Web UI Guide

About this guide

This guide provides information about the web-based user interface (Web UI) for the ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances.

The purpose of this guide is to help users understand the ExtraHop system architecture and functionality as well as learn how to operate the controls, fields, and options available throughout the Web UI.

Administrator features and functions are explained in the ExtraHop Admin UI Guide.

Introduction to the ExtraHop system

Discover, observe, and analyze data with the ExtraHop system to get insights about what is happening on your network—from packets to payloads—in real-time.

The ExtraHop system helps you to monitor network activity and all your applications. For example, you can learn how well applications are using network resources, how systems and devices are communicating with each other, and how to identify transactions that are flowing across from the data link layer (L2) up to application layer (L7) in your network.

Overall, the ExtraHop platform works in the following ways:
  • Passively collecting flow data and transactions from wire data
  • Automatically discovering and classifying devices that are communicating on the network
  • Providing you with over 3,400 built-in metrics for over dozens of protocols
  • Enabling you to create custom metrics, alerts, and reports
Note:To learn more about how ExtraHop works, view the following training modules:

ExtraHop platform architecture

The ExtraHop platform comprises a suite of appliances that are designed to passively monitor the network traffic in your environment in real time. The ExtraHop system provides you with top-level and detailed metrics about the devices on your network, which you can analyze to determine where problems in your network might be developing.

ExtraHop Discover Appliance

The ExtraHop Discover appliance (EDA) provides the ability to analyze and visualize all of your network, application, client, infrastructure, and business data. The EDA passively collects unstructured wire data—all of the transactions on your network—and transforms this data into structured wire data.

Deploy a single EDA, either physical or virtual, anywhere in your network environment.

ExtraHop Explore Appliance

The ExtraHop Explore appliance (EXA) integrates with the ExtraHop Discover appliance to store transaction and flow records sent from the EDA. You can see, save, and search the structured flow and transaction information about events on your network with a simple, unified UI, with no modifications to your existing applications or infrastructure. Deploy a cluster of three or more EXA nodes to take advantage of data redundancy and performance improvements.

ExtraHop Command Appliance

The ExtraHop Command appliance (ECA) provides centralized management and reporting across multiple ExtraHop Discover appliances that are distributed across datacenters, branch offices, and the public cloud.

With an Explore appliance or cluster, you can pair the Explore appliance to multiple Discover appliances, and then query the records stored on each Discover node from the Command appliance.

For most large ExtraHop deployments, a dedicated ECA is the most efficient way to manage all of your remote appliances.

To learn more about the ExtraHop platform, view the following training modules:

Metrics from wire data

The ExtraHop system collects a copy of unstructured packets from protocol activity on your network and transforms it into structured wire data that you can explore and analyze.

The ExtraHop system passively collects a copy of unstructured packets through a port mirror or tap and places this copy into a datastore. The data from the copy then goes through real-time stream processing,which transforms the packets into structured wire data through the following stages:
  1. TCP state machines are recreated to perform full-stream reassembly.
  2. Packets are constructed into flows.
  3. The structured data is analyzed, which leads to the following results:
    1. Transactions are identified
    2. Devices are automatically discovered by MAC and IP address detection and then classified by their activity.
    3. Metrics are generated and associated with protocols and sources, and the metric data is then aggregated into metric cycles.
      Note:Aggregation roll ups, also referred to as metric cycles, help determine the granularity of metric data in time series analyses. For more information, see the Time interval section.

Device discovery

The ExtraHop system automatically discovers devices based on what is happening on the network. ExtraHop has two device discovery modes: layer 2 (L2) discovery and layer 3 (L3) discovery.

L2 discovery
Detects an L2 address (MAC address).
L3 discovery
Detects an L3 address (IP address). This mode is the default and most commonly deployed discovery mode. The ExtraHop system discovers the IP address for a device by monitoring ARP (Address Request Protocol) responses, and then matching the MAC address in the response to a parent L2 device. The ExtraHop system maintains the linkage between L2 “parent” and L3 “child” devices.

After a device is discovered, the ExtraHop system tracks all of the wire data traffic associated with the device. Based on the type of traffic, the ExtraHop system assigns a device type to the device, such as a gateway, file server, database, or load balancer.

A device can be identified by multiple names, which are all searchable. The ExtraHop system discovers device names by passively monitoring naming protocols, including DNS, DHCP, NETBIOS, and Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP). If a name is not discovered through a naming protocol, the default name is derived from the device attributes (MAC address for L2 devices and IP address for L3 devices). You can also create a custom name for a device on the Devices page.

By default, all IP addresses that are observed outside of locally-monitored broadcast domains are aggregated at one of the incoming routers in your network. To identify and learn about individual devices outside of these routers, which are beyond your local network, you can create custom devices and enable reporting on these devices. For more information, see the Custom devices section. You can also create a remote network that defines a range of IP addresses that are not on the local network. The ExtraHop system will then discover remote devices by their IP address.

Search for a device

You can filter searches on the Devices page with Find controls, which are located below the toolbar, to help you locate specific devices in the network capture.

By default, the search feature performs a substring search on the value entered in the Find text box. For example, if you submit the letter z for a name search, then the list of devices returned by the search includes all devices that have a letter z in the name, regardless of position.

If the search string value starts and ends with a forward slash (/), the portion of the input between the slashes is interpreted as a regular expression. The regular expression must be written in PostgreSQL syntax. Refer to PostgreSQL documentation for more information.

Searches can be filtered by the following device attributes:

any
Matches a substring in any device element.
ip address
Matches a substring in the device IP address. The IP address criteria can include CIDR notation in IP address/subnet prefix length format. For example, 10.10.0.0/16 for IPv4 networks or 2001:db8::/32 for IPv6 networks.
name
Matches a substring in the device name.
node
(Command appliance only) Matches a substring in the node name.
mac address
Matches a substring in the device MAC address.
tag
Matches a substring in the user-defined device tag.
type
Matches a substring to a specified device attribute type. When you select type, the Find text box becomes a drop-down list. In the Find drop-down list, select from the following:
Activity
Includes the metric types that were active in the selected time interval. For example, selecting HTTP Server returns devices with HTTP server metrics, and any other device with the custom type set to HTTP Server.
Device type
Includes Gateway, Firewall, Load Balancer, File Server, and Custom Device.
Class
Includes Node, Remote, Custom, and Pseudo.
vendor
Matches a substring in the device vendor name as determined by the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) lookup.
vlan
Matches a substring in the device Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) tag. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves them on the mirror port.
  1. Navigate to a page that includes a device list, such as Networks, Devices, or Groups.
  2. In the Find field, type search string characters.
    The device attribute filter is set to any by default, which applies the search string to all device attributes. You can adjust the search string to apply to a particular device attribute, such as the device name or the MAC address.
  3. In the by drop-down list, select the device attribute that you want to search for.
    If you select the type attribute in your search, the Find field becomes a drop-down list that is populated with attributes to choose from.
  4. Click Search.
    The device list is populated with the devices that match the search criteria.

Where to start in the ExtraHop system

Log into the ExtraHop Web UI and explore your network environment. The ExtraHop system supports two primary workflows for learning more about your environment:

Top-down
Start with high-level charts and device groups that display all of the activity on your network. When you see something interesting, you can drill-down to specific devices and transaction details.
Bottom-up
Search for a particular device, URI, or database. You can then explore real-time metrics and activity associated with that device, and pivot to different devices and protocols to learn more.

Explore your environment from the top-down

Review system dashboards
When you log into the ExtraHop system, you will see the Activity dashboard. This dashboard is a good starting point because it shows you everything happening on your network. For more information about this dashboard, and how to build your own, see the Get started with dashboards section.
Drill down on interesting data
When you see a spike in traffic or other interesting data, you can drill down to see which devices are associated with that data. For more information, see the Drill-down functionality section.
Explore activity groups
Another way to get a top-down view of specific activity is to explore activity groups. For more information, see the Activity groups page section.

Explore your environment from the bottom-up

Search for a device
ExtraHop automatically discovers devices that communicate on the network. You can search for devices by IP address, URI, or other attributes. For more information, see the Search for a device section.
Create a group
After you have found devices that are important to you, you can build a custom group of devices and track their activity. For more information, see the Custom groups section.
Build a dashboard
You can create a custom dashboard view of your devices to see real-time information that is most relevant to you. For more information, see the Dashboard walkthrough: View web application performance topic.

Customize your ExtraHop system

As you become familiar with the ExtraHop system, you can create customizations to support your workflows, identify specific issues, and collect custom metrics.

Set up alerts
Configure threshold and trend-based alerts that notify you when there is a potential issue with a network device. For more information, see the Alerts section.
Create reports
Generate reports on network metrics for a particular time interval, and export the information as a PDF file or as CSV data. For more information, see the Reports section.
Build a geomap
Geomaps display metrics across a global map, which indicates where metrics activity has occurred. For more information, see the Geomaps section.
Apply a bundle
Bundles are system objects saved as a JSON file. A bundle contains information about a selected ExtraHop system configuration, such as triggers, dashboards, applications, or alerts. Apply a bundle to your ExtraHop system, or create a bundle to share with others. For more information, see the Bundles section.
Build a trigger
Create a custom metric with a trigger. Triggers are custom scripts that perform an action upon a pre-defined event. Triggers require planning to make sure a trigger doesn’t negatively impact system performance. For more information, see the Triggers section.

Additional resources

Introduction to the ExtraHop Web UI

The ExtraHop Discover and Command appliances provide access to your network, application, client, and infrastructure data through a dynamic and highly customizable Web UI.

After you log into the ExtraHop appliance with a browser over HTTPS, you can immediately view your network activity through built-in system dashboards. If your environment includes a Command appliance, you can monitor all of the activity on your distributed Discover appliances from a single, centralized Command appliance.

The Web UI also enables you to:

  • Create custom dashboard views of your network traffic in real time for the information that is most relevant to you. For more information, see Dashboards.
  • Configure threshold and trend based alerts that notify you when there is a potential issue with a network device. For more information, see Alerts.
  • View and drill down into real-time metrics about protocol activity on your network. For more information, see Metrics and Drill-down functionality.
  • Generate reports on network metrics during a particular time interval, and export the information to PDFs or as CSV data. For more information, see Reports.
  • Create custom applications and custom metrics, and track metrics for proprietary traffic. For more information, see Customizing ExtraHop appliances.

In addition, if your ExtraHop Discover appliance is paired to an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can directly access stored transaction records through the Discover Web UI. Or, if you are monitoring multiple Discover appliances through a Command appliance, you can retrieve record information by node through the Command Web UI.

Discover and Command appliance administration tasks are available through the ExtraHop Admin UI for users with full administrator permissions. For more information, see the ExtraHop Admin UI Guide.

Explore appliance administration tasks are available through the ExtraHop Explore Admin UI. For more information, see the ExtraHop Explore Admin UI Guide.

See the complete ExtraHop documentation set: https://docs.extrahop.com.

The ExtraHop Web UI provides a framework of elements that remain static as you move around the system. The information and options in the left and content panes of the Web UI change based on your selections in the top menu.

The following figure identifies both global navigation elements and the areas of the Web UI that will change based on your selection.

Top Menu

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI.

Dashboards
Provides built-in system dashboards that give you an instant view of the activity on your network. You can also create and share dashboards with other users.
Metrics
Provides access to system metrics sources, group metrics, and record queries.
Alerts
Provides access to the Alerts pages where you can configure new alerts and view the alert history for your appliance.
Global Search field
Enables you to type any object or search criteria and find a match on your Discover appliance. If you have an ExtraHop Explore appliance configured, you can also search for saved records.
Community Icon
Launches a new tab in your web browser to the ExtraHop forums and to other external resources.
Help icon
Launches documentation for the page that you are currently viewing.
System Settings
Provides access to system configuration options.
User Icon
Enables you to log in and log out of your Discover appliance or Command appliance, change your password, and access API options.

The following elements are located across the top of the Web UI, below the top menu.

Pane toggle
Enables you to collapse or expand the left pane.
Global Time Selector
Enables you to determine the global time interval that is applied to all system metrics.
Recent Pages
Enables you to see the most recent pages you visited. Repeated pages are deduplicated and condensed to save space.
Navigation Path
Displays where you are in the system and provides available pivot points so you can search for the same metrics across multiple protocols, devices, or other swappable criteria.
Command menu drop-down
Appears throughout the Web UI and contains context-sensitive commands for the area you are in. For example, when you click the Dashboards top menu, the command menu at the end of the navigation bar provides options to view dashboard properties and to create a new dashboard.

The left pane and content pane change based on your selections. See the following sections to learn more about each feature.

Time selector

The Time Selector enables you to specify a time interval for the collection and presentation of network data. There are two types of Time Selectors: a Global Time Selector for specifying global time intervals, and a Region Time Selector for specifying region time intervals.

The Global Time Selector is located at the top-left of the navigation bar. The Region Time Selector is located to the top-right of the dashboard region header.

A global time interval is applied across the Discover appliance. Navigating from one area to another will not change the time interval for the metrics you are viewing. This means that the same time interval applies whether you are viewing different metrics across the Web UI or if you are drilling-down to view detailed metrics.

Note:Global time interval information is included at the end of the URL. When copying a URL, make sure that the entire URL is copied to maintain the specified global time interval.

A region time interval is applied by dashboard region and you can set different time intervals per-region. When you add a widget to an existing region, the widget inherits the time interval for that region.

You can apply either a global time interval or a region time interval to a dashboard region. To toggle between time intervals, start by clicking the command menu in the region header. To apply a region time interval, select Use Region Time Selector. To apply a global time interval, select Use Global Time Selector. When the Region Time Selector disappears from the region header, this indicates that the global time interval is applied to the region.

To specify a global or region time interval:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or the Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, select one of the following options:
    Last 30 minutes
    Displays the last 30 minutes of data collected.
    Last 6 hours
    Displays the last six hours of data collected.
    Last day
    Displays the last 24 hours of data collected.
    Last week
    Displays the last seven days of data collected.
    Last
    Displays the data collected within a custom time window. For more information, see the Specify a time window section.
    Custom time range
    Displays the data collected within a fixed time range. For more information, see the Specify a custom time range section.
  3. Click Save.

You can view metrics with different levels of granularity based on the time interval that you specify. For more information, see the Time interval section.

Time intervals are preserved across a login session. The five most recent unique time intervals are also saved in the Time Selector History tab.

To select a previous time interval:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. Click the History tab.
  3. Select a time interval. You selection will be applied to the options on the Time Interval tab.
  4. Click Save.
Displaying Running Time and Snapshot Time Intervals

For dashboards and top-level metrics pages—where metrics are polled automatically—you will see the running time for the global time interval displayed in the Global Time Selector.

For a detailed metric page or a records query results page—where metrics are not polled automatically—you will see the snapshot of the global time interval, which includes a blue refresh icon and gray text that indicates when the metric or record query was last polled. To reload the metrics or query for the specified time interval, click the refresh icon in the Global Time Selector display.

Specify a time window

To view metrics that occurred at a specific time, you can modify the settings in the custom time window option in the Time Selector to specify the number of minutes, hours, days, or years from the present.

To specify a custom time window for a global or region time interval:

  1. Click the Global or Region Time Selector and select the Last radio button in the Time Interval tab.
  2. Type the number of units of time.
  3. Click the drop-down list and select minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years.
  4. Click Save.
Compare metric deltas

From the Dashboards page, you can compare a single metric across two time intervals.

Note:Delta comparison is only available for dashboards. If you save a comparison and navigate to another area of the Discover appliance, the comparison will be disabled temporarily. When you return to the Dashboards area, the delta comparison you saved will be enabled again.

To create a delta comparison for a dashboard region:

  1. Locate the dashboard region containing the metrics you want to compare.
  2. Click the Time Selector.
    • If you applied a global time interval to the dashboard region, click the Global Time Selector in the navigation bar.
    • If you applied a region time interval to the dashboard region, click the Region Time Selector in the upper right corner of the region.
    For more information, see the Time Selector topic.
  3. Click Compare in the Time Interval tab.
  4. In the Delta Comparison pane, select the time interval to use in the comparison or enter your own custom ending time.
  5. Click Save.

    On the dashboard, a new chart is overlaid onto the previous chart displaying the metrics for the new time interval.

Specify a custom time range

To view metrics that occurred during a specific time, you can specify a custom time range or you can zoom in on a chart.

To specify a custom time range:

  1. Click the Global Time Selector or Region Time Selector.
  2. From the Time Interval tab, and select Custom Time Range.
    The drop-down field will display a default time range.
  3. Click the drop-down field. A calendar dialog box opens.
  4. Click a day to specify the start date for the range. One click will specify a single day. Clicking another day will specify the end date for the range.
    Note:Use the back and forward arrows on the calendar to change the month displayed on the calendar.
  5. Click Save.
Zoom in on a time range

You can click-and-drag across a region in a line chart to zoom in and specify a custom time range in the Time Selector. For example, if you observe a spike in a chart, you can click-and-drag across the spike to zoom in on the activity that occurred in that time range.

Note:This option is only available for time-series charts. It is not available for bar charts, text widgets, or tables.

If you are zooming in on a chart within a dashboard region that has a region time interval applied to it, this time range will become the region time interval for every widget in that region (unless you have applied a global time interval to that dashboard region). The ability to zoom in on a time range is useful for observing other metric activity that occurred in that same time range. For more information, see the Time selector section.

If the specified time range is valid it appears green. If the specified time range is less than one minute, the range is invalid and appears red.

Note:Data might not be available for the zoomed time range.
  1. Click and drag your mouse across the chart to select a time range.
  2. Release the mouse button. The graph is redrawn to the specified time range.

The scales on the chart’s axes update to reflect the range of values in the zoomed time range. In addition, the Custom Time Range value in the Time Selector adjusts to reflect the time range in the chart.

If you want to revert from the zoomed time range back to your original time interval, click the undo icon—a magnifying glass with a minus sign—in the Time Selector. For example, if you originally specified "Last 30 minutes" as your time interval, and then perform a series of zoom operations on a chart, you can revert back to your original 30-minute time interval with one click on the undo icon.

Get started with ExtraHop

The Get started series introduces new users to the basic concepts, features, and functionality of ExtraHop features.

The following sections will introduce you to terminology and show you how to navigate ExtraHop features in the Web UI. After you have read these sections, you can find comprehensive procedures for each feature in their respective sections.

Get started with dashboards

The ExtraHop Discover appliance provides expansive and granular metrics about the traffic on your network. The possibilities are endless, but the initial view can be overwhelming. Dashboards are a powerful feature that can help showcase the data that is most relevant to your daily operations in real-time and manage the signal to noise ratio of your network activity.

Comprehensive concepts and procedures are available in the Dashboards section, but the information in the following sections will help you get started.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules:

When you log into the ExtraHop appliance for the first time, a built-in system dashboard displays a high-level overview of all the activity happening on your network.

All ExtraHop users with active accounts can view the two system dashboards, which are the Activity dashboard and the Network dashboard. For more information, see the System dashboards section.

The following figure shows how you can modify global navigation options and control your view of dashboard metrics.

When you select Dashboards from the top menu, the left pane displays the dashboard dock. The dock has a set of folders that contains the system dashboards and any custom dashboards that you create or share. You can create additional folders in the dock as needed. When you select a dashboard from the left pane, the dashboard displays in the center pane.

The following fields and controls are available in the dashboard dock.

  • Type to filter field: Enables you to limit the displayed list of items.
  • Dashboard sort buttons: Enables you to switch between ascending, descending, and custom sort views.
  • Dashboard Inbox: Displays a list of dashboards that have been shared with you by other users. To share your dashboard with others, see the Share a dashboard section.
  • My Dashboards: Displays a list of dashboards that you created. You can keep these dashboards private or share them with other users. To create your own dashboard, see the Create a dashboard and Configure a dashboard sections. Editing access to your dashboard can be granted on a per-user basis. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
  • System Dashboards: Displays the default built-in dashboards that provide you with a high-level overview of everything happening on your network in real-time. The two system dashboards, which are the Activity dashboard and the Network dashboard, cannot be deleted, modified, or shared. For more information, see the System dashboards section.
  • New Dashboard: Enables you to create a new dashboard.
  • Command menu button: Enables you to edit the dock and create a new, empty folder.

