ICA client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of ICA server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client CGP Messages
Number of ICA client CGP messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server CGP Messages
Number of ICA server CGP messages sent or received within the selected time interval.

iSCSI

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) activity.

iSCSI devices page

iSCSI Device Toolbar
The iSCSI device toolbar includes the following controls:
iSCSI Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an iSCSI client or iSCSI server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages broken down by iSCSI initiator sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI operation codes broken down by iSCSI initiator sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Initiators
Displays the list of iSCSI initiators establishing connections to or from the current device over the selected time interval.
IP Address iSCSI Metrics
Click the counters next to individual iSCSI metrics to show the IP Address iSCSI Metrics for iSCSI peer devices. For iSCSI servers, the peer devices are iSCSI clients. For iSCSI clients, the peer devices are iSCSI servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Target
Displays corresponding iSCSI targets.
iSCSI Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI target.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI server.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions that the device began when acting as an iSCSI target.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device received when acting as an iSCSI target.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device received when acting as an iSCSI target.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional header digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI target.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional data digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI target.
iSCSI Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI client.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions that the device began when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional header digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional data digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI initiator.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI OpCodes sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details. Click the OpCodes button to get OpCodes broken down by iSCSI initiator. OpCodes include:
  • Login Request
  • Login Response
  • Logout Request
  • Logout Response
  • SCSI Command
  • SCSI Response
  • Text Request
  • Text Response
  • SCSI Data-In
  • SCSI Data-Out
  • SCSI Task Management Response
  • SCSI Task Management Function Request
  • Ready To Transfer
  • Asynchronous Message
  • SNACK Request
  • Reject
  • Last
  • NOP-In