In addition, when you select Dashboards from the top menu, a command menu appears on the far right of the navigation bar. The following fields and controls are available in the Dashboards command menu.

  • Edit Layout: Customize your dashboards.
  • Dashboard Properties: Edit your dashboard name and access rights.
  • Share: Share your dashboard with another user.
  • Print: Send the dashboard you are viewing to a printer.
  • Modify Sources: Modify the metric sources used in the dashboard.
  • Copy: Save a duplicate of your dashboard.
  • Delete: Remove a dashboard from the system.
  • New Dashboard: Create a new dashboard.
  • Show Descriptions: Display tooltips where available.
  • Presentation Mode: Display a full-screen view of the metrics on the currently selected dashboard.
  • Widget Slideshow: Display a slideshow of widgets within the current window.
  • Metric Explorer: Configure and add widgets to to a dashboard.

Plan a dashboard

Building a custom dashboard is one of the most effective ways to highlight your high-priority network traffic.

There are four basic steps to building a custom dashboard from the Dashboard page:

  1. Identify the devices or traffic that you want to monitor. For example, there are three categories of metrics you might want to start with:
    • Availability metrics: These metrics track client requests and server responses and help answer the question, is my server offline or unavailable?
    • Reliability metrics: These metrics track error rates for server responses and help answer the question, is my server functioning properly?
    • Performance metrics: These metrics track server performance by measuring server processing times for sending response to requests and help answer the question, is my server properly resourced?
  2. Create a dashboard, which will provide an empty region that contains an empty chart and empty text box widget.
  3. Configure the empty chart, by adding metrics through the Metric Explorer, which provides options for configuring metrics sources, metrics types, and chart types.
    • Select a metric source, which might be an important server (such as web server, database, or LDAP server) or a group of devices generating specific traffic (such as all HTTP clients).
    • Select metrics, which might be about availability (such as HTTP request and response rates), reliability (such as database errors over time), or performance (such as server processing times).
    • Select a chart type.
  4. Configure a dashboard, by adding more widgets and regions.
    Tip:Consider adding multiple chart types for a single metric to create multiple views of that data.
Important:You can also build a dashboard from a protocol page. This method enables you to quickly add charts to a new or existing dashboard around an application, device, network, or group that you are exploring in the Web UI. Click Metrics from the top menu, select the source and then protocol of interest. On the protocol page, click Open in Metric Explorer. Configure your chart, click Add to Dashboard, and select an existing dashboard from the list or click New Dashboard.
Note:Learn more by taking the Build Your First Dashboard training.

Dashboard components

Dashboards are composed of customizable regions and widgets. Regions are spaces that hold and compartmentalize widgets. A widget is a chart, text box, alert history list, activity group list, or network list. Understanding how these components work and the type of information each widget displays can help you build your dashboard.

Region

A region is a compartment that contains widgets.

You can modify regions in the following ways:
  • Apply a specific time range to all of the widgets within a region.
  • Rename the title of your region
  • Modify the metric source for all of the widgets within a region
  • Delete a region, which will also delete all of the widgets within that region
  • You can click and drag from the lower right corner of the region to resize the compartment and make room for additional widgets
Note:See the Time selector section to learn about the differences between the global time interval and region time interval.
Widget

Widgets are configurable dashboard components that can be added to a region for different functions. Drag-and-drop different types of widgets into a region, or drag-and-drop a new region onto your dashboard.

The following widget types are available:

Chart widget
A chart contain metrics. When you configured the chart for the first time, you need to select which chart is best for visualizing data. For example, candlestick chart is effective for seeing outliers easily. For more information, see Configure a chart section.
Text box widget
A text box contains that text that you write and format in Markdown. Text boxes are useful for adding descriptive information about charts and regions. For more information, see Configure a text box widget section.
Alert History widget
Displays details about active alerts for metric sources on your network. For example, with this widget, you can quickly identify emergency alerts that have fired, and then navigate to the source of the alert.
Activity Groups widget
Displays the number of devices in activity groups. The Discover appliance automatically generates activity groups, which are groups of devices based on the type of network traffic they generate. A device might appear in more than one activity group if it has multiple types of traffic. For example, with this widget, you can see how many CIFS clients are actively generating requests on your network.
Networks widget (Command appliance only)
Displays the details about network captures that the Command appliance is configured to monitor. You can see how many devices and applications are active on each network.

Metric Explorer

The Metric Explorer is a tool for configuring dashboard charts. In the Metric Explorer, you can add metrics to a chart and immediately view how metric data will appear in a preview pane. The preview pane dynamically updates as you make metric and chart type selections, which enables you to explore and change how your data is visualized in a dashboard.

The Metric Explorer provides the following components for configuring a chart.

Metrics tab
Add metrics to your chart. A metric source is an application, device, group, or network capture in the ExtraHop system. After you select a source, you can search for and select metrics to add to your chart. You also have additional metric options that enable you to drill down on top-level metrics, and you can choose how to summarize data (such as median, percentiles, or different types of rates). Summary options and chart types are available for specific metric types. For more information, see the Chart types and Types of top-level metrics sections.
Annotations tab
Add a threshold line to your chart.
Options tab
Convert metrics into a per second average rates, and configure units, legends, and chart appearance. For more information, see the Chart options section.
Preview section
Preview how metric data will display in your chart. The preview dynamically updates as you add and remove metrics from the Metrics tab.
Type section
Toggle between chart types to see how data is represented, such as in a line chart, pie chart, or heatmap. Preview metric data to determine which chart is the best choice for visualizing the data you are interested in.

The following figure displays a configured chart widget.

Dashboard walkthrough: monitoring website performance

When website performance slows down, knowing whether the issue is occurring at the application or network-level can save you troubleshooting time. In the ExtraHop system, a dashboard is an effective tool for monitoring real-time data, and for identifying and troubleshooting issues.

In this walkthrough, you will build a dashboard to help answer the following questions about website performance in your network environment:
  • How many requests are clients sending to my web servers?
  • Are my web servers working properly?
  • Is network availability affecting web applications?
  • Is my network unusually slow?
Important:Familiarize yourself with the concepts in this walkthrough by reading the Get started with dashboards section.

Let's get started!

Create a dashboard

Before you begin

You must have access to an ExtraHop Discover appliance with a user account with limited or full write permissions. Your ExtraHop appliance must also have network data with web server traffic.
When you create a new dashboard, the workspace opens in an editable layout mode with a single region and two empty widgets: a chart and a text box.
  1. Log into the ExtraHop Web UI.
  2. On the Dashboard page, click the command menu in the upper right corner, and select New Dashboard to create an empty dashboard.
  3. Type a name for your dashboard title in the Title field. For this walkthrough, type Website performance.
  4. Click Create.
Configure your chart and select metrics

Add and configure a chart to display the total number of requests sent to your web server to understand how web transactions might affect website performance. You will add more charts later, but these steps will show you how to select a metric source and add metrics in the Metric Explorer.

  1. Click the empty chart widget in your newly created dashboard to launch the Metric Explorer.
  2. Click Add Metric Source and type All Activity. The All Activity metric source is available by default and contains metrics about all of the devices discovered on your network.
    Tip:If there is a specific web server that you want to monitor, type the name of the server into the search field instead of All Activity, and select that server as your source.
  3. Select All Activity from the list. After you make your selection, a field appears for you to select a metric.
  4. Begin typing requests to filter from all of the available metrics, and then select HTTP Requests.
  5. Click the Options tab and deselect Show as rate (per second) to display the total number of requests.
  6. Select the Value chart type from the bottom of the Metric Explorer. The preview pane immediately displays the number of HTTP requests sent to web servers on your network that have occurred during the last 30 minutes.
  7. Click Save.
The following figure displays the settings for the Metric tab.

When you return to your dashboard, the configured chart is displayed.

Because dashboards are often created and shared with members of a network team, you can add explanatory text boxes next to your charts. For this walkthrough, however, we will not be adding text, and you can delete the text box by completing the following steps:
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the text box widget and select Delete.
  2. Click Delete Widget.
Add more charts and metrics
The power of the dashboard lies in compiling a single page with many views of your network traffic. In this section, you’ll learn how to add regions to compartmentalize your charts, add more charts, and add more than one metric to those charts.

All dashboard components are available for you to drag and drop from the bottom of the dashboard page.

Customize your layout

Resize the dashboard workspace to make room for additional widgets.

  1. Drag a chart to the empty area of the top region where the text box was. If there is overlap, dashboard components will outline in red, and you must click and drag the sides of the widgets and regions to make room.
  2. Drag a second region to the dashboard. Drag a chart to the new region, and then drag a final chart to the remaining empty area in the new region.
  3. Click Rename to type a unique name for each region. For this walkthrough, rename the top region to Web and the bottom region to Network.
Add charts and metrics

Repeat the instructions provided earlier to configure the new charts. While you will continue to set your metric source to All Activity, the tables below outline the selections you should make for the metrics and chart types in each chart.

Configure the Web region

Chart 1: You configured this Value chart type earlier to display the total number of client requests sent to your web servers.

Chart 2: Add two metrics in the Line & Column chart type to correlate web transactions (HTTP responses) to critical server errors (HTTP Errors), as displayed in the following figure:

Metrics HTTP Responses and HTTP Errors
Chart type Line & Column
Configuration notes
  • Select Display as Columns on the HTTP Errors metric
  • Click the Options tab and deselect both Show line chart as rate (per second) and Show column chart as rate (per second)
Configure the Network region

Chart 1: Add two metrics in the Line chart type to see how long it is taking for data to cross the network (HTTP Round Trip Time). You’ll add this metric twice, once for median values and once for the 95th percentile, as displayed in the following figure:

Metrics HTTP Round Trip Time
Chart type Line
Configuration notes
  • To add a median and 95 percentile line, add HTTP Round Trip Time twice.
  • For one of the metrics, click the drop-down list underneath the metric name and select Percentile.

Chart 2: Add two metrics in the Area chart type to correlate network retransmission timeouts (RTOs) to website performance, as displayed in the following figure:

Metrics HTTP Request RTOs and HTTP Response RTOs
Chart type Area
Configuration notes Click the Options tab to deselect Show as rate (per second).
Complete the dashboard

After you have completed configuring all of the charts, click Exit Layout Mode. Your dashboard should look similar to the following figure, though your charts will reflect your network data.

Assess your website performance

You can now monitor your website performance on a regular basis.
Question What to look for in your dashboard
How many requests are clients sending to my web servers? The Value chart lets you glance at the total value for a metric. Monitoring the total number of requests daily can give you a sense of the amount of website transactions that are being received by your servers.
Are my web servers working properly? The Line & Column chart shows you the relationship of 500-level status codes (server unavailability errors) to web transactions over time. An increase in errors that correlates with a drop in transactions might indicate that a server issue is affecting website performance.
Is network availability affecting web applications? The median line gives a sense of how long it typically takes for packets, or data, to transfer between clients and servers across the network over time. The 95th percentile line shows the longest data transfer times. Spikes and trends that are correlated to a drop in web transactions might indicate that a network issue is affecting website performance.
Is my network unusually slow? The retransmission timeout (RTO) metric helps to identify packet loss and to locate the congested links. Because the combination of request and response RTOs can contribute to a slow website, if you see a large volume of your area in the chart that correlates to a drop in web transactions, this might indicate that a network issue is affecting website performance.

Share your dashboard

Share this dashboard with other teams to help you keep an eye on website performance and identify issues that are potentially occurring in an application or on the network.

  1. In the upper right corner of the dashboard, in the navigation bar, click the command menu.
  2. Click Share.
  3. Select All users can view; only specified users can edit to provide all ExtraHop users at your organization with dashboard viewing privileges.
    Note:You can restrict dashboard access to specific users. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
  4. Click Save.

Get started with metrics

The ExtraHop system provides you with over 3,400 built-in metrics for over a dozen protocols. A metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Because the ExtraHop system provides so many L2 through L7 protocol metrics to view, it can be challenging to know where to find the metrics that are most important to you.

You can view metrics and records by their source, such as a device, application, or network capture. In the Discover and Command appliances, you can search for metrics by source or protocol pages and you can view metrics in dashboard widgets.

To find metrics in protocol pages, click Metrics from the top menu. The left pane displays sources, device groups, and record queries. As you select options from the sources and groups in the left pane, the center pane displays the protocol pages associated with your selection. Protocol pages display metrics in tables, lists, and charts.

The following fields and controls are available in the left pane:

Type to filter field
Enables you to limit the displayed list of items.
Sources
Enables you to select metrics for applications, devices, and networks.
Groups
Enables you to select metrics for activity groups or to create a custom group and view metrics associated with those groups.
Records
Enables you to query records and save queries for future use.
Tip:When looking for important metrics that are relevant to you, start with a device you are already familiar with. Search for a device, and then click on the device name. On the device protocol page, you can pivot across protocols in the left pane and view top-level metrics and charts in the center pane to see all of the network activity associated with your device.
Note:If there are no results for a metric, or if a protocol appears to be missing, the ExtraHop did not detect any related activity or traffic for that source. To learn more about how ExtraHop collects metrics, see the Metrics from wire data section.

Dashboards are another way to explore the metrics that are most relevant to you. For example, you can plan and build a custom dashboard with charts that highlight your top devices and most critical network traffic. For more information, see the Get started with dashboards section.

If your Discover appliance is paired with an Explore appliance, you can search for flow and transaction information about metric sources through record queries. For more information about records and record queries, see the Records section.

Sources

In the ExtraHop system, a metric is a measurement of observed network behavior. Metrics are generated from network traffic, and then each metric is associated with a source. Each source provides access to a different collection of metrics.

Select from the following sources as you configure dashboard widgets or navigate across protocol pages:

Applications
Applications are user-defined containers for metrics that are associated with multiple devices and protocols. These containers can represent distributed applications on your network environment. In the ExtraHop system, applications are defined by triggers, which are custom scripts. Triggers can collect metrics across multiple types of network traffic to capture information with cross-tier impact. For example, if you want a unified view of all the network traffic associated with a website—from web transactions to DNS requests and responses to database transactions—you can write a trigger to create a custom application that contains all of these website-related metrics. The default All Activity application contains metrics for every device on your network. For more information, see the Applications section.
Devices
Devices are objects on your network that have been automatically discovered a MAC address and IP address, and classified by the ExtraHop system. Metrics are available for every discovered device on your network. For more information, see the Devices page and the Search for a device sections.
Networks
A network is the entry point into the network capture, and metrics are collected for network capture attributes, network alerts, and network traffic details. These metrics provide a summary of all network activity retrieved in the capture. For more information, see the Networks section.
VLANs
A Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a logical grouping of traffic or devices on the network. VLAN information is extracted from VLAN tags, if the traffic mirroring process preserves the tags on the mirror port. To locate a VLAN, click Metrics, and then click Networks.
Device groups
Device groups, also known as custom groups, can be either static or dynamic. You must manually identify and assign individual devices to a static group. Alternatively, you can configure rules to automatically assign devices to a dynamic group. For example, you can create a dynamic group and then configure a rule to add all devices within a certain IP address range to that group automatically. For more information, see the Custom groups section.
Activity groups
Activity groups contain devices that are automatically grouped together based on their network traffic. A device with multiple types of traffic might appear in more than one activity group. For more information see the Activity groups page section.
Top-level metrics and detail metrics

Top-level metrics and detail metrics provide different views about network activity. Top-level metrics provide you with a big-picture value to help identify what is happening on your network. You can then drill down on a top-level metric to view detail metrics. Detail metrics provide you with a value for a specific key (such as a client or server IP address), which gives you insight into how a specific device, method, or resource is affecting the network.

On the Dashboard page, you can configure charts to display either top-level or detail metrics. On protocol pages, you can view top-level metrics and then drill down to view detail metrics.

A top-level, or base, metric gives you a sum of data for a specified time period. The ExtraHop system provides you with real-time updates about top-level metrics. For example, you can view the total number of HTTP requests sent by a device for the last 30 minutes.

In the following figure, a Bar chart displays the top-level metric for the total number of HTTP requests that were sent to a web server during a specific time period.

Detail metrics provide you with a metric value for a specific key, such as a client IP address, server IP address, URI, hostname, referrer, certificate, or method. For example, you can drill down on the total number of HTTP requests to break out the number of requests sent per client. When you drill down, the ExtraHop system provides you with a topnset of detail metrics. A topnset is the top 1,000 key-value pairs calculated for the time interval you specify in the Time Selector. A topnset is not a complete data set because a topnset only represents the key-values that are recorded for a specific aggregation roll up (based on a specified time interval), and is limited to up to 1,000 keys per topnset.

In the following figure, a Bar chart displays detail metric values by client (which is a key) after drilling down on the top-level metric for HTTP requests. Specifically, the chart displays eight clients that sent the most requests to the web server during a specific time period. You can configure charts to show you either a specific key or a specific number of keys from a topnset.

Note:When drilling down to detail metrics from protocol pages, you might encounter a chart that includes more than 1,000 keys. Some charts in the ExtraHop system combine topnsets for multiple detail metrics into one table. You can then sort keys by detail metrics. For example, when you drill down on the responses metric by URI from the Metrics > Applications > All Activity > Web page, the chart displays both a topnset of URIs for HTTP Responses and a topnset of URIs for Server Processing Time.
Types of top-level metrics

Each top-level metric in the ExtraHop system is classified into a metric type. Understanding the distinctions between metric types can help you configure charts or write triggers to capture custom metrics. For example, a heatmap chart can only display dataset metrics.

Count
The number of events that occurred over a specific time period. You can view count metrics as a rate or a total count. For example, a byte is recorded as a count, and can either represent a throughput rate (as seen in a time series chart) or total traffic volume (as seen in a table). Rates are helpful for comparing counts over different time periods. A count metric can be calculated as a per-second average over a time period. When viewing high-precision bytes and packet metrics, you can also view a maximum rate and minimum rate. Count metrics include errors, packets, and responses.
Dataset
A distribution of data that provides percentiles, which indicate the frequency of observed data points over a specified time period. A dataset provides you with a minimum value, percentiles (such as 5th, 25th, 75th, or 95th), a median (the 50th percentile), and a maximum value. Dataset metrics include processing time and round trip time.
Maximum
A single data point that represents the maximum value from a specified time period.
Sampleset
A summary of data that provides a mean (average) and standard deviation over a specified time period. Sampleset metrics typically summarize data about a detail metric.
Snapshot
A data point that represents a single point in time. Snapshot metrics include ratios, current connections, and established TCP connections.
Tip:Visit the Tip of the Week: Metric Types post on the ExtraHop community forum.
Drill-down functionality

You can drill down on high-level information in the ExtraHop Web UI to identify root causes of interesting activity.

Specifically, you can drill down on the top-level metrics you see in the ExtraHop system to view detail metrics about a specific device.

For example, metrics displayed on the Dashboards page show you the types of traffic in the network capture. If you see a spike in network traffic, you can isolate the protocol associated with the spike in a chart, and then navigate to the Networks page to drill down on the protocol and examine which devices are associated with the spike.

Note:If your Discover appliance is paired with an ExtraHop Explore appliance, you can drill down on a protocol or metric to view stored records. For more information, see the Records section.
Drill down on dashboard data

On the Dashboards page, if you see interesting activity in a chart, you can navigate from the chart to the associated protocol page, and drill down to see which devices are associated with the activity.

  1. Navigate to a protocol page completing one of the following steps:
    • Click the chart title.
    • Click the command menu next to the Go to <metric source>, where <metric source> is the application, device, network, or group configured in the chart. Click the expanded menu option, which will take you to the associated protocol page.
  2. On the protocol page, click or hover over the top-level metric of interest.
    Typically, there is a table beneath the charts that displays the list of devices associated with the protocol activity.
  3. In the Device column of the table, click the name of the device with interesting activity. The Devices page opens with additional information.
Drill down on protocol page data

You can drill down into metrics for top-talking protocols and devices on individual metric source pages, such as applications, networks, or devices pages.

  1. Click Metrics.
  2. Click Applications, Networks, or Devices.
  3. Select a specific application, network capture, or device from the center pane.
  4. Click the protocol of interest in the left pane.
  5. Hover over the charts to view any metrics that appear outside the normal range.
  6. Click the data you find interesting in the chart to isolate data to a device or look for devices related to interesting data in a table beneath the chart.
  7. Click the name of the device to view device details.
For example, to find the top-talkers for the L7 protocol, complete the following steps:
  1. Click Metrics and then click Networks.
  2. Select a network in the center pane.
  3. Click L7 Protocols in the left pane.
  4. Hover over the charts to view any metrics that appear outside the normal range.
  5. Click the legend on the graph to isolate the L7 protocol metrics. The Protocols table at the bottom of the page displays the list of applications associated with the selected protocol. From this list of devices, you can see which device is causing the spike in network traffic.
  6. In the Device column of the table, click the name of the device that is causing the spike in network traffic. The Devices page appears with additional information.
Time interval

In time-series charts, where you can view how a metric changes over time, the aggregation interval displays how the metric data is rolled up. The aggregation roll up, also known as a metric cycle, provides information about the level of granularity for count metrics for the time interval that you specify in the Time Selector.

Note:The aggregation roll up is not displayed in list and value charts.

The following table provides information about which aggregation roll up can be displayed for a specified time interval.

Time Interval Aggregation Roll Up (if available) Notes
Less than six minutes 1-second A 1-second roll up is only available for custom metrics and for the following built-in metrics:
  • Network source:
    • Network Bytes
    • Network Packets
  • Device source:
    • Network Bytes In
    • Network Bytes Out
    • Network Packets In
    • Network Packets Out
120 minutes or less 30-second If a 30-second roll up is not available, a 5-minute or 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Between 121 minutes and 24 hours 5-minute If 5-minute roll up is not available, a 60-minute roll up will be displayed.
Greater than 24 hours 60-minute  
Note:If you have an extended datastore that is configured for 24-hour metrics, a specified time interval of 30 days or longer will display a 24-hour aggregation roll up.

Explore how metric data changes over different time intervals with the Time Selector.

Get started with alerts

The Discover appliance associates a baseline value with every metric collected and enables users to set alerts for these metrics. Alerts makes it easy to inform your teams when there are network, device, or application anomalies or Software License Agreement (SLA) violations. You can configure the ExtraHop system to send an email message or an SNMP trap to designated people in your organization.

The Discover appliance has two different types of alerts, threshold and trend. Threshold-based alerts are triggered when a monitored metric crosses a defined value in a time period. These types of alerts are useful for monitoring SLA-violations. Trend-based alerts are triggered when a network statistic is outside of the normal trends observed by the system. These types of alerts are useful for metrics where errors are meaningful and thresholds are difficult to define. Because trend-based alerts need historical data to define a trend, these alerts are triggered approximately three or four days after the Discover appliance has collected data about your network activity.

The Alerts top menu enables you to view system alerts information. When you select Alerts from the top menu, the left pane displays available alert information in the system.

The following fields and controls are available in the Alerts left pane.

Alert History
Enables you to view detected system alerts.
Trouble Groups
Enables you to view built-in metrics groups that have been identified as having problems.

When you select Alerts from the top menu, the content pane displays the latest alerts that you viewed.

For information about creating and configuring alerts, see the Alerts section.

Dashboards

A dashboard is an HTML page that displays real-time and historic data for any built-in or custom metric in the ExtraHop platform. In a dashboard, data is displayed in widgets, and widgets are assembled in regions.

Dashboards are stored separately for each user that accesses the ExtraHop Discover appliance. After you build a custom dashboard, you can share it with other ExtraHop users.
Tip:Essentials dashboards are created by ExtraHop staff to display common and related network metrics. A set of dashboards are available in the Essentials bundle on your ExtraHop appliance. For more information, see the Essentials bundle section.

This section contains information about system dashboards and procedures on how to create, configure, and manage custom dashboards.

Note:To learn more about dashboards, view the following training modules:

System dashboards

Any ExtraHop user with an active account can log in and view system dashboards. Two system dashboards are built into the ExtraHop system that provide a top-down perspective of all the activity happening on your network.

Note:System dashboards cannot be modified.

Activity dashboard

The built-in Activity dashboard display the following information about your network.

The Activity dashboard in the ExtraHop Command appliance contains a list of nodes ordered by device count. The active protocol charts in the Command appliance measure activity for the top seven nodes for each licensed protocol.
Traffic Overview
View the types of traffic on your network. For example, the Top L7 Protocols chart displays the most active application protocols. The protocol with the most area, or color, in the chart has the highest volume of packet transmissions during the selected time interval. In Alert History, you can also view the latest alerts that were generated, and their severity levels.
Active Protocols
View important metrics and activity about specific application protocols.

Network dashboard

The built-in Network dashboard displays the following information about your network.

Network L2 metrics
View raw data throughput at the data link layer (L2). You can view throughput, the packet rate, and the breakdown of frame counts by distribution and type.
Network L4 metrics
View TCP activity through connection, request, and response metrics. This data can indicate how effectively data is being sent and received across the transport layer (L4) in your network.
Network Performance
View overall network performance by reviewing the throughput per application protocol and the magnitude of high TCP round trip times.
Network L3 metrics
View data throughput at the Internet layer (L3), and see packets and traffic by TCP/IP protocols.
DSCP
View a breakdown of packets and traffic by Differentiated Services code points, which is part of the DiffServ network architecture. Every IP packet contains a field to express the priority of how the packet should be handled, which are called differentiated services and the values for the priorities are called code points.
Multicast Groups
View traffic sent to multiple receivers in a single transmission, and see packets and traffic by each receiver group. Multicast traffic on a network is organized into groups based on destination addresses.

Custom dashboards

It is best to first determine which metrics you want to visualize and monitor in your dashboard. For example, it helps to have a question you want to answer, or an idea of which sources—applications, devices, groups, and networks—that you want to monitor on a regular basis.

We recommend that you review Get started with Dashboards before building your own dashboards.

Create a dashboard

When you create a new dashboard, an empty region and empty chart and text widget appear for you to configure. You can expand the region crosswise to include a maximum of six charts that are of minimum width. Region and dashboard length are unlimited.

  1. Click New Dashboard at the bottom of the left pane (dashboard dock) or from the command menu in the upper right corner of the page.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, review the following:
    Title
    Type a name for the dashboard.
    Author
    Type your name.
    Description
    Type a brief description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    (Optional) To change the five-character unique identifier in the permalink, click the link and type a meaningful name.
    Note:The permalink name can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: ._-+)[]. The name cannot contain spaces.
    Editors
    Specifies the names of users that have editing access for the dashboard. The default editor is the author. Add editors to your dashboard by sharing your dashboard. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Theme
    Select a radio button to specify a style for the dashboard.
  3. Click Create.
    The new dashboard is populated with a region that contains an unconfigured chart and text box widget.
  4. Optional: To configure the first chart, click inside the Chart area.
    For more information, see the Configure a chart section.
  5. Optional: To edit text in the first text box widget, click inside the Text Box area.
    For more information, see the Configure a text box widget section.
  6. Click Exit Layout Mode when you are satisfied with your changes.
    Important:You can also build a dashboard from a protocol page. This method enables you to quickly add charts to a new or existing dashboard as you discover interesting metrics while browsing the Web UI. Click Metrics from the top menu, select the application, device, network, or group that is of interest to you. Click Open in Metric Explorer. Configure your chart, click Add to Dashboard, and select an existing dashboard from the list or New Dashboard.

Configure a dashboard

The following procedures explain how you can modify new or existing custom dashboards.

If you want to learn how to create a new dashboard, see the Dashboard components and Create a dashboard sections.
Note:You can only modify custom dashboards for which you have editing privileges.

There are several ways to configure a dashboard. For more information, see the following related links:

Change dashboard properties

After you’ve created a dashboard, you can modify the metadata that is associated with that dashboard through the Dashboard Properties options.

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page, and select Dashboard Properties to change the metadata for the dashboard.
  2. In the Dashboard Properties window, you can modify the following fields:
    Title
    Change the dashboard name.
    Author
    Change the author name.
    Description
    Change the description of the dashboard.
    Permalink
    Change the URL for the dashboard. By default, the permalink is a five-character unique identifier. You can change the identifier to a friendly name.
    Note:The permalink name can have up to 100 characters combining letters, numbers, and the following symbols: ._-+)[]. The name cannot contain spaces.
    Sharing
    To share a dashboard with users who can view and edit, click the link. For more information, see the Share a dashboard section.
    Editors
    View the list of ExtraHop Web UI users with editing access to. To change the users, click Sharing.
    Theme
    Select a radio button to change the style of the dashboard.
  3. Click Save.
Edit a dashboard layout
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the screen, and select Edit Layout to add and arrange regions and widgets in a custom dashboard.
    For more information, see the Add a region, Delete a region, Add a widget, and Remove a widget sections.
  2. After making your changes, click Exit Layout Mode.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.
Add a region
  1. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. From the bottom of the page, click and drag a region onto the dashboard.
  3. Click Region in the upper left corner of the region and type a new name in the Title field.
  4. Click Save.
  5. Click the Exit Layout Mode button in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
Copy a region
You can copy an existing dashboard region to a new dashboard. All of the widgets in that region will also be copied to the new dashboard.
  1. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the region.
  2. Hover over Copy to… to expand the menu.
    Note:If you select an existing dashboard from the menu, the dashboard page opens and displays the location of the copied region.
  3. Select New Dashboard.
  4. In the Dashboard Properties window, in the Title section, type a name for the new dashboard.
    Tip:You can edit dashboard properties at any time. For more information, see the Change dashboard properties section.
  5. Click Save.
Delete a region
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. On the region you want to delete, click Delete.
  3. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard.
Rename a region
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. In the region toolbar, click Rename.
  3. Type the new name for your region.
  4. Click Save.
Modify sources in a region
  1. Do one of the following steps:
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the region and select Modify Sources
    • When in layout mode, in the region toolbar, click Modify Sources.
  2. In the Modify Sources window, select the object that you want to change from the list on the right and choose a new metric source.
    Tip:You can also change the title of the region by clicking on the region name to the right.
  3. Click Save Dashboard.
Add a widget
  1. Click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Drag-and-drop one of the following widget types onto the region.
    Chart
    This widget is user-defined. For information, see Configure a chart section.
    Alert History
    This widget shows the alert history information about the objects in the list. Click Add metric source to customize the alert history.
    Activity Groups
    This widget shows a list of all activity during the specified time interval and cannot be configured.
    Text Box
    This widget provides a space for typing and displaying custom text in a dashboard region. You can format text with the Markdown syntax. For more information, see the Configure a text box widget section.
    Note:If you place a widget on top of another widget, it will appear red, indicating that widgets are overlapping and will not display properly when you click Exit Layout Mode. To create more space in the region for the new widget, expand the region size and then move the widget to a new location until it is no longer red.
  3. Click Save.
    Note:If an error message appears, another user might be making changes. It is best practice for each ExtraHop user to have an individual account.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to Dashboards.
Copy a widget
To copy a widget to another dashboard:
  1. Right-click any table, chart, or tile on the widget.
  2. Select Copy to....
  3. Select the dashboard to place the widget or select New Dashboard to create a new dashboard.
    For more information, see the Create a dashboard topic.
Remove a widget
  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout.
  2. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the widget and select Delete.
  3. Click Delete Widget.
  4. Click Exit Layout Mode in the upper right corner of the dashboard to return to the Dashboards page.
  1. Right-click any table, chart, or tile on the widget and select Print.
    The print preview appears in a new window.
  2. Click the Theme drop-down list and select a theme.
  3. Click Print Widget.
Configure a chart
  1. In your dashboard, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page, and then select Edit Layout.
  2. Click anywhere within the chart to open the Widget Configuration window.
    Note:If you do not select Edit Layout, you can also open the Widget Configuration window by clicking the command menu in the chart header, and then clicking Edit.
  3. Select a chart type from the Type section in the center pane.
    For more information about determining which chart to select, see the Chart types section. The chart you selected will display in the Preview section of the center pane.
  4. Click Add Metric Source.
  5. Select a metric source by typing all or part of the name of the application, device, device group, or network.
    A filtered list of objects will appear, including suggestions listed by Recent Objects, Popular Objects, and Networks.
  6. Click the object that you want to select as the metric source.
    The metric source is added to the chart in the Preview section.
  7. Select a metric by typing all or part of a protocol or metric name and then selecting the metric from the filtered list of built-in custom metrics that appear.
  8. Depending on detail metric availability for the selected metric, click Drill down to break out top-level metrics by a detail metric key, such as by hostname, client IP address, server IP address, URI, methods, certificates, etc. Select the number of top keys to display. To display a specific key in the chart, enter a key name (such as an IP address) or a RegEx string.
  9. Depending on options that are available for your data, click the drop-down list to display the following summaries of metric data:
    • For specific L2 throughput and packet rate metrics with a 1-second roll up, select a maximum rate, minimum rate, or average rate for your chart. Select Rate summary to view all of these rates simultaneously.
      Note:The Show as rate (per second) chart option must be selected to display these rates. Maximum and minimum rates are only available for the following built-in L2 metrics:
      • Network metric source: Network Bytes (L2 bytes) and Network Packets

      • Device metric source: Network Bytes In, Network Bytes Out, Network Packets In, and Network Packets Out
    • For frequency-related (dataset) metrics, select from the drop-down list to display your data as the following statistic values:
      • Summary: 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles
      • Percentile: specify up to three custom percentiles; for Candlestick charts, specify only three or five percentiles
      • Minimum
      • Median: 50th percentile
      • Maximum
      • Mean
  10. Optional: Click Add Metric to continue adding metrics to display on the chart.
  11. Optional: Click Add Metric Source to continue adding metric sources to display on the chart.
  12. Optional: To remove a metric, click the x button in the upper left corner in the metric field. Or, to replace a metric, click the metric name to open a new search.
  13. Optional: Click the Options tab to change the units, show the metric as a rate, change the suffix notation, or change the labels. For more information, see the Chart options section.
  14. Optional: Click the Annotations tab to add a threshold line to the chart.
  15. Click Save.
  16. Click Exit Layout Mode.
Add a threshold line

Displaying a threshold line in a chart can help you determine which data points are either below or above a significant value. For example, you can create a line chart for server processing time to help you monitor the performance of an important database in your network environment. By adding a threshold line that defines an SLA boundary of acceptable processing time, you can see when database performance is slowing down and address the issue.

You can add one or more threshold lines as you configure a chart. These lines are local to the chart and not associated with other widgets or alerts. Threshold lines are only available for the following charts:
Note:
  • Area
  • Candlestick
  • Column
  • Line
  • Line & Column
  • Status

To add a threshold line to an existing chart from the Dashboard page:

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of a chart and click Edit.
  2. Click the Annotations tab.
  3. Click Add Threshold Line.
  4. In the Value field, type a number that indicates the threshold value for the line. This value determines where the line appears on the y-axis of your chart.
    Note:For charts that display only count metrics (such as bytes, errors, and responses), the value of the threshold line automatically scales based on data calculations that are configured in the chart. When the Show as rate (per second) option is not selected, the line value automatically scales to the roll up period (either 30 seconds, 5 minutes, 1 hour, or 1 day). The roll up period is determined by the time interval you specified.
  5. In the Label field, type a name for your threshold line.
  6. In the Color field, select a color (options are gray, red, orange, or yellow) for your threshold line.
Chart types

Charts help you to quickly identify interesting data points or patterns in your network data. You can add and configure charts with the Metric Explorer.

Note:To learn how to display percentile values or rate information (such as a maximum rate, average rate, or minimum rate) in your chart, see the Configure a chart section. To learn how to change the appearance and units in your chart, see the Chart options section.

The table below provides the following information for each chart type: a description, a recommendation for when to select the chart, and a list of metric types that are compatible with the chart.

Chart Type Description Recommendation Compatible ExtraHop Metric Types
Area

Displays a metric as a line connecting data points over time, with the area between the line and axis filled in with color.

If your chart contains more than one metric (for example, HTTP Requests and HTTP Responses), each metric is stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of all of the metrics. When you make a drill-down selection, each detail metric is stacked in the chart. Statistical values, such as percentiles and median from datasets metrics, are overlaid onto the data.

Click the legend to isolate individual metrics.

Select the Area chart when you want to view the accumulation of multiple metric data points over time. For example, an Area chart can reveal how various protocols contribute to total protocol activity. All metric types
Bar Displays metric values as horizontal bars for a specified time period. Select the Bar chart when you want to compare the values for more than one metric for a specific time period. All metric types
Candlestick

Displays the distribution of a metric over time in a box-and-whisker line. The box-and-whiskers are composed of a body (orange), a tick mark, and an upper and lower shadow. For dataset metrics, the percentiles are displayed.

Select Summary to display the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles. The body represents the range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile. The tick mark represents the median (50th percentile). The upper shadow represents the 95th percentile. The lower shadow represents the 5th percentile.

Select Percentile to type custom percentiles values.

Note:You must type three or five percentiles, and each value must be separated by a comma. The upper shadow represents the top range for your selection. The tick mark is the middle value. The lower shadow is the bottom range of your selection.
Select the Candlestick chart when you want to view multiple statistical data points for a metric, such as server processing time, in a single column. You can also compare those data points over time and identify outliers. Dataset and sampleset metrics
Column

Displays metrics as vertical bars over time.

If your chart contains more than one top-level metric, percentile, or detail metric, the bars are stacked together to illustrate the cumulative value of the metrics.

Click the legend to isolate individual metrics.

Select the Column chart when you want to view the accumulation of metric values, and how those values compare to each other over time. All metric types
Heatmap

Displays a matrix of frequency metrics over time, where the colors represent a value.

The Heatmap legend displays which colors correspond to a statistical percentile value. First, a range is calculated for the number of times metric values were observed at each data point on the chart, and then the range is calculated on a percentile scale (0-100).

For example, if there is a darker color on the chart that represents the 90th percentile, this indicates that a metric value was observed only 10% fewer times in this area than an area of the chart where the value was most observed.

Select the Heatmap chart when you want to identify areas of frequency and value concentrations for a metric, such as server processing time. You can also identify patterns, outliers, and bands of activity that occur at specific percentiles. Dataset metric
Line

Displays a metric in a line, which connects a series of data points over time.

If your chart contains more than one top-level metric (for example, HTTP Requests and HTTP Responses), percentile, or detail metric, a line for each metric will overlap to illustrate how the values compare over time.

Click the legend to isolate individual metrics.

Select the Line chart when you want to view how a single data point changes over time. All metric types
Line & Column

Displays a metric in a line, which connects a series of data points over time.

If your chart contains more than one metric (for example, HTTP Requests and HTTP Responses), you can select Display as Columns on one of the metrics to display those values as a column chart underneath the line chart. The default color for the column chart displays columns in red if there is an error associated with the metric. To change the color, click Options and click the Display columns in red checkbox.

For more information see the Chart Options section.

Select the Line & Column chart when you want to identify correlations between two different metrics, such as HTTP responses and errors, together in one chart. You can also identify how data points for each metric changes over time. All metric types
List Displays metrics in a list across multiple columns with optional sparklines. Select the List chart to view long lists of metric values, such as detail metrics. All metric types
Pie Displays a metric as a portion of a whole. When you make a drill-down selection (for example, by client, server, URI, method, etc.) to reveal detail metrics in your pie chart, each detail metric value is represented by a single slice in the pie chart. Select the Pie chart when you want to compare the metric values that are mutually exclusive, such as status code detail metrics for the top-level HTTP Response metric. Count, max, and snap metrics
Status Displays metrics in a column chart, where the color of the columns is tied to the alert status for the metric source and metric.
Click Show Related Alerts to view a list beneath the chart that contains all the alerts associated with metric category displayed in the chart, and the alert status color at specific time points. Click Hide Related Alerts to hide the list.
Note:You can only select one metric source and metric to display in this chart.
Select the Status chart when you want to view metric values over time, and view the alert status for each value. All metric types
Value Displays the total value for one or more metrics with optional sparklines. Selecting more than one metric will display the metric values side-by-side. Select the Value chart when you want to view a single number that indicates the total value for important metrics, such as the total number of HTTP errors occurring on your network. All metric types
Chart options

You can configure the appearance of data in different chart types with chart options.

To learn about each chart option, refer to the following definitions.
Chart Style
By default, chart data—as represented by lines, pie chart slices, volume, columns, or bars—appears in color. Select whether you would like chart data to appear in grayscale or in different patterns.
Units
By default, metrics units are displayed as bytes a per second a rate (such as per second). You can deselect the per-second rate option. You can also convert metrics from bytes to bits. For some chart types, you can also select a logarithmic conversion for the y-axis or x-axis.
Note:The per-second rate option affects count metrics, such as packets, bytes, and responses. Timing metrics, such as round trip time, are not converted into a per-second rate.
Suffix Notation
Select whether you would like the metric values to display as base 10 or base 2.
Legend and Labels
Select how to display information, such as metric source or IP address, in a label or legend. You also have the option to hide a legend.
Error Indication
(Line & Column chart only) Select whether to display errors associated with your selected metrics on the chart as red columns.
Date Format
Select the date and time format for your chart.
Layout
(Pie chart only) Select how to display values in your pie chart. By default, the total value for a top-level metric is displayed in the middle of a donut chart. If you add more than one metric to a chart, the metrics are combined to reveal the total value. You can deselect this option to remove the center value and convert the donut chart to a pie chart.

When you drill down (for example, by client, server, URI, method, etc.) to reveal detail metrics in your pie chart, each detail metric value is represented by a single slice in the pie chart. By default, an additional slice is included that represents the remaining values left over from the total value. This slice helps to illustrate the proportion of each detail metric value compared to the total value. You can deselect this option to remove the additional slice.

Note:The additional pie chart slice for remaining values is only available when one top-level metric is selected and a drill-down selection has been made. If you select more than one top-level metric to display in the pie chart, or did not make a drill-down selection, this option is unavailable.

You also can display a value as a percent or total value (count) in the pie chart.

Sorting
Select how you sort results. You can sort by the order in which you added metrics, by the detail metric key name (such as client, server, URI), or by the value of the data.
Sparkline
Select whether to display a sparkline, which is a small graphical representation of variation over time, in your chart.
Status Indication
By default, the color for the metric display indicates the alert status. The colors red, orange, and yellow mean that an alert has been triggered, which is associated the metric. Each color indicates the severity of the alert, which you can configure. For more information, see the Alerts section.

The following tables describes the available chart options for each chart type:

Chart type Available Options
Area
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Legend
Bar
  • Units (log scale is unavailable)
  • Suffix Notation
  • Labels
Column
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Legend
Candlestick
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
Heatmap
  • Units (log scale is unavailable)
Line
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Legend
Line & Column
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Error Indication
  • Legend
List
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Labels
  • Status Indication
  • Sparkline
  • Sorting
  • Date Format
Pie
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Layout
  • Labels
  • Legend
Value
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation
  • Status Indication
  • Sorting
  • Sparkline
  • Labels
  • Date Format
Status
  • Units
  • Suffix Notation

For more information, see the Configure a chart and Chart types sections.

Configure a text box widget

The text box widget enables you to type and display custom text in a dashboard region. It is a helpful tool for adding notes about a chart or data in a dashboard.

The text box widget supports the Markdown syntax, which enables you to format text and add metric variables that display updated metric data dynamically. Markdown is a simple formatting syntax that converts plain text into HTML with non-alphabetic characters, such as “#” or “*”. A new text box widget contains sample text that is already formatted in Markdown.
  1. Open the Widget Configuration window by doing one of the following steps:
    • On the Dashboards page, click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page and select Edit Layout. Click anywhere within the text box widget.
    • Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the text box widget and select Edit.
  2. In the Widget Configuration window, type and edit text in the left Editor pane.
    The HTML output text dynamically displays in the right Preview pane.
  3. Click Save.
Format text in Markdown syntax

The following table shows common Markdown formats that are supported in the text box widget.

Additional Markdown format examples are provided in the GitHub Guides: Mastering Markdown. However, not all Markdown syntax formatting options are supported in the text box widget.
Format Description Example
Headings Place a number sign (#) before your text to format headings. The level of heading is determined by the amount of number signs. ####Example H4 heading
Unordered lists Place a single asterisk (*) before your text to format bulleted lists. * Example 1 * Example 2
Ordered lists Place a single number and period (1.) before your text to format numbered lists. 1. Example 1 2. Example 2
Bold Place double asterisks before and after your text to format bold. **bold text**
Italics Place an underscore before and after your text to format italics. _italicized text_
Hyperlinks Place link text in brackets before the URL in parentheses. Or type your URL.
Note: Links to external websites open in a new browser tab. Links within the ExtraHop Web UI,such as dashboards or custom pages, open in the current browser tab.

[Visit our home page](http://www.extrahop.com)

http://www.extrahop.com

Blockquotes Place a right angle bracket and a space before your text to format a blockquote.

On the ExtraHop website:

> Access the live demo and review case studies.

Monospace font Place a backtick (`) before and after your text to format in a monospace font. `example code block`
Note:Adding emojis in Markdown syntax is unsupported. However, copying and pasting a Unicode block emoji is supported in the text box widget. For more information, see Unicode Emoji Chart website.
Add images in Markdown syntax

You can add images to the text box widget by linking to them. Make sure your image is hosted on a network that is accessible to the Discover appliance.

Links to images must be specified in the following format:

![<alt_text>](<file_path>)

Where <alt_text> is the alternative text and <file_path> is the path of the image. For example:

![Graph](/images/graph_1.jpg)
Note:You also can add images by encoding them to Base64. For more information, see the following post on the ExtraHop customer forum, “Putting Images in Text Boxes.”
Add metrics in Markdown syntax

You can add metric variables to a text box widget by writing metric queries in Markdown.

The Markdown format for writing metric queries is:

%%metric:<definition>%%

Where <definition> is replaced with a JSON-defined structure that is based on the ExtraHop REST API query structure.

Note:The following metric queries are unsupported in the text box widget:
  • Time-series queries
  • Mean calculations
  • Multiple object_ids
  • Multiple metric_spec
  • Multiple percentiles

A metric query must contain the following parameters:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec

To retrieve the object_type, metric_spec, and metric_category values for a metric name:

  1. Click Settings
  2. Click Metric Catalog
  3. Type the metric name in the search field
  4. Select the metric, and look for the values in the REST API Parameters section.

For more information, see the Metric catalog section.

You can retrieve object_ids from the URL that you are browsing.

Object Type URL Parameter
Application applicationOID=
Network networkOID=
Group deviceGroupOID=
Device deviceOID=
Metric variable examples

The following examples show you how to write top-level metric queries for application, device, and network objects, and detail metric queries.

Application queries

To specify the All Activity object, the object_ids is “0”.

This example query shows how you can retrieve HTTP metrics from the All Activity object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP requests and [value] HTTP responses from All Activity.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%HTTP requests and
%%metric:{
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "http",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from All Activity.
Device queries

You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. To retrieve metrics for a specific device, specify the device object ID number in object_ids. To retrieve the device object ID (deviceOid), search for the device object in the ExtraHop global search. Select the device from your search results. The “deviceOid=” value will be embedded in the URL query string.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device client object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [8],
"metric_category": "dns_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
CLIENT DNS response errors from a specific device.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics from a device server object, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "device",
"object_ids": [156],
"metric_category": "dns_server",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"rsp_error"}]
}%%
SERVER DNS response errors from a specific device.
Network queries

To specify All Networks, the object_type is “capture” and the object_ids is “0.” To specify a specific VLAN, the object_type is “vlan” and the object_ids is the VLAN number.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "net","metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for a specific VLAN and displays the following output: “Getting [value] broadcast packets from VLAN 3.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [3],
"metric_category": "net",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"frame_cast_broadcast_pkts"}]
}%%
broadcast packets from VLAN 3.
Group queries

To specify a group, the object_type is “activity_group” or “custom_group.” You must specify either a client (“_client”) or server (“_server”) in the metric_category. The object_ids for the specific group must be retrieved from the REST API Explorer.

This example query shows how to retrieve metrics for all networks, and displays the following output: “Getting [value] HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "activity_group",
"object_ids": [17],
"metric_category": "http_client",
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}]
}%%
HTTP responses from the HTTP Client Activity Group.
Detail metric queries

If you want to retrieve detail metrics, your metric query should contain additional key parameters, such as key1 and key2:

  • object_type
  • object_ids
  • metric_category
  • metric_spec
    • name
    • key1
    • key2
Note:The key parameters act as a filter for displaying detail metric results.
For built-in detail metrics, you can retrieve detail metric parameters from the Metric Catalog. For example, type HTTP Responses by URI, and then look at the parameter values in the REST API Parameters section.
Note:You must supply the object_ids in your query.

This example shows how to retrieve HTTP requests by URI for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"object_type": "application", 
"object_ids": [0],  
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"metric_specs": [{"name":"req"}] 
}%%

This example query shows you how to retrieve HTTP requests by URIs that contain a key value for “pagead2” for the All Activity application (object_ids is “0”):

%%metric:{ 
"metric_category": "http_uri_detail", 
"object_type": "application",
"object_ids": [0], 
"metric_specs": [ 
{ 
"name": "req", 
"key1": "/pagead2/" 
} 
] 
}%%

This example query shows how to retrieve count metrics for all networks and displays the following output: “Getting [value] detail ICA metrics on all networks.

Getting
%%metric:{
"object_type": "capture",
"object_ids": [0],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name":"custom_count",
"key1":"network-app-byte-detail-ICA"
}]
}%%
detail ICA metrics on all networks.

This example query shows how to retrieve a custom dataset statistic with topn keys and percentiles, and displays the following output: “The fifth percentile is: [value].

The fifth percentile is:
%%metric:{
"object_type": "vlan",
"object_ids": [1],
"metric_category": "custom_detail",
"metric_specs": [{
"name": "custom_dset",
"key1": "myCustomDatasetDetail",
"key2": "/10.10.7/",
"calc_type": "percentiles",
"percentiles": [5]
}]
}%%
.
Note:Sampleset metrics are unsupported in the text box widget. For example, adding the “calc_type”: “mean” parameter to your text box query is unsupported.

Share a dashboard

You can share custom dashboards with other ExtraHop users and decide whether to give them view or edit access.

  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu button in the Navigation bar and select Share.
  4. Specify which users can view the dashboard.
    • To allow specific users to view the dashboard, click Only specified users can view or edit. In the Specify users: area, type the name of a user and select the author name from the dropdown list. Select Can view and click the green plus icon. Repeat this process for additional users.
    • To allow all users to view the dashboard, click All users can view; only specified users can edit.
  5. Specify which users can edit the dashboard:
    1. In the Specify users: area, type the name of a user.
    2. Select the author name from the dropdown list.
    3. Select Can edit.
    4. Click the green plus icon.
    5. Repeat the process for additional users.
    Note:Users that can edit a dashboard can also view the dashboard.
  6. Click Save.

Remove access to a dashboard

You can modify user access settings for dashboards that you have created. You can either restrict the user from editing the dashboard or you can remove the user from being able to view the dashboard.
  1. Click Dashboards.
  2. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of a dashboard.
  3. Click the command menu button in the Navigation bar and select Share.
  4. Modify the user access by selecting from the following options:
    • Click the red delete icon next to the username if you want to remove all access.
    • Modify the access privileges by selecting either Edit or View from the drop-down list next to the username.
  5. Click Save.

View a dashboard

You can opt to show hover-over descriptions for available protocols in dashboards. You can also select between two options to view dashboards: in presentation mode or as a widget slideshow. Statuses and alerts can be viewed in dashboards through widgets.

Click Dashboards.
  • To show or hide descriptions, click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page, and select Show Descriptions to display highlighting for available descriptions. Hover your mouse over the highlighted box to display the description.

    You can also view descriptions in charts that display traffic from individual ports. Descriptions are provided for protocols that the Discover appliance parses.

  • To view a full-screen display of the metrics on the selected dashboard, click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page, and then select Presentation Mode. Click the Exit Presentation Mode button to return to the previous display.
    Tip:You can open a dashboard in presentation mode directly by appending /presentation to the URL. For example:
    https://<extrahop_ip>/extrahop/#/Dashboard/437/presentation
  • To view a dashboard as a widget slideshow, click the command menu button in the upper right corner of the page, select Widget Slideshow, and select a time increment to view a slideshow of widgets within the current region. Click the X in the upper right corner of the screen to return to the previous display.

Status widgets, or service availability widgets, are based on alerts. The service status is displayed in a bar graph with red, orange, yellow, or green bars based on the severity and type of configured alerts.

A user-defined, detailed alert can be associated with a device, group, or application widget. When you configure an alert for a specific metric, any alert of that metric type will appear on the widget. For example, if you configure an alert to fire on HTTP responses, HTTP errors, and HTTP response times, all three metrics appear on the widget. When an alert fires, the bar on the widget associated with that alert is colored based on the severity level set in the alert. If multiple alerts fire on the same widget, the color of the bar reflects the most severe alert.

To display a list of all alerts related to the widget, click Show Related Alerts.

Organize dashboards

  1. Create folders for dashboards.
    1. At the bottom of the left pane, click the configuration button to the right of New Dashboard.
    2. Select New Folder.
    3. Type a name for the folder and click Save.
  2. Add dashboards to a folder.
    1. At the bottom of the left pane, click the command menu to the right of New Dashboard.
    2. Click Edit Dock.
      In Edit mode, you can organize, edit, and create new dashboards.
    3. Drag-and-drop any of the dashboards you created into a folder.
      If dashboards are sorted in ascending or descending order, the drag-and-drop functionality is disabled. To enable this functionality again, click the sort icon in the upper right header of the dashboard dock until the custom sort icon displays.
    4. Click the right-most button in the panel to save and exit edit mode.

Export dashboard data

You can export data from any chart or table in your dashboard to a CSV or Excel file. You cannot export content from a text box widget.

  1. Right-click the chart or table that you want to export.
  2. Select Export to CSV or Export to Excel.
Your file will be downloaded to your local computer.

Delete a dashboard

  1. Click the command menu in the upper right corner of the page, and select Delete.
  2. Click Delete Dashboard in the Confirm delete dialog box.

Metrics

The ExtraHop system provides a large number of protocol metrics. To search for a specific protocol metric, click Metrics, and then select metrics from the following sections:

Sources
View metrics for an application, device, or network. For more information, see the Sources section.
Groups
View metrics for a group of devices in activity groups or custom groups.
Records
View or query metrics associated with records. For more information, see the Records section.

You can also view metrics on the Dashboards page. For more information, see the Dashboards section.

Create an activity map

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click Activity Map.
  3. Specify the output format, select an activity filter, which activities to display, and description for the map.
  4. Click OK.
On the activity map, devices labeled in red indicate the user-selected devices. Devices labeled in black indicate devices that were not selected, but have connections to the selected devices. A darker colored line between devices represents a connection with a high volume of traffic. A lighter colored line represents a connection with a low volume of traffic. Well-connected devices appear slightly larger and more central on the map.

Add a page to a report

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click Add to Report.
  3. Select a report.
    • To add the page to an existing report, click the Add to Report drop-down list, select an existing report, and click OK.
    • To add the page to a new report, click New Report. In the Report Configuration window, enter a report name and click OK.

Export data to Excel

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Right-click any table, chart, or tile on the page and select Export to Excel.

Export data to CSV

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Right-click any table, chart, or tile on the page and select Export to CSV.

Create a PDF of a metric page

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click PDF.

Open metrics in the Metric Explorer

Metrics from a metric page can be added to a widget in the Metric Explorer.

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click Open in Metric Explorer.

Pin a metric page to a dashboard

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click Pin to Dashboards.
    The confirmation dialog box displays the name of the dashboard that the page has been added to.
  3. Click Dashboards.
  4. In the left pane, under My Dashboards, click the name of the dashboard.

Sort metrics

If a metric contains a gear icon in the upper-right corner, the metric can be sorted by key or value.

  1. Navigate to a metric page.
  2. Click the gear icon on the upper-right corner of a metric.
  3. Select either Sort by Key or Sort by Value.

Protocols

You can view metrics about protocols through the following views:

Devices
Displays device metrics to troubleshoot network issues at the device level.
Groups
Displays a select group of devices, filtering out the devices that are not likely to be related to the traffic being examined. Group metrics are aggregated and viewable by all ExtraHop users on the network.
Applications
Displays applications. Some applications use multiple devices, and some devices host multiple applications. The Discover appliance provides a set of default applications based on all traffic. You can modify the default application template to suit the needs of your organization, and you can add your own applications.
Networks
Displays network capture attributes, network alerts, and network traffic details. Networks is the entry point into the network capture. The metrics that are collected provide a summary of all network activity retrieved in the capture.

AAA

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) activity.

AAA applications page

Application toolbar
The AAA application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of AAA errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists the AAA error messages and number of occurrences.
Clients
The chart shows processing time for all clients. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client as well as total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows processing time for all servers. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.
Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with AAA responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with AAA responses.
Request RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending AAA requests. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending AAA responses. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by AAA clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Response Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers while receiving AAA requests. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
AAA Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of AAA requests.
Responses
The number of AAA responses.
Errors
The number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
The number of aborted AAA sessions.
RADIUS Requests
The number of RADIUS requests.
Diameter Requests
The number of Diameter requests.
Methods
Displays the selected method types for the AAA client or server.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

AAA devices page

AAA Device Toolbar
The AAA device toolbar includes the following controls:
AAA Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an AAA client or AAA server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.
  • Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records.
  • Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device sent when acting as an AAA client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an AAA client.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA client.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of total requests that the device received when acting as an AAA server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an AAA server.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of aborted sessions that occurred when the device is acting as an AAA server.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.
Status Codes
The AAA status codes for the selected time interval.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

AAA groups page

AAA Groups Toolbar
The AAA groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list and select either Client or Server to display metrics for devices in the current group acting as an AAA client or AAA server, respectively.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by the current member over the time interval. Errors are formatted as follows: Results-Code-Description:Session-Id:Error-Reporting-Host:Subscription-ID-Data.

Session-Id frequently contains multiple semicolon-separated records. Error-Reporting-Host is not always present.

Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
AAA Client
If you select Client for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
AAA Server
If you select Server for the AAA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of AAA requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of AAA responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of AAA errors for the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of AAA aborted requests for the selected time interval.
Diameter Requests
Number of Diameter requests for the selected time interval.
Radius Requests
Number of RADIUS requests for the selected time interval.
Messages
Selected message types for the AAA server.

CIFS

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Common Internet File System (CIFS)/Server Message Block (SMB) activity. ExtraHop appliances support SMB, SMB2 and SMB3.

CIFS devices page

CIFS Devices Toolbar
The CIFS device page toolbar includes the following controls:
CIFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a CIFS client or CIFS server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by the current device for the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name and file access time.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the file server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval. The access time indicates the time to access a file on a CIFS partition and is measured by timing the first READ or WRITE on every flow.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.

Click the counters next to individual CIFS metrics to show the IP Address CIFS Metrics details for CIFS peer devices. For CIFS servers, the peer devices are CIFS clients. For CIFS clients, the peer devices are CIFS servers.

IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
CIFS Server
Displays additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a CIFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS server.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the CIFS server over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operation requests that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
FSInfo
Specifies the number of file system metadata queries that the device received when acting as a CIFS server.
CIFS Client
Displays additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a CIFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS client.

CIFS groups page

CIFS Groups Toolbar
The CIFS groups toolbar includes the following controls:
CIFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices in the current group acting as a CIFS client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by devices in the current group over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by devices in the current group over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by devices in the current group during the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the file server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval. Access Time indicates the time it took for the server to access a file on disk.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.

CIFS Server
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the CIFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS server.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by devices in the CIFS server over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested from the CIFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested from the CIFS server.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operations requested from the CIFS server.
CIFS Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the CIFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the CIFS client.
Warnings
Displays the list of warning messages sent to or received by the CIFS client over the selected time interval.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested by the CIFS client.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested by the CIFS client.
Locks
Specifies the number of lock operations requested by the CIFS client.
Methods
Displays the CIFS methods for the selected time interval.

Click the counter next to the method to break it down by group members in the table.

Database

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about database activity.

Learn more by taking the Database Quick Peek training.

Database applications page

Database Application Toolbar
The Database application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the total count for DB errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists DB error messages and the number of occurrences.
Methods

The chart shows responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists methods, number of responses, total time, and processing time (ms) associated with each method. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Users
The chart shows the number of responses and errors for all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table displays the list of users, and the number of responses and errors associated with each user.
Clients

The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers

The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with database requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with database responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with database requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with database responses.
Request RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending database requests. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending database responses. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by database clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Response Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers while receiving database requests. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
DB Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of database requests.
Responses
The number of database responses.
Response Errors
The number of database response errors.
Transaction Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Database devices page

Database Devices Toolbar
The Database device toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays statistics for the current device acting as a database client or database server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of names and the associated number of responses and errors.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the database server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.

Click the counters next to individual database metrics to show the IP Address Database Metrics for database peer devices. For database servers, the peer devices are database clients. For database clients, the peer devices are database servers.

Device Details
Click the counters next to individual database metrics to show the IP Address Database Metrics for database peer devices. For database servers, the peer devices are database clients. For database clients, the peer devices are database servers.
By IP
Displays database metrics by IP address.
By Database
Displays database metrics by database. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Database Client
If you select Client for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a database client. Click to display the list of servers from which responses were sent.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors for the selected time interval. Click to display the list of servers for which there were errors.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database client.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database client.
Database Server
If you select Server for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a database server. Click to display the list of clients to which responses were sent.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors for the selected time interval. Click to display the list of clients for which there were errors.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database server.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database server.
Methods
Displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Methods will vary for each specific device.
Transaction Metrics
Displays the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Move the mouse pointer over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
The request transfer time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
The server processing time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
The response transfer time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse over the chart to see the five-number summary. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device, database, or IP address.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse over the chart to see the five-number summary. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean response size for each peer device, database, or IP address.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of database protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red data points to list the peer devices associated with the errors at this point in time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region. Select a database from the Databases drop-down list and then click the red data points to display results associated with that database only. For detailed error information, click Errors.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Database devices timing page

The timing charts draw data from the Time Selector drop-down list on the navigation toolbar. The events observed during this interval are used to fill the bins of a histogram that displays a distribution of timing data. Timing charts use a logarithmic horizontal axis that simultaneously displays events that took milliseconds and those that took seconds.

Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Database devices all methods page
Database Devices Toolbar
The Database devices toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current devices acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Methods
This section displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Click to display additional per-client or per-server details.

Database groups page

Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of names and the associated processing times for the stored procedures executed within the databases belonging to the current group during the selected time interval.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the database servers in this group and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Database Client
If you select Client for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of database protocol responses received by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors received by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that members of the group began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database client.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that members of the group began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database client.
Database Server
If you select Server for the Database Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of database protocol responses sent by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of database protocol errors sent by all members of the current group during the selected time interval.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that members of the group began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a database server.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that members of the group began to send but did not send completely when acting as a database server.
Methods
Displays the database methods for the selected time interval.
Database groups all methods page
Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Methods
This section displays the database methods for the selected time interval. Click to display additional per-client or per-server details.
Database Client
This table lists the peer members associated with the database client.
Database Server
This table lists the peer members associated with the database server.
Database groups processing time page
Database Groups Toolbar
The Database groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Database Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a database client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

DHCP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) activity.

DHCP applications page

DHCP Applications Toolbar
The DHCP applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
Displays a chart that shows the number of DHCP errors.
Clients

Displays chart and table information about DHCP client activity. The chart shows the total number of client responses compared to processing time.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of requests by each client, and total processing time.

Servers

Displays chart and table information about DHCP server activity. The chart shows the total number of server responses compared to processing time. The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DHCP requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DHCP responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with DHCP requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with DHCP responses.
DHCP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of DHCP requests.
Responses
The number of DHCP responses.
Errors
Displays the number of DHCP errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time
Displays the median processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics.

DHCP devices page

DHCP Devices Toolbar
The DHCP devices toolbar includes the following controls:
DHCP Metric Type
From the drop-down menu, select the type of metrics for the current device.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DHCP Server
Requests
Displays the number of requests that the device received.
Responses
Displays the number of responses that the device sent.
Response Errors
Displays the number of response errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a histogram of the server time taken to process requests.
Requests by Record Type
Displays the categorization of all request types sent or received by the current device.
Responses by Record Type
Displays the categorization of all response types sent or received by the current device.

DHCP groups page

DHCP Groups Toolbar
The DHCP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
DHCP Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a DHCP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the time interval.
DHCP Client
If you select Client for the DHCP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers to which requests were sent.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers from which the responses were received.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a DHCP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers associated with the errors.
DHCP Server
If you select Server for the DHCP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients from which requests were received.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients to which the responses were sent.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a DHCP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients associated with the errors.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of DHCP requests broken out by the message type.
DHCP groups processing time page
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

DICOM

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) activity.

Note:ExtraHop appliances do not include any built-in metric pages for DICOM. However, you can view DICOM metrics by adding them to a custom page or dashboard.

DNS

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Domain Name System (DNS) activity.

Learn more by taking the DNS Quick Peek training.

DNS applications page

DNS Applications Toolbar
The DNS applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
Displays a chart that shows the number of errors.
Host Queries
The chart shows the total number of host queries compared to processing time during the selected time interval. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists DNS hosts, number of host queries, and the processing time.

Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Host Query
Displays application metrics by host query.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
DNS Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Request Timeouts
The number of request timeouts. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request.
Truncated Requests
The number of requests that were sent but were truncated in transit. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Response Errors
The number of response errors.
Truncated Responses
The number of responses that were sent but were truncated in transit. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Requests by Opcode
Displays all request opcode types sent or received by the current application. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.
Query
Number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by the current application. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Responses by Response Code
Displays all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by the current device. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.

The response code bar categories include the following:

NOERROR
Successful transaction; no error.
FORMERROR
Format Error.
SERVFAIL
DNS Server Failed.
NXDOMAIN
No such domain.
NOTIMPL
No handler implemented for this query type.
REFUSED
Query administratively refused.
UPDATEERR
Error in handling UPDATE request.
TSIGERR
Error in handling TSIG request.
OTHER
All other response code types.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time
Displays the mean processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

Click the graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

DNS devices page

DNS Devices Toolbar
The DNS devices toolbar includes the following controls:
DNS Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a DNS client or DNS server.
Errors
Displays the list of DNS queries made to or from this device, sorted by Host Query frequency. Click the Query Errors header to sort the list by the number of DNS errors encountered.
Servers
When acting as a DNS client, displays a chart showing the total number of responses compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Clients
When acting as a DNS client, displays a chart showing the total number of responses compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DNS Client
If you select Client for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. For each field, click to display the devices to which these requests were made.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a DNS client.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of request timeouts when the device is acting as a DNS client. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request. A high number here may indicate server unresponsiveness or a client misconfiguration.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of requests that were sent, but were truncated in transit, when the device is acting as a DNS client. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a DNS client.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of responses received with a code other than NOERROR, when the device is acting as a DNS client.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of truncated responses that the device received when acting as a DNS client. A truncated response is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
DNS Server
If you select Server for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. For each field, click to display the devices from which these requests were received.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as a DNS server.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of request timeouts when the device is acting as a DNS server. A request timeout occurs when there is a repeated request without a response to the first request. A high number here might indicate a problem with this DNS server.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of requests that were received, but were truncated in transit, when the device is acting as a DNS server. A truncated request is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a DNS server.
Response Errors
When the device is acting as a DNS server, specifies the number of responses sent with a code other than NOERROR.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent, but later truncated, when the device is acting as a DNS server. A truncated response is indicated by the truncated bit in the message and occurs when the message is larger than the underlying transmission channel allows.
Requests by Opcode
Displays all request opcode types sent or received by the current device. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.
Query
Specifies the number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Notify
Specifies the number of DNS NOTIFY Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Notify is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Update
Specifies the number of DNS UPDATE Opcodes sent or received by the current device. DNS Update is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Other
Specifies the number of other miscellaneous DNS Opcodes sent or received by the current device.
Responses by Response Code
Displays all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by the current device. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD. For each field, click to display the devices to or from which these requests were sent or received.

The response code bar categories include:

NOERROR
Successful transaction; no error.
FORMERROR
Format Error.
SERVFAIL
DNS Server Failed.
NXDOMAIN
No such domain.
NOTIMPL
No handler implemented for this query type.
REFUSED
Query administratively refused.
UPDATEERR
Error in handling UPDATE request.
TSIGERR
Error in handling TSIG request.
OTHER
All other response code types.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of DNS transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red data points to list the peer devices associated with the errors at this point in time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Requests by Record Type
Shows the categorization of all request types sent or received by the current device. Click a bar to display the device to which (if client) or from which (if server) the query was sent.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Record Type
Shows the categorization of all response types sent or received by the current device. Click a bar to display the device from which (if client) or to which (if server) the response was sent.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • Other. All other categories

It is possible for multiple answers to be sent in response to a single query.

DNS groups page

DNS Groups Toolbar
The DNS groups toolbar includes the following controls:
DNS Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a DNS client or DNS server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the number of query errors by host.
Host Queries
Displays the list of DNS queries made to or from any member in the current group. The list is sorted by Host Query frequency. Click the Query Errorsheader to sort the list by the number of DNS errors encountered.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
DNS Client
If you select Client for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the metric to break down DNS requests by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of DNS requests made by all members of the group.
Request Timeouts
Specifies the number of DNS requests made by any member of the group to which no response was received.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS requests sent by any member of the group.
Responses
Specifies the number of DNS responses received by all members of the group.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of DNS response errors received by all members of the group.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS responses received by all members of the group.
DNS Server
If you select Server for the DNS Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the metric to break down DNS requests by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of DNS requests received by all members of the group.
Request Timteouts
Specifies the number of DNS requests received by any member of the group to which no response was sent.
Truncated Requests
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS requests received by all members of the group.
Responses
Specifies the number of DNS responses sent by all members of the group.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of DNS response errors sent by all members of the group.
Truncated Responses
Specifies the number of malformed, truncated DNS responses sent by all members of the group.
Requests by Opcode
Shows the breakdown of all opcodes sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. For each opcode, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Query
Specifies the number of DNS QUERY Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Queries are the most-frequently encountered DNS Opcode type.
Notify
Specifies the number of DNS NOTIFY Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Notify is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Update
Specifies the number of DNS UPDATE Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group. DNS Update is used as a synchronization method between DNS servers.
Other
Specifies the number of other miscellaneous DNS Opcodes sent or received by all members of the group.
Requests by Record Type
Shows the breakdown of all request types sent or received by members in the selected group. For each query type, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Record Type
Shows the breakdown of all record types sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. For each query type, click to break down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.

The request query bar categories displayed include:

  • A. Address
  • NS. Name Server
  • CNAME. Canonical Name
  • SOA. Start Of Authority
  • PTR. Pointer Record
  • MX. Mail Exchanger
  • TXT. Text
  • AAAA. IPv6 Address
  • SRV. Service
  • TSIG. Secured Signed Request class
  • IXFR. Incremental Zone Transfer
  • AXFR. Zone Transfer
  • ANY. Any available
  • Other. All other categories
Responses by Response Code
Shows the categorization of all response codes broken down by request opcode and request record type sent (if server) or received (if client) by members in the selected group. The format of the entry is ERROR/REQUEST_OPCODE:REQUEST_RECORD.

The response code bar categories include:

  • NOERROR. Successful transaction; no error.
  • FORMERROR. Format Error.
  • SERVFAIL. DNS Server Failed.
  • NXDOMAIN. No such domain.
  • NOTIMPL. No handler implemented for this query type.
  • REFUSED. Query administratively refused.
  • UPDATEERR. Error in handling UPDATE request.
  • TSIGERR. Error in handling TSIG request.
  • OTHER. All other response code types.

Click the counter next to the response code to break it down by group members in the table.

DNS groups processing time page
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

FIX

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Financial Information Exchange (FIX) activity.

FIX applications page

FIX Applications Toolbar
The FIX applications toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of FIX errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists FIX error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Senders
The chart shows showing the number of FIX senders. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists senders and the count associated with each sender.
Targets
The chart shows the number of FIX targets. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists targets and the count associated with each target.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Target
Displays application metrics by target.
By Sender
Displays application metrics by sender.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DNS requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with DNS responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with DNS requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with DNS responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
FIX Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests for the application.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses for the application.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of responses by error for the application.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

FIX devices page

FIX Devices Toolbar
The FIX device toolbar includes the following controls:
FIX Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices acting as a FIX client or FIX server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of FIX session-level reject reasons (error messages) sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. These metrics do not include the processing of order and trade errors.
Senders
Click the Senders button to display a list of institutions sending the FIX message as it appears in the SenderCompID field.
Targets
Click the Targets button to display a list of institutions receiving the FIX message as it appears in the TargetCompID field.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

FIX Details specifies the type of additional FIX information displayed. Moving the cursor over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays FIX metrics by IP addresses.
By Sender
Displays FIX metrics by sender.
By Target
Displays FIX metrics by target.

For example, FIX Responses is a top-level metric showing how many responses were received by the FIX server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the FIX Responses counter shows which IP addresses originated these responses. Selecting By IP from the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the FIX Responses counter shows the IP addresses of the responses.

FIX Metrics by IP Address
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the FIX server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the FIX server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding FIX server device.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Metrics by Sender
Click By Sender in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Sender
Displays a list of senders.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Metrics by Target
Click By Target in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Target
Displays a list of targets.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
FIX Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
FIX Servers
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Versions
FIX versions used over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

FIX groups page

FIX Groups Toolbar
The FIX groups toolbar includes the following controls:
FIX Metric Type
Displays metrics for groups acting as a FIX client or FIX server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of FIX session-level reject reasons (error messages) sent to or received by the current group over the selected time interval. These metrics do not include the processing of order and trade errors.
Senders
Click the Senders button to display a list of institutions sending the FIX message as it appears in the SenderCompID field.
Targets
Click the Targets button to display a list of institutions receiving the FIX message as it appears in the TargetCompID field.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FIX Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
FIX Servers
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Number of errors sent.
POS Duplicate
Number of POS duplicates recieved.
POS Resend
Number of POS resend received.
Methods
Methods exchanged by device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

FTP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about File Transfer Protocol (FTP) activity.

Learn more by taking the FTP Quick Peek training.

FTP applications page

FTP Applications Toolbar
The FTP application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number FTP errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists FTP error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Warnings
The chart shows the FTP warnings (4xx error messages) transferred. The table lists the FTP warning messages and the number of times each occurred.
Users
The chart shows the number of responses and errors for all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists users and the number of responses and errors associated with each user.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Users
Displays application metrics by user.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
FTP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Response Warnings
The number of responses with an FTP status code of 4xx.
Response Errors

The number of FTP response errors.

Methods
Displays the FTP commands for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP commands:

CWD
Allows the user to work with a different directory or dataset for file storage or retrieval without altering his log on or accounting information.
DELE
Causes the file specified in the path name to be deleted at the server site.
EPSV
Puts connection into extended passive mode.
LIST
Gets information for a specific working directory, if explicitly specified, or the current one if none is specified.
MDTM
Gets last-modified time of a file.
MLSD
Gets the contents of a directory.
PASS
Is a Telnet string specifying the user's password. This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command.
PASV
Requests the server-DTP to "listen" on a data port (which is not its default data port) and to wait for a connection rather than initiate one on receipt of a transfer command.
PORT
Is a HOST-PORT specification for the data port to be used in data connection.
PWD
Causes the name of the current working directory to be returned in the reply.
QUIT
Terminates a USER, and if file transfer is not in progress, the server closes the control connection. If file transfer is in progress, the connection will remain open for the result response, and the server will then close it.
RETR
Causes the server-DTP to transfer a copy of the file, specified in the path name, to the server.
SIZE
Gets the size of a file.
STOR
Causes the server-DTP to accept the data transferred via the data connection, and to store the data as a file at the server site.
SYST
Used to find out the type of operating system at the server.
TYPE
Puts the transfer mode into ASCII or Binary mode.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP reply codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP reply codes:

1xx
Positive Preliminary reply
2xx
Positive Completion reply
3xx
Positive Intermediate reply
4xx
Transient Negative Completion reply
5xx
Permanent Negative Completion reply
6xx
Protected reply

Examples of specific reply codes:

200
OK
221
Service closing control connection
225
Data connection open
226
Closing data connection
227
Entering passive mode
230
User logged in – proceed
250
Requested file action okay
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized. This may include errors such as command line too long.
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502
Command not implemented
503
Bad sequence of commands
504
Command not implemented for that parameter
530
Not logged in
550
Requested action not taken – file not available
553
Requested action not taken – filename not allowed
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

FTP devices page

Note:Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.
FTP Devices Toolbar
The FTP metrics toolbar includes the following controls:
FTP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an FTP client or server.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed, associated bytes sent and received, and associated errors for the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FTP Details
Specifies the type of additional FTP information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By IP
Displays FTP metrics by IP addresses.
By User
Displays FTP metrics by user name.For example, FTP Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the FTP server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the FTP Requests counter shows which IP addresses originated these requests. Selecting By User in the drop-down list while mousing over the FTP Requests counter shows which FTP user names originated these requests.
IP Address FTP Metrics
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the HTTP server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the FTP server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding FTP server device. For local FTP servers, the link leads to the FTP server device. For remote FTP servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
<Metric Value>
Displays the value of the selected metric
FTP Metrics by User
Click By User in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Users
Represents FTP user names that originated these requests.
<Metric Value>
Displays the value of the selected metric.
IP Address FTP Metrics
When you click the counters next to individual FTP metrics, the IP Address FTP Metrics table shows details about FTP peer devices. For FTP servers, the peer devices are FTP clients. For FTP clients, the peer devices are FTP servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
FTP Server
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the total number of FTP requests received on the command connection when the device is acting as an FTP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an FTP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the FTP server.
FTP Client
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the total number of FTP requests sent on the command connection when the device is acting as an FTP client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an FTP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors received by the FTP client.
Data Channel
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of data channel requests sent or received by the current device.
Connects
Specifies the number of responses sent or received by the current device.
Methods
Displays the FTP commands for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP commands:

CWD
Allows the user to work with a different directory or dataset for file storage or retrieval without altering his log on or accounting information.
DELE
Causes the file specified in the path name to be deleted at the server site.
EPSV
Puts connection into extended passive mode.
LIST
Gets information for a specific working directory, if explicitly specified, or the current one if none is specified.
MDTM
Gets last-modified time of a file.
MLSD
Gets the contents of a directory.
PASS
Is a Telnet string specifying the user's password. This command must be immediately preceded by the user name command.
PASV
Requests the server-DTP to "listen" on a data port (which is not its default data port) and to wait for a connection rather than initiate one on receipt of a transfer command.
PORT
Is a HOST-PORT specification for the data port to be used in data connection.
PWD
Causes the name of the current working directory to be returned in the reply.
QUIT
Terminates a USER, and if file transfer is not in progress, the server closes the control connection. If file transfer is in progress, the connection will remain open for the result response, and the server will then close it.
RETR
Causes the server-DTP to transfer a copy of the file, specified in the path name, to the server.
SIZE
Gets the size of a file.
STOR
Causes the server-DTP to accept the data transferred via the data connection, and to store the data as a file at the server site.
SYST
Used to find out the type of operating system at the server.
TYPE
Puts the transfer mode into ASCII or Binary mode.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP reply codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of FTP reply codes:

1xx
Positive Preliminary reply
2xx
Positive Completion reply
3xx
Positive Intermediate reply
4xx
Transient Negative Completion reply
5xx
Permanent Negative Completion reply
6xx
Protected reply

Examples of specific reply codes:

200
OK
221
Service closing control connection
225
Data connection open
226
Closing data connection
227
Entering passive mode
230
User logged in – proceed
250
Requested file action okay
500
Syntax error, command unrecognized. This may include errors such as command line too long.
501
Syntax error in parameters or arguments
502
Command not implemented
503
Bad sequence of commands
504
Command not implemented for that parameter
530
Not logged in
550
Requested action not taken – file not available
553
Requested action not taken – filename not allowed
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Read and Write Bytes
Displays the area chart containing the breakdown of bytes by reads and writes over time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
FTP devices timing page

The timing charts draw data from the Time Selector drop-down list on the navigation toolbar. The events observed during this interval are used to fill the bins of a histogram that displays a distribution of timing data. Timing charts use a logarithmic horizontal axis that simultaneously displays events that took milliseconds and those that took seconds.

Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.

FTP groups page

Note:Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.
FTP Groups Toolbar
The FTP metrics toolbar includes the following controls:
FTP Metric Type
Display metrics for the current device acting as an FTP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed, associated bytes sent and received, and associated errors for the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
FTP Client
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests sent by the FTP client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the FTP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors received by the FTP client.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the FTP client.
FTP Server
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests received by the FTP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the FTP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the FTP server.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the FTP server.
Data Channel
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data channel requests sent or received by the current device.
Connects
Specifies the number of responses sent or received by the current device.
Methods
Displays the FTP methods for the selected time interval. Commands include RETR (get), STOR (put), and more. Click the counter next to each method to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Status Codes
Displays the FTP status codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter next to each status code to break it down by group members in the table.
FTP groups processing time page

The Server Processing Time bar graph shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

HTTP-AMF

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Action Message Format (AMF) activity.

HTTP-AMF devices page

HTTP-AMF Devices Page
The HTTP-AMF device toolbar includes the following controls:
HTTP-AMF Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an HTTP-AMF client or HTTP-AMF server.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.

HTTP-AMF Details specifies the type of additional HTTP-AMF information displayed. Moving the mouse pointer over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays HTTP-AMF metrics by IP addresses.
By Target URI
Displays HTTP-AMF metrics by Target URI.

For example, HTTP-AMF Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the HTTP server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while moving the mouse pointer over the Requests counter shows which IP addresses originated these requests. Selecting By Target URI from the drop-down list while moving the mouse pointer over the HTTP-AMF Requests counter shows which URIs were accessed by the requestors.

IP Address HTTP-AMF Metrics
Click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the HTTP-AMF server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the HTTP-AMF server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding HTTP-AMF server device. For local HTTP-AMF servers, the link leads to the HTTP server device. For remote HTTP-AMF servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took for HTTP servers to process requests for the currently selected HTTP client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful HTTP Responses only.
HTTP-AMF Metrics by Target URI
Click By Target URI in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
Target URI
Represents the full HTTP target URI.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took to process URIs requested by the currently selected HTTP client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful HTTP Responses only.
HTTP-AMF Client
If you select Client for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of requests that had no length, that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
Responses w/o Length
Number of responses that had no length, that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF client.
HTTP-AMF Server
If you select Server for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of requests that had no length, that the device received when acting as an HTTP-AMFs server.
Responses w/o Length
Number of responses that had no length, that the device sent when acting as an HTTP-AMF server.

HTTP-AMF groups page

HTTP-AMF Client
If you select Client for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of HTTP-AMF requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of HTTP-AMF responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF requests without length.
Responses w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF responses without length.
HTTP-AMF Server
If you select Server for the HTTP-AMF Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of HTTP-AMF requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of HTTP-AMF responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of HTTP-AMF errors for the selected time interval.
Requests w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF requests without length.
Responses w/o Length
Number of HTTP-AMF responses without length.

IBMMQ

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about IBM message queue (IBMMQ) activity.

IBMMQ applications page

IBMMQ Applications Toobar
The IBMMQ application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of IBMMQ errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists IBMMQ error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Warnings
The chart shows the IBMMQ warnings (4xx error messages) transferred. The table lists IBMMQ warning messages and the number of times each occurred.
PUT/GET Radio
The chart shows the total PUT and GET counts for all server IPs. Mouse-over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, and PUT and GET count for each server.
Clients
The chart shows round-trip time for all clients. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of round-trip time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, and round-trip time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows round-trip time for all servers. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of round-trip time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, and round-trip time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Queue
Displays application metrics by queue name.
By Channel
Displays application metrics by channel.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
IBMMQ Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of IBMMQ requests.
Responses
The number of IBMMQ responses.
Client Messages
The number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received.
Server Messages
The number of IBMMQ server messages transferred.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
Server to Server
The number of IBMMQ server-to-server message types transferred.
Client to Server
The number of IBMMQ client-to-server message types transferred.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
MQGET and MQPUT
Displays the GET and PUT count for the current device over the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.

IBMMQ devices page

IBMMQ Devices Toolbar
The IBMMQ device toolbar includes the following controls:
IBMMQ Metric Type
Displays statistics for the current device acting as a IBMMQ client or server.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
PUT/GET Ratio
Displays the PUT and GET counts for each IBMMQ device.

IBMMQ details specify the type of additional IBMMQ information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays IBMMQ metrics by IP addresses.
By Channel
Displays IBMMQ metrics by channel.
By Queue
Displays IBMMQ metrics by queue name.

For example, IBMMQ Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the IBMMQ server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the IBMMQ Requests counter shows which IP addresses originated these requests.

IP Address IBMMQ Metrics
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By IP in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IP Address
Represents the IBMMQ server's IP address.
Host
Represents the DNS hostname of the IBMMQ server determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding IBMMQ server device. For local IBMMQ servers, the link leads to the IBMMQ server device. For remote IBMMQ servers, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
Processing Time
Represents the time in milliseconds it took for IBMMQ servers to process requests for the currently selected IBMMQ client. Timing information is expressed as a confidence interval around the mean value bounded by one standard deviation. This metric is available for successful IBMMQ Responses only.
IBMMQ
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By Channel in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IBMMQ
Represents the channel on which the IBM MQ communication is occurring.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
IBMMQ Metrics by Queue
Move the mouse pointer over the counter, and click By Queue in the drop-down list to display the following information in the details table.
IBMMQ Queue
Represents the queue name on which the IBM MQ communication is occurring.
Counter Name
Identifies the metric name and count by device associated with the counter that was clicked to open this table.
IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device sent when acting as an IBM MQ client.
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an IBM MQ client.
Client Messages
Number of client messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBM MQ client.
Server Messages
Number of server messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBM MQ client.
Errors
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ client, the number of responses indicating an error, broken down by specific error.
Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ client, the number of responses received, broken down by IBM MQ warning message.
PCF Errors
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ client, the number of PCF error responses, broken down by specific error. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
PCF Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ client, the number of responses received indicating a PCF warning, broken down by specific warning message. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table below.
Requests
Number of requests that the device received when acting as an IBM MQ server.
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an IBM MQ server.
Client Messages
Number of client messages that the device sent or received while acting as an IBM MQ server.
Server Messages
Number of server messages that the device sent or received when acting as an IBM MQ server.
Errors
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ server, the number of responses indicating an error, broken down by specific error.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
When the device is acting as an IBM MQ server, the number of responses sent indicating a PCF warning, broken down by specific warning message. Programmable command formats (PCFs) provide a way to manipulate queue manager objects, such as queues, namelists, and channels.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Message Formats
Displays the IBMMQ message formats for the selected time interval.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
MQGET/MQPUT
Displays the GET and PUT count for the current device over the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.
IBMMQ devices PCF details page

Click the PCF Details node to display information specific to the administrative PCF channel.

IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table below.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Methods
Displays the IBMMQ PCF methods for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Displays the IBMMQ PCF errors for the selected time interval.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
IBMMQ devices error details page

Click the Error Details node to display additional IBMMQ warnings and error details.

IBMMQ groups page

IBMMQ Groups Toolbar
The IBMMQ groups toolbar includes the following controls:
IBMMQ Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as an IBMMQ client or IBMMQ server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of 5xx error messages sent to or received by the current member over the selected time interval.
Warnings
Displays the list of 4xx error messages sent to or received by the current member over the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Client
If you select Client for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client Messages
Number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of IBMMQ server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
Number of IBMMQ PCF requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
IBMMQ Server
If you select Server for the Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of IBMMQ requests sent or received within the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Responses
Number of IBMMQ responses sent or received within the selected time interval. (Client-to-server transactions only.)
Client Messages
Number of IBMMQ client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of IBMMQ server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of IBMMQ errors for the selected time interval.
Warnings
Number of IBMMQ warnings for the selected time interval.
PCF Errors
Number of IBMMQ PCF errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
PCF Warnings
Number of IBMMQ PCF requests sent or received within the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the IBMMQ methods for the selected time interval.
Message Format
Displays the IBMMQ message formats for the selected time interval.
Note:When the system detects only server-to-server traffic, the metrics that are gathered for client-to-server transactions only are zero or blank.

ICA

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) activity.

ICA applications page

ICAP Application Toolbar
The ICA application toolbar includes the following controls:
Users
The chart shows the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists users, the number of launches by each user, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each user. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Applications
The chart shows the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists applications, the number of launches by each application, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each application. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Clients
The chart shows the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of launches by each client, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of launches by each server, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round trip time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Auth Domains
The chart shows the total number of launches compared to load time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of load time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists domains, the number of launches by each domain, and the login time, load time, network latency, and round-trip time for each domain. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By User
Displays application metrics by user.
By Application
Displays application metrics by application. When a Citrix flow is opaque to analysis, whether because of lost segments or RC5 encryption, the reported application name is ICA or CGP.
By Auth Domain
Displays application metrics auth domain.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Client L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes transmitted by the Citrix ICA client.
Server L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes transmitted by the Citrix ICA server.
Client Packets
The number of packets transmitted by Citrix ICA clients.
Server Packets
The number of packets transmitted by the Citrix ICA server.
Client RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when clients were sending Citrix ICA messages. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Server RTOs
The number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion when servers were sending Citrix ICA messages. A retransmission timeout is a one-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Client Nagle Delays
The number of connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Server Nagle Delays
The number of connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Client Zero Windows
The number of zero window advertisements sent by clients. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
Server Zero Window
The number of zero window advertisements sent by servers. A device advertises a zero window when it cannot process incoming data as quickly as it is arriving.
ICA Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Client Messages
The number of Citrix ICA client messages transmitted.
Server Messages
The number of Citrix ICA server messages transmitted.
Client CGP Messages
The number of CGP messages sent by the Citrix ICA client. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates Citrix ICA traffic in support of Session Reliability.
Server CGP Messages
The number of CGP messages sent by the Citrix ICA server. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates Citrix ICA traffic in support of Session Reliability.
Launches
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that were launched. This count includes encrypted sessions.
Aborts
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that were initiated but closed before a Citrix application finished loading.
Encrypted
The number of Citrix ICA sessions that used an encryption method other than Basic. Certain metrics are not available for these sessions.
Screen Updates Per Second
Displays the number of screen updates per second as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Load Time (ms)
The amount of time from the beginning of the flow until the Discover appliance detects traffic on one of the following virtual channels: Clipboard, Citrix Windows Multimedia Redirection, Citrix Control Virtual Channel, or Zero Latency Font and Keyboard. Subsequent application data launched over the same session is recorded as a launch but does not factor into the load time. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the load time metrics. Click the chart to display a statistical distribution of load time per application for the selected time interval.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the network latency metrics. Click the chart to display a statistical distribution of client latency per application for the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Application Launches
Displays the number of ICA launches as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate aborts. The volume of aborts is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see per-server or per-client details for errors associated with that dot. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
App Client Bytes
Click the chart to display the total bytes per application transmitted within the selected time interval. Click the legend next to the application name to filter the information by application in the Bytes by Virtual Channels table below.
App Server Bytes
Click the chart to display the total bytes per application transmitted within the selected time interval. Click the legend next to the application name to filter the information by application in the Bytes by Virtual Channels table below.
Bytes by Virtual Channel
Displays the breakdown of ICA throughput by virtual channel. If a specific application is selected in the App Client Bytes and App Server Bytes charts above, virtual channel information is displayed specific to the selected application.
Name
Name of the application.
Client Bytes
Represents the client byte count for the currently selected application in the above chart.
Server Bytes
Represents the server byte count for the currently selected application in the above chart.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

ICA devices page

The ICA device toolbar includes the following controls:

ICA Devices Toolbar
The ICA device toolbar includes the following controls:
ICA Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices acting as an ICA client or ICA server.
Users
Click the Users button to display the ICA Server or Client: Users information for that device.
All Names
The load time for each user over the selected time interval.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Load Time (ms)
The amount of time to load the application, including the login time. Load time is measured only for the first application that is loaded. Subsequent application data launched over the same session is recorded as a launch but does not factor into the load time.
Login Time (ms)
The amount of time to log in to the application. Login time is a sub-component of the load time. When the user has gained access through a previous launch, there is no login, so login time for that user is 0.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Session Duration (sec)
The duration of each user's session.
Sessions
Click the Sessions button to display the ICA Client or Server: Sessions table for the device.
Name
The application name.
Duration (s)
The session duration by application.
Client Types
Click the Client Types button to display the ICA Client or Server: Client Types information for the device.
All Names
The number of launches for Citrix receivers over the selected time interval.
Name
The name and version of the Citrix receiver.
Count
Number of launches from that particular version of the receiver.
Auth Domain
Click the Auth Domain button to display the ICA Server or Client: Auth. Domain information for that device.
All Names
The load time for each user over the selected time interval.
Name
The device name.
Load Time (ms)
The time from the beginning of the flow until the Discover appliance detects traffic on one of the following virtual channels:
  • Clipboard
  • Citrix Windows Multimedia Redirection
  • Citrix Control Virtual Channel
  • Zero Latency Font and Keyboard
Login Time (ms)
The time between the transmission of the Citrix ICA packet that the client sends to the server with its credentials and the Citrix ICA packet that the server sends back to the client with the user name.
Network Latency (ms)
Displays the detected network latency between the ICA client and server as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Session Duration (ms)
The duration of each authentication session.

ICA details specify the type of additional ICA information displayed. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By User
Displays ICA device information by user.
By Application
Displays ICA device information by application. When a Citrix flow is opaque to analysis, whether because of lost segments or RC5 encryption, the reported application name is ICA or CGP.
By IP
Displays ICA device information by IP address.
By Auth Domain
Displays ICA device information by auth domain.

For example, ICA Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the ICA server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the ICA Requests counter shows which IP addresses originated these requests.

Applications
Contains the following metrics:
Launches
Total number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Total number of Citrix ICA sessions that were initiated but closed before a Citrix application finished loading within the selected time interval.
Encrypted Sessions
Number of encrypted sessions within the selected time interval.
ICA Client or Server
If you select Client or Server for the ICA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Client Messages
Number of ICA client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of ICA server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client CGP Messages
Number of client CGP messages sent by the client within the selected time interval. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates ICA traffic.
Server CGP Messages
Number of CGP messages sent by the server within the selected time interval. The Client Gateway Protocol (CGP) encapsulates ICA traffic.

ICA groups page

ICA Groups Toolbar
The ICA groups toolbar includes the following controls:
ICA Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list, and select either Client or Server to display metrics for members in the current group acting as an ICA client or ICA server, respectively.
Applications
Click the Applications button to display the ICA Client or Server: Applications table.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Launches
Number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Number of Citrix session aborts within the selected time interval.
Sessions
Click the Sessions button to display the ICA Client or Server: Sessions table.
Name
The Citrix user ID.
Duration (sec)
The session duration by application.
Client Types
Click the Client Types button to display the ICA Client or Server: Client Types table.
Name
The name and version of the Citrix receiver.
Count
Number of launches from that particular version of the receiver.
Launches
Total number of Citrix ICA launch commands within the selected time interval.
Aborts
Total number of Citrix session aborts within the selected time interval.
ICA Client or Server
If you select Client or Server for the ICA Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Client Messages
Number of ICA client messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server Messages
Number of ICA server messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Client CGP Messages
Number of ICA client CGP messages sent or received within the selected time interval.
Server CGP Messages
Number of ICA server CGP messages sent or received within the selected time interval.

iSCSI

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) activity.

iSCSI devices page

iSCSI Device Toolbar
The iSCSI device toolbar includes the following controls:
iSCSI Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an iSCSI client or iSCSI server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages broken down by iSCSI initiator sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI operation codes broken down by iSCSI initiator sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Initiators
Displays the list of iSCSI initiators establishing connections to or from the current device over the selected time interval.
IP Address iSCSI Metrics
Click the counters next to individual iSCSI metrics to show the IP Address iSCSI Metrics for iSCSI peer devices. For iSCSI servers, the peer devices are iSCSI clients. For iSCSI clients, the peer devices are iSCSI servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Target
Displays corresponding iSCSI targets.
iSCSI Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI target.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI server.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions that the device began when acting as an iSCSI target.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device received when acting as an iSCSI target.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device received when acting as an iSCSI target.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional header digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI target.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional data digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI target.
iSCSI Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI client.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions that the device began when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operation requests that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operation requests that the device sent when acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional header digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI initiator.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of operations that included optional data digests when the device is acting as an iSCSI initiator.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI OpCodes sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details. Click the OpCodes button to get OpCodes broken down by iSCSI initiator. OpCodes include:
  • Login Request
  • Login Response
  • Logout Request
  • Logout Response
  • SCSI Command
  • SCSI Response
  • Text Request
  • Text Response
  • SCSI Data-In
  • SCSI Data-Out
  • SCSI Task Management Response
  • SCSI Task Management Function Request
  • Ready To Transfer
  • Asynchronous Message
  • SNACK Request
  • Reject
  • Last
  • NOP-In
  • NOP-Out
  • Vendor-<hex>
Rejects
Displays the list of reject reasons sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details. Click the Errors button to get errors broken down by iSCSI initiator. Reject reasons include:
  • Zero
  • Reserved
  • Data Digest Error
  • SNACK Reject
  • Protocol Error
  • Command not supported
  • Protocol Error
  • Immediate Command Reject
  • Task in progress
  • Invalid Data ACK
  • Invalid PDU field
  • Long Operation Reject
  • Negotiation Reset
  • Waiting for Logout
Logins
Displays the iSCSI login errors for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details. Click the Errors button to get errors broken down by iSCSI initiator.
  • Login failures
  • Target moved temporarily
  • Target moved permanently
  • Initiator error
  • Authentication failure
  • Authorization failure
  • Not found
  • Target removed
  • Unsupported version
  • Too many connections
  • Missing parameter
  • Can't include in session
  • Session type not supported
  • Session does not exist
  • Invalid request during login
  • Target errror
  • Service unavailable
  • Out of resources
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Read and Write Bytes
Displays the area chart containing the breakdown of bytes by reads and writes over time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

iSCSI groups page

iSCSI Groups Toolbar
The iSCSI groups toolbar includes the following controls:
iSCSI Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as an iSCSI client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI operation codes broken down by iSCSI initiator sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
Initiators
Displays the list of iSCSI initiators establishing connections to or from members in the current group over the selected time interval.
iSCSI Server
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the iSCSI server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI server.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions received by the iSCSI server.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operations requested from the iSCSI server.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operations requested from the iSCSI server.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of iSCSI operations with optional header digests included.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of iSCSI operations with optional data digests included.
iSCSI Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the iSCSI client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the iSCSI client.
Sessions
Specifies the number of iSCSI sessions received by the iSCSI server.
Reads (DataOut)
Specifies the number of read operations requested from the iSCSI server.
Writes (DataIn)
Specifies the number of write operations requested from the iSCSI server.
Header Digest
Specifies the number of iSCSI operations with optional header digests included.
Data Digest
Specifies the number of iSCSI operations with optional data digests included.
OpCodes
Displays the list of iSCSI OpCodes sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval. Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the OpCodes button to get OpCodes broken down by iSCSI initiator. OpCodes include:
  • Login Request
  • Login Response
  • Logout Request
  • Logout Response
  • SCSI Command
  • SCSI Response
  • Text Request
  • Text Response
  • SCSI Data-In
  • SCSI Data-Out
  • SCSI Task Management Response
  • SCSI Task Management Function Request
  • Ready To Transfer
  • Asynchronous Message
  • SNACK Request
  • Reject
  • Last
  • NOP-In
  • NOP-Out
  • Vendor-<hex>
Rejects
Displays the list of reject reasons sent to or received by the current member over the selected time interval. Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the Errors button to get errors broken down by iSCSI initiator. Reject reasons include:
  • Zero
  • Reserved
  • Data Digest Error
  • SNACK Reject
  • Protocol Error
  • Command not supported
  • Protocol Error
  • Immediate Command Reject
  • Task in progress
  • Invalid Data ACK
  • Invalid PDU field
  • Long Operation Reject
  • Negotiation Reset
  • Waiting for Logout
Logins
Displays the iSCSI login errors for the selected time interval. Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the Errors button to get errors broken down by iSCSI initiator.
  • Login failures
  • Target moved temporarily
  • Target moved permanently
  • Initiator error
  • Authentication failure
  • Authorization failure
  • Not found
  • Target removed
  • Unsupported version
  • Too many connections
  • Missing parameter
  • Can't include in session
  • Session type not supported
  • Session does not exist
  • Invalid request during login
  • Target errror
  • Service unavailable
  • Out of resources

Kerberos

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Kerberos activity.

Kerberos applications page

Kerberos Application Toolbar
The Kerberos application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of Kerberos errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists Kerberos error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
Kerberos Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Response Errors
The number of response errors.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Kerberos devices page

Kerberos Device Toolbar
The Kerberos device toolbar includes the following controls:
Kerberos Metric Type
From the drop-down menu, select the type of metrics for the current device.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
FTP Server
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the server.
FTP Client
Displays additional IP address details.
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the client.
Requests by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Responses by Message Type
Displays the number of requests that the device received for the message type.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

Kerberos groups page

Kerberos Groups Toolbar
The Kerberos groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Kerberos Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as an Kerberos client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
Kerberos Client
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests sent by the Kerberos client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the Kerberos client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors received by the Kerberos client.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the Kerberos client.
Kerberos Server
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data requests received by the Kerberos server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the Kerberos server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the Kerberos server.
Warnings
Specifies the number of warnings received by the Kerberos server.
Data Channel
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of data channel requests sent or received by the current device.
Connects
Specifies the number of responses sent or received by the current device.
Methods
Displays the Kerberos methods for the selected time interval. Commands include RETR (get), STOR (put), and more. Click the counter next to each method to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Status Codes
Displays the Kerberos status codes for the selected time interval. Click the counter next to each status code to break it down by group members in the table.

L2

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about L2 activity.

L2 overlay metrics

ExtraHop appliances do not include any built-in metric pages for L2 overlays. However, you can view the following L2 overlay metrics in the metric explorer:

Decapsulated MPLS Frames Total
The number of Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) frames decapsulated.
Decapsulated MPLS Frame Bytes Total
The number of bytes in MPLS decapsulated frames.
Decapsulated TRILL Frames Total
The number of Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) frames decapsulated.
Decapsulated TRILL Frame Bytes Total
The number of bytes in TRILL decapsulated frames.
Decapsulated NVGRE Frames Total
The number of Network Virtualization using Generic Routing Encapsulation (NVGRE) frames decapsulated.
Decapsulated NVGRE Frame Bytes Total
The number of bytes in NVGRE decapsulated frames.
Decapsulated NVGRE Frame Bytes by VSID
The number of bytes in NVGRE decapsulated frames, broken down by Virtual Subnet ID (VSID).
Decapsulated NVGRE Frames by VSID
The number of NVGRE frames decapsulated, broken down by VSID.
Decapsulated VXLAN Frames Total
The number of Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) frames decapsulated.
Decapsulated VXLAN Frame Bytes Total
The number of bytes in VXLAN decapsulated frames.
Decapsulated VXLAN Frames by VNI
The number of VXLAN frames decapsulated, broken down by VXLAN Network Identifier (VNI).
Decapsulated VXLAN Frame Bytes by VNI
The number of bytes in VXLAN decapsulated frames, broken down by VNI.
Decapsulated Cisco FabricPath Frames Total
The number of Cisco FabricPath frames decapsulated.
Decapsulated Cisco FabricPath Frame Bytes Total
The number of bytes in Cisco FabricPath decapsulated.
Decapsulated Cisco FabricPath Frames by FTAG
The number of Cisco FabricPath frames decapsulated, broken down by Forwarding Tag (FTAG).
Decapsulated Cisco FabricPath Frame Bytes by FTAG
The number of bytes in Cisco FabricPath decapsulated frames, broken down by FTAG.
Note:To view decapsulated NVGRE or VXLAN metrics, you must enable network overlay decapsulation through the Admin UI.

L2 devices page

VLAN Tagged
The number of frames containing VLAN tags observed over the selected time interval. In reflects number of VLAN tagged frames received by the device. Out reflects number of VLAN tagged frames sent by the device.
Packets
Displays the incoming and outgoing packet rate (packets per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max identify the current and maximum packet rates for the given time period, respectively. Total identifies the total number of packets for the selected time interval. To view specific statistics for each data point, hover the mouse across the chart to see the packets per second value for each unit on the x-axis of the graph.
Throughput
Displays the incoming and outgoing throughput (bits per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max identify the current and maximum throughputs. Total identifies the total number of bytes transferred over the selected time interval. To view specific statistics for each data point, move the mouse pointer across the chart to see the throughput in megabits per second for each unit on the x-axis of the graph.
Frame Count by Size
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of incoming and outgoing Ethernet frame size.
Frame Count by Type
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 Ethertype (ipv4, ipv6, arp, ipx, mpls, lacp, stp, 802.1X, and other).
Frame Count by Distribution
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 type (unicast, multicast, and broadcast).
Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
L2 devices packets page

The Packets In and Packets Out line charts display the packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.

Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
L2 devices throughput page

The Throughput In and Throughput Out line charts display the throughput (in bits per second) over the selected time interval.

Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.

L2 networks page

The L2 network traffic page displays metrics for OSI Layer 2 traffic by packet rate (packets per second) and throughput (in bits per second). It also provides metrics on frame count by L2 Ethertype and by frame size.

Packets
Displays the packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected time interval. On the line chart, Current and Max identify the current and maximum packet rates for the given time period. Total identifies the total number of packets for the selected time interval. The gray bands represent the 5th to 95th percentile of the packet rate historically observed for the specific time of day and day of the week.
Throughput
Displays the throughput (in bits per second) over the selected time interval. In the chart, Current and Max identify the current and maximum throughputs. Total identifies the total number of bytes transferred over the selected time interval. The gray bands represent the 5th to 95th percentile of the throughput historically observed for this time of day and day of the week.
Frame Count by Size
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of Ethernet frame size. The values on the x-axis (64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1513, 1518, and Jumbo) indicate the maximum size of the frame for the category. For example, 256 represents a frame size between 129 and 256 bytes, inclusive.
Frame Count by Type
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 Ethertype (IPv4, IPv6, ARP, IPX, MPLS, LACP, STP, 802.1X, and other).
Frame Count by Distribution
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 type (Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast).
Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
L2 networks packets page

The Packets line chart displays the packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected time interval.

Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
L2 networks throughput page

The Throughput line chart displays the throughput (in bits per second) over the selected time interval.

Note:One-second aggregation metrics are available when the specified time interval is six minutes or less. For more information, see the Time Selector section.
L2 networks frame details page
Frame Count by Size
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of Ethernet frame size. The values on the x-axis (64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1513, 1518, and Jumbo) indicate the maximum size of the frame for the category. For example, 256 represents a frame size between 129 and 256 bytes, inclusive.
Frame Count by Type
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 Ethertype (IPv4, IPv6, ARP, IPX, MPLS, LACP, STP, 802.1X, and other).
Frames
Displays a list of devices and the frame count in and out for a specified frame type. To select a frame type, click a bar in the Frame Count by Size orFrame Count by Type tables.

L2 groups page

VLAN Tagged
The number of frames containing VLAN tags observed over the selected time interval. In reflects number of VLAN tagged frames received by the device. Out reflects number of VLAN tagged frames sent by the device.
Packets
Displays the incoming and outgoing packet rate (packets per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max identify the current and maximum packet rates for the given time period, respectively. Total identifies the total number of packets for the selected time interval. To view specific statistics for each data point, hover the mouse across the chart to see the packets per second value for each unit on the x-axis of the graph.
Throughput
Displays the incoming and outgoing throughput (bits per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max identify the current and maximum throughputs. Total identifies the total number of bytes transferred over the selected time interval. To view specific statistics for each data point, move the mouse pointer across the chart to see the throughput in megabits per second for each unit on the x-axis of the graph.
Frame Count by Size
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of incoming and outgoing Ethernet frame size.
Frame Count by Type
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 Ethertype (ipv4, ipv6, arp, ipx, mpls, lacp, stp, 802.1X, and other).
Frame Count by Distribution
Displays a logarithmic-scale histogram of the distribution of frames by L2 type (unicast, multicast, and broadcast).
L2 groups packets page
Packets In
Displays how members contribute to the total incoming packet count for the group.
Packets Out
Displays how members contribute to the total incoming packet count for the group.
L2 groups throughput page
Bytes In
Displays how members contribute to the total incoming byte count for the group.
Bytes Out
Displays how members contribute to the total incoming byte count for the group.

L3

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about L3 activity.

L3 devices device page

Name
The primary name the device uses to communicate on the network. Names are discovered by passively monitoring a variety of naming protocols, including DNS, DHCP, NETBIOS, and Cisco Discovery Protocol. If a device name is not discovered, a NIC manufacturer-based identifier is assigned to the device by looking at the MAC address. If the MAC address range is not registered, or if it belongs to a private MAC address space, the name includes the last six characters of the MAC address (for example, Device 00000c0789b1).

The device-type icon to the left of the device name identifies the activity primarily associated with this device. The device name and type can be edited by clicking on the name and using the edit tools on the Device page.

MAC Address
The MAC address is a unique identifier of the device network interface. For physical devices that have multiple interfaces, one entry per interface is maintained. The vendor icon displays to the left of MAC Address as determined by the MAC OID lookup.
VLAN
The VLAN tag of the device.
IP Address
The Primary IP address the device uses to communicate on the network. By default, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) traffic is used to determine the mapping from MAC addresses to IP addresses. In the absence of such traffic, IP packet header information is used. If there is no ARP traffic, the IP address 0.0.0.0 is assigned to routing devices, such as gateways, firewalls, and load balancers, to indicate that it handles packets from many sources.
Discovery Time
The time when the device was first discovered. The day of the week, the calendar date, and time are displayed in the following format: Wed Feb 23 09:01.
Description
A user-defined description of the device. To edit the device description, click the device name and use the edit tools on the Device page.

L3 devices page

IP Fragments
Displays the IP fragments in and out for the device or group.
Packet Count by Protocol
Displays the incoming and outgoing packet count for each L3 protocol type. Click a bar in the chart to display the table of devices transmitting or receiving the selected L3 protocol.
Byte Count by Protocol
Displays the incoming and outgoing byte count for each L3 protocol type. Click a bar in the chart to display the table of devices transmitting or receiving the selected L3 protocol. IP types include TCP, UDP, ICMP, SCTP, IPSEC, GRE, ICMP6, VRRP, and OTHER.
Devices and Peer Devices
Displays IP addresses and host names with which the device or group communicates, packet in/out count, and byte in/out count for the currently selected L3 protocol. If no L3 protocol is selected, the packet count and byte count is the sum of all L3 protocol counts for the device or group. Click the device name to navigate to the device.
L3 devices DSCP page
Packets in by DSCP
Displays the number of incoming packets containing DSCP values on the network within the selected time interval. The legend lists the DSCP values with the highest count.
Packets out by DSCP
Displays the number of outgoing packets containing DSCP values on the network within the selected time interval. The legend lists the DSCP values with the highest count.
L3 devices ICMP details page
ICMP Packets In
Displays a list of ICMP response types and associated packet counts received by the current device in the selected time interval.
ICMP Packets Out
Displays a list of ICMP response types and associated packet counts sent by the current device in the selected time interval.
ICMPv6 Packets In
Displays a list of ICMPv6 response types and associated packet counts received by the current device in the selected time interval.
ICMPv6 Packets Out
Displays a list of ICMPv6 response types and associated packet counts sent by the current device in the selected time interval.
  • Destination Unreachable:
    • Dest Unreach - Network
    • Dest Unreach - Host
    • Dest Unreach - Protocol
    • Dest Unreach - Port
    • Dest Unreach - Fragmentation Needed
    • Dest Unreach - Source Route
  • Time Exceeded:
    • Redirect - Network
    • Redirect - Host
    • Redirect - ToS Network
    • Redirect - ToS Host
  • Miscellaneous:
    • Bad Param
    • Source Quench
    • Echo
    • Echo Reply
    • Timestamp
    • Timestamp Reply
    • Info Request
    • Info Reply
  • ICMPv6 Destination Unreachable:
    • Dest Unreach - No route
    • Dest Unreach - Prohibited
    • Dest Unreach - Bad scope
    • Dest Unreach - Host
    • Dest Unreach - Port
  • ICMPv6 Time Exceeded:
    • Time Exceeded - Transit
    • Time Exceeded - Fragment Reassembly
  • ICMPv6 Parameter Problem:
    • Bad Param - Header Error
    • Bad Param - Unknown Next Header
    • Bad Param - Unkown Option
  • ICMPv6 Miscellaneous:
    • Packet Too Big
    • Echo
    • Echo Reply
    • MLD Query
    • MLD Report
    • MLD Done
    • ND Router Solicit
    • ND Router Advert
    • ND Neighbor Solicit
    • ND Neighbor Advert
    • ND Redirect
    • Router renumber
    • FQDN Query
    • FQDN Reply
    • MLDv2 Listener Report
    • MLD Mtrace Rsp
    • MLD Mtrace

L3 networks page

The L3 network traffic sub-page displays metrics for OSI Layer 3 traffic by packet count per L3 network protocol and byte count per protocol.

IP Fragments
Displays the number of IP fragments identified in the network capture.
Packet Count by Protocol
Displays the packet count for each L3 protocol type. The values on the x-axis (ICMP6, TCP, UDP, and Other) identify the common L3 protocol types.
Byte Count by Protocol
Displays the byte count for each L3 protocol type. The values on the x-axis (ICMP6, TCP, UDP, and Other) identify the common L3 protocol types.
Devices
Displays the device name, packet in/out count, byte in/out count, and IP fragment in/out count for the currently selected L3 protocol. If no L3 protocol is selected, the packet count and byte count is the sum of all L3 protocol counts for the device. Click the device name to navigate to the device details page.
L3 networks DSCP page

The DSCP sub-page displays the number of packets containing differentiated services code point (DSCP) values.

Packets by DSCP
Displays the number of packets containing DSCP values on the network within the selected time interval. The legend lists the DSCP values with the highest count.
Bytes by DSCP
Displays the number of bytes containing DSCP values on the network within the selected time interval. The legend lists the DSCP values with the highest count.

L3 groups page

IP Fragments
Displays the IP fragments in and out for the device or group.
Packet Count by Protocol
Displays the incoming and outgoing packet count for each L3 protocol type. Click a bar in the chart to display the table of devices transmitting or receiving the selected L3 protocol.
Byte Count by Protocol
Displays the incoming and outgoing byte count for each L3 protocol type. Click a bar in the chart to display the table of devices transmitting or receiving the selected L3 protocol. IP types include TCP, UDP, ICMP, SCTP, IPSEC, GRE, ICMP6, VRRP, and OTHER.
Devices and Peer Devices
Displays IP addresses and host names with which the device or group communicates, packet in/out count, and byte in/out count for the currently selected L3 protocol. If no L3 protocol is selected, the packet count and byte count is the sum of all L3 protocol counts for the device or group. Click the device name to navigate to the device.

L4

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about L4 activity.

Learn more about TCP by taking the TPC Quick Peek training.

L4 applications page

L4 Application Toolbar
The L4 application toolbar includes the following controls:
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Connections
Displays the TCP connection metrics for the selected time interval.
Connected
Specifies the number of connections initiated by the current device. Click to display the peer devices to which the connections were established and the associated round-trip time.
Closed
Specifies the number of connections closed to or from the current device. Closed connections are explicitly shut down by at least one of the endpoints. Click to display the peer devices for which the connections were closed.
Aborted
Specifies the number of connections aborted by the current device. Aborted connections are reset explicitly by one of the endpoints. In some cases, this indicates that an error occurred. Click to display the peer devices to which the current device aborted the connections.
Expired
Specifies the number of connections to or from the current device no longer tracked due to inactivity. Click to display the peer devices with which the connections were associated.
Established
Number of connections currently open to or from the current application. Click to display the server IP addresses, hosts, and devices with which connections have been established.
Established
Maximum number of established connections observed at any point within the selected time interval.
Request Metrics
Displays the request metrics for the selected time interval.
L2 Bytes
Displays request bytes for the application within the selected time interval.
Packets
Displays request packets for the application within the selected time interval.
RTOs
Displays request RTOs for the application as a function of time within the selected time interval. Request RTOs are transmitted out of the client and into the server.
Nagle Delays
Indicates connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Rcv Wnd Throttles
Number of times the advertised receive window limits the throughput of the connection. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased or receive window scaling can be enabled on the current device to resolve this problem.
Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements sent by the current device. A zero window indicates that the connection has stalled and the current device is unable to keep up with the rate of data sent. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased on the current device to resolve this problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the proxy_buffer_high setting in the TCP profile should be increased.
Response Metrics
Displays the response metrics for the specified time interval.
L2 Bytes
Displays response bytes for the application within the selected time interval.
Packets
Displays response packets for the application within the selected time interval.
RTOs
Displays response RTOs for the application as a function of time within the selected time interval. Response RTOs are transmitted out of the server and into the client.
Nagle Delays
Indicates connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. In some cases, disabling Nagle's Algorithm can mitigate the problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the Nagle setting in the TCP profile should be disabled and ack_on_push should be enabled.
Rcv Wnd Throttle
Number of times the advertised receive window limits the throughput of the connection. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased or receive window scaling can be enabled on the current device to resolve this problem.
Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements sent by the current device. A zero window indicates that the connection has stalled and the current device is unable to keep up with the rate of data sent. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased on the current device to resolve this problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the proxy_buffer_high setting in the TCP profile should be increased.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

L4 TCP devices page

TCP Device Toolbar
The TCP device toolbar includes the following controls:
TCP Details
Specifies what type of additional TCP information is displayed when a counter is clicked next to each top-level metric. You can choose between the following options: By IP for IP addresses and By L7 Protocol. For example, the top-level metric, TCP Closed connections, shows how many connections were closed by the current device during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP and clicking on the closed counter will show which IP addresses originated these connections. Selecting By L7 Protocol and clicking on the closed counter will show which applications were accessed by the requestor.
Connections
The TCP connection metrics for the specified time interval.
Accepted
Number of inbound connections accepted by the device. Click to display the peer devices from which the connections originated and the associated round-trip time.
Connected
Number of outbound connections initiated by the device. Click to display the peer devices to which the connections were established and the associated round-trip time.
Closed
Number of connections explicitly shut down by the device or its peer. Closed connections are explicitly shut down by at least one of the endpoints. Click to display the peer devices for which the connections were closed.
Aborted
The total number of TCP connections that were forcibly ended between the selected device and another device on the network. Aborted connections might indicate that an error occurred. For more information about the number of aborts for incoming and outgoing connections, click Details.
Expired
Number of connections involving the device for which tracking was stopped due to inactivity. Click to display the peer devices with which the connections were associated.
Established
For a given time interval, the number of open connections involving the device at end of the interval. Click to display the peer devices with which connections have been established.
Established Max
Maximum number of established connections observed at any point within the selected time interval.
Desync
Number of times synchronization was lost when processing TCP connections for the device. Large numbers might indicate dropped packets on the monitoring interface, SPAN, or network tap.
TCP Flow Stalls
Number of events in which the device was not responsive.
Connections Chart
Displays the number of accepted, connected, closed, and aborted connections as a function of time over the selected time interval. Click the chart to display a larger version. Date represents the date and time for the currently moused-over point on the graph. Connects, Accepts, Closes, and Abortsrepresent the number of outgoing, incoming, closed, and aborted connections respectively for the currently moused-over point in the graph. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Throttling In: Receive Windows and Zero Windows
Represents the incoming receive and zero windows of the current device as a function of time over the selected time interval. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Throttling Out: Receive Windows and Zero Windows
Represents the outgoing receive and zero windows of the current device as a function of time over the selected time interval. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
L4 TCP devices details page

Specifies what type of additional TCP information is displayed, when a counter is clicked next to each top-level metric. You can choose between the following options: By IP for IP addresses and By L7 Protocol. For example, TCP Closed connections is a top-level metric showing how many connections were closed by the current device during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP and clicking on the closed counter will show which IP addresses originated these connections. Selecting By L7 Protocol and clicking on the closed counter will show which applications were accessed by the requestor.

Connections
The TCP connection metrics for the current device.
Accepted
Number of inbound connections accepted by the device. Click to display the peer devices from which the connections originated and the associated round-trip time.
Connected
Number of outbound connections initiated by the device. Click to display the peer devices to which the connections were established and the associated round-trip time.
Closed
Number of connections explicitly shut down by the device or its peer. Closed connections are explicitly shut down by at least one of the endpoints. Click to display the peer devices for which the connections were closed.
Expired
Number of connections involving the device for which tracking was stopped due to inactivity. Click to display the peer devices with which the connections were associated.
Established
For a given time interval, the number of open connections involving the device at end of the interval. Click to display the peer devices with which connections have been established.
Established Max
Maximum number of established connections observed at any point within the selected time interval.
Desync
Number of times synchronization was lost when processing TCP connections for the device. Large numbers might indicate dropped packets on the monitoring interface, port mirror, or network tap.
In
The incoming connection metrics for the current device.
Aborts
Number of connections aborted by the peer of the current device. Aborted connections are reset explicitly by one of the endpoints. In some cases, this indicates that an error occurred. Click to display the peer devices that aborted the connections.
Resets
Number of RSTs received by the current device. TCP resets indicate that a reset packet was sent to forcibly end the TCP connection, and can be used in a variety of situations. Sometimes resets are sent when the receiving device failed to ACK the SYN packet, or it failed to acknowledge another packet sent and retransmitted later in the transaction. Other times, resets may be used to quickly and efficiently end an existing connection to free up resources for more traffic. High volumes of outbound resets should be investigated to determine if they are expected behavior or indicative of a larger issue.
SYNs Received
Number of SYNs received by the current device.
SYNs Unanswered
Number of SYNs received by the device for which there were no corresponding ACKs.
Stray Segments
Number of unexpected TCP packets received by the current device. Stray segments are likely to be recorded when the Discover appliance is first started. Continued large numbers of stray segments could indicate a misconfiguration or deployment problem.
Dropped Segments
Number of episodes in which a segment or a series of segments were lost on the way to the current device and required retransmission. Large values of this counter may indicate network congestion or link reliability problems.
Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements received by the current device. A zero window indicates that the connection has stalled and the peer device is unable to keep up with the rate of data sent. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased on the peer device to resolve this problem. On the BIG-IP Application Delivery Controller, the proxy_buffer_high setting in the TCP profile should be increased.
Rcv Wnd Throttles
Number of times the advertised receive window of the peer device limits the throughput of the connection. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased or receive window scaling can be enabled on the peer device to resolve this problem.
Snd Wnd Throttles
Number of send window throttles. This indicates that the TCP congestion avoidance on the peer device might be too conservative. In some cases, a different congestion avoidance algorithm can be selected or send window scaling can be enabled on the peer device.
SYNs w/o Timestamps
Number of SYNs without the TCP timestamp option received by the current device.
SYNs w/o SACK
Number of SYNs without the TCP SackOK option received by the current device. This option is necessary to use selective acknowledgments.
RTOs
Number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion as peers were sending data to the current device. This indicates a relatively long stall in the connection due to packet loss. Enabling selective acknowledgments and fast recovery might reduce such stalls.

Learn more about RTOs on ExtraHop.com

PAWS-Dropped SYNs
Number of PAWS-dropped SYNs. This indicates that a connection failed to initiate because the current device interpreted the SYN as belonging to a previous connection. This problem is often due to network address translation and specifically the timestamp affixed to packets that traverse a network address translation device. PAWS-dropped SYNs may cause a stall in connection setup since the dropped SYN is typically retransmitted after a three-second timer expires. In some cases, increasing the connection linger time on the NAT device or decreasing connection linger time on the current device can mitigate this problem.

Learn more about PAWS-dropped SYNs on ExtraHop.com

Bad Congestion Control
Number of events with bad congestion control, which occurs when the system receives RTOs with in-flight data greater than twice the prior congestion window. This indicates that the peer device is sending too much data, resulting in network congestion and dropped packets.
TCP Flow Stalls
Number of events in which a peer device was not responsive.
Out
The outgoing connection metrics for the current device.
Aborts
Number of connections aborted by the current device. Aborted connections are reset explicitly by one of the endpoints. In some cases, this indicates that an error occurred. Click to display the peer devices to which the current device aborted the connections.
Resets
Number of RSTs sent by the current device. TCP resets indicate that a reset packet was sent to forcibly end the TCP connection, and can be used in a variety of situations. Sometimes resets are sent when the receiving device failed to ACK the SYN packet, or it failed to acknowledge another packet sent and retransmitted later in the transaction. Other times, resets may be used to quickly and efficiently end an existing connection to free up resources for more traffic. High volumes of outbound resets should be investigated to determine if they are expected behavior or indicative of a larger issue.
SYNs Sent
Number of SYNs sent by the current device.
SYNs Unanswered
Number of SYNs sent by the device for which there were no corresponding ACKs.
Dropped Segments
Number of episodes in which a segment or a series of segments were lost on the way to the current device and required retransmission. Large values of this counter may indicate network congestion or link reliability problems.
Tinygrams
Number of tinygrams sent by the current device. This indicates that the TCP payload is being segmented inefficiently, resulting in more packets on the network.

Learn more about tinygrams on the ExtraHop Forum

Nagle Delays
Number of Nagle delays sent by the current device. This indicates connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs.

Learn more about Nagle delays on the ExtraHop Forum

Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements sent by the current device. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the current device cannot handle the rate of data sent.
Slow Starts
Number of slow starts sent by the current device. This indicates that TCP slow start congestion avoidance has reduced connection throughput. The application on the current device might benefit from connection pooling or persistent connections.
Rcv Wnd Throttle
Number of times the advertised receive window of the current device limits the throughput of the connection. In some cases, the read socket buffer size can be increased or receive window scaling can be enabled on the current device to resolve this problem.
Snd Wnd Throttle
Number of send window throttles. This indicates that the TCP congestion avoidance on the current device might be too conservative. In some cases, a different congestion avoidance algorithm can be selected or send window scaling can be enabled on the current device.
SYNs w/o Timestamps
Number of SYNs without the TCP timestamp option sent by the current device.SYNs
SYNs w/o SACK
Number of SYNs without the TCP SackOK option sent by the current device. This option is necessary to use selective acknowledgments.
RTOs
Number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion as the current device was sending data to a peer. This indicates a relatively long stall in the connection due to packet loss. Enabling selective acknowledgments and fast recovery might reduce such stalls.
Retransmissions
Number of times data is resent by the current device.
Out of Order
Number of packets sent by the device where the TCP sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliance was expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the device itself or by an intermediate device. This can result in reduced connection throughput, increased processing load on the peer device, and additional ACK packets on the network.
Bad Congestion Control
Number of events with bad congestion control, which occurs when the system receives RTOs with in-flight data greater than twice the prior congestion window. This indicates that the current device is sending too much data, resulting in network congestion and dropped packets.
TCP Flow Stalls
Number of events in which the current device was not responsive.

L4 TCP groups page

Connections
The TCP connection metrics for all members in the current group.
Accepted
Number of connections accepted by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of outgoing connections by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Connected
Number of connections initiated by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of incoming connections by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Closed
Number of connections closed to or from any member in the current group. Closed connections are explicitly shutdown by at least one of the endpoints. Click to break down the number of closed connections by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Expired
Number of connections to or from any member in the current group no longer tracked due to inactivity. Click to break down the number of expired connections by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Desync
Number of times synchronization was lost when processing TCP connections from or to any member in the current group. Click to break down the number of desyncs by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
In
The incoming connection metrics for all members in the current group.
Aborts
Number of connections aborted by the peer of any member in the current group. Click to break down the number of aborts received by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Resets
Number of RSTs received by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of RSTs received by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

TCP resets indicate that a reset packet was sent to forcibly end the TCP connection, and can be used in a variety of situations. Sometimes resets are sent when the receiving member failed to ACK the SYN packet, or it failed to acknowledge another packet sent and retransmitted later in the transaction. Other times, resets may be used to quickly and efficiently end an existing connection to free up resources for more traffic. High volumes of outbound resets should be investigated to determine if they are expected behavior or indicative of a larger issue

SYNs Received
Number of SYNs received by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of SYNs received by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs Unanswered
Number of SYNs received by all members in the current group for which there were no corresponding ACKs. Click to break down the number of SYNs sent by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Stray Segments
Number of unexpected TCP packets received by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of stray segments received by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Dropped Segments
Number of episodes in which a segment or a series of segments were lost on the way to the current member and required retransmission. Large values of this counter may indicate network congestion or link reliability problems. Click to break down the number of inbound dropped segments by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements received by all members in the current group. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the peer member cannot handle the rate of data sent. Click to break down the number of inbound zero window advertisements by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Rcv Wnd Throttles
Number of times the advertised receive window of the peer member limits the throughput of the connection. Click to break down the number of inbound receive window throttles by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Snd Wnd Throttles
Number of send window throttles. This indicates that the TCP congestion avoidance on the peer member might be too conservative. Click to break down the number of inbound send window throttles by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs w/o Timestamps
Number of SYNs without the TCP timestamp option received by all members of the current group. Click to break down the number of inbound SYNs without timestamps by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs w/o SACK
Number of SYNs without the TCP SackOK option received by all members of the current group. Click to break down the number of inbound SYNs without the TCP SackOK option by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
RTOs
Number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion as peers were sending data to the members of the current group. Click to break down the number of inbound RTOs by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

Learn more about RTOs on ExtraHop.com

PAWS-Dropped SYNs
Number of PAWS-dropped SYNs. This indicates that a connection failed to initiate because the current member interpreted the SYN as belonging to a previous connection. Click to break down the number of inbound PAWS-Dropped SYNs by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

Learn more about PAWS-dropped SYNs on ExtraHop.com

Bad Congestion Control
Number of events with bad congestion control, which occurs when the system receives RTOs with in-flight data greater than twice the prior congestion window. This indicates that the peer member is sending too much data, resulting in network congestion and dropped packets. Click to break down the number of bad congestion control events by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
TCP Flow Stalls
Number of events in which the group was not responsive. Click to break down the number of non-responsive events by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Out
The outgoing connection metrics for all members in the current group.
Aborts
Number of connections aborted by any member in the current group. Aborted connections are reset explicitly by one of the endpoints. In some cases, this indicates that an error occurred. Click to display the number of aborts each group member initiated in the table at the bottom of the page.
Resets
Number of RSTs sent by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of RSTs sent by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

TCP resets indicate that a reset packet was sent to forcibly end the TCP connection, and can be used in a variety of situations. Sometimes resets are sent when the receiving member failed to ACK the SYN packet, or it failed to acknowledge another packet sent and retransmitted later in the transaction. Other times, resets may be used to quickly and efficiently end an existing connection to free up resources for more traffic. High volumes of outbound resets should be investigated to determine if they are expected behavior or indicative of a larger issue.

SYNs Sent
Number of SYNs sent by all members in the current group. Click to break down the number of SYNs sent by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs Unanswered
Number of SYNs sent by all members in the current group for which there were no corresponding ACKs. Click to break down the number of SYNs received by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Dropped Segments
Number of episodes in which a segment or a series of segments were lost on the way to the current member and required retransmission. Large values of this counter may indicate network congestion or link reliability problems. Click to break down the number of outbound dropped segments by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Tinygrams
Number of tinygrams sent by the current member. This indicates that the TCP payload is being segmented inefficiently, resulting in more packets on the network. Click to break down the number of outbound tinygrams by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

Learn more about tinygrams on the ExtraHop blog

Nagle Delays
Number of Nagle delays sent by the current member. This indicates connection delays due to a bad interaction between Nagle's Algorithm and delayed ACKs. Click to break down the number of outbound Nagle's delays by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.

Learn more about Nagle delays on the ExtraHop Forum

Zero Window
Number of zero window advertisements sent by all members in the current group. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the peer member cannot handle the rate of data sent. Click to break down the number of outbound zero window advertisements by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Slow Starts
Number of slow starts sent by the current member. This indicates that TCP slow start congestion avoidance has reduced connection throughput. Click to break down the number of outbound slow starts by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Rcv Wnd Throttles
Number of times the advertised receive window of the current member limits the throughput of the connection. Click to break down the number of outbound received window throttles by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Snd Wnd Throttles
Number of send window throttles. This indicates that the TCP congestion avoidance on the current member might be too conservative. Click to break down the number of outbound send window throttles by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs w/o Timestamps
Number of SYNs without the TCP timestamp option sent by all members of the current group. Click to break down the number of outbound SYNs without timestamps by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
SYNs w/o SACK
Number of SYNs without the TCP SackOK option sent by all members of the current group. Click to break down the number of outbound SYNs without the TCP SackOK option by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
RTOs
Number of retransmission timeouts caused by congestion as members of the current group were sending data to their peers. Click to break down the number of outbound RTOs by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Retransmissions
Number of times data is resent by the current member. Click to break down the number of outbound retransmissions by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Out of Order
Number of packets sent by the member where the TCP sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliance was expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the member itself or by an intermediate member. This can result in reduced connection throughput, increased processing load on the peer member, and additional ACK packets on the network. Click to break down the number of outbound retransmissions by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Bad Congestion Control
Number of events with bad congestion control, which occurs when the system receives RTOs with in-flight data greater than twice the prior congestion window. This indicates that the current member is sending too much data, resulting in network congestion and dropped packets. Click to break down the number of outbound bad congestion control events by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
TCP Flow Stalls
Number of events in which the group was not responsive. Click to break down the number of non-responsive events by each group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

L7

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about L7 activity.

L7 devices page

Packets In
Displays how applications contribute to the total incoming packet count for the device. Click the chart to display a larger version. Click an application listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the chart to zoom into and select a particular region.
Packets Out
Displays how applications contribute to the total outgoing packet count for the device. Click the chart to display a larger version. Click an application listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the chart to zoom into and select a particular region.
Bytes In
Displays how applications contribute to the total incoming byte count for the device. Click the chart to display a larger version. Click an application listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the chart to zoom into and select a particular region.
Bytes Out
Displays how applications contribute to the total outgoing byte count for the device. Click the chart to display a larger version. Click an application listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the table at the bottom of the page. Click the chart to zoom into and select a particular region.
Peer Devices
Click an application listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the table at the bottom of the page. The protocol metrics appear in a table with the following headings:
IP Address
The IP address of the corresponding device.
Host
The host of the corresponding device.
Device
A link to the corresponding device. For local devices, the link leads to that device. For remote devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Packets In
The number of packets sent from the peer device to the current device for the selected protocol in the area chart.
Packets Out
The number of packets sent from the current device to the peer device for the selected protocol in the area chart.
Bytes In
The number of bytes sent from the peer device to the current device for the selected protocol in the area chart.
Bytes Out
The number of bytes sent from the current device to the peer device for the selected protocol in the area chart.
Note:A category labeled OTHER may appear in the legend to represent traffic that is not TCP/UDP and fails to classify as an L7 protocol. The OTHER category may also represent TCP/UDP traffic that fails to classify as an L7 protocol and fails to add an L4 p:port identifier.

The Bytes In and Bytes Out charts display activity for the top 10 protocols. To view information about other protocols, click the Details node in the page navigation panel.

To isolate a single protocol, mouse over the protocol in the legend or click the protocol to select it. When you select a protocol, the table displays a list of devices with activity from that protocol. Click a device in the table to view detailed L7 protocol metrics for that device.

To deselect the protocol and view all the top protocols in the chart again, click the selection in the legend again or click the table title below the charts.

L7 devices packets page

The Packets In and Packets Out area charts display the packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.

L7 devices throughput page

The Bytes In and Bytes Out area chart displays the throughput rate (in bits per second) over the selected time interval.

L7 devices turn timing page

A TCP turn is a complete change in direction of TCP payload data being delivered. In order to clearly detect this, the change in data direction must occur only after the TCP ACK is received for all the data in the prior direction, either by a bare TCP ACK or by a TCP ACK within returned data (a "piggybacked" ACK)

If the TCP ACK is not received for all the data, it is less likely to be a true application-level turn and is not counted as a turn. This means if a turn does not appear in the Discover appliance, data sent and received is likely to be overlapping.

The Protocols table displays the timing components for all application turns associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.

Protocol
Auto-classified L7 protocol or a TCP/UDP port.
Turns
Number of TCP turns observed due to this protocol in the selected time period. Click the number of turns to display turn timing information over time for a specific protocol.
Network In (ms)
The time in milliseconds before the payload was received by the server. A large Network In value relative to the average application turn time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Processing Time (ms)
The time in milliseconds between the time the payload was received by the server and the time the payload was sent back. A large server processing time relative to the average application turn time indicates application delay.
Network Out (ms)
The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the payload back. A large Network Out value relative to the average application turn time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Breakdown

Click a value in the Turns column. If the Response Time drop-down list is set to Breakdown, the dialog box displays the overtime view of the following components:

Network In
The time in milliseconds before the payload was received by the server.
Processing Time
The time in milliseconds between the time the payload was received by the server and the time the payload was sent back.
Network Out
The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the payload back.
Distribution

Click a value in the Turns column. If the Response Time drop-down list is set to Distribution, the dialog box displays the overtime view of the following components:

Network In
The time in milliseconds before the payload was received by the server.
Process
The time in milliseconds between the time the payload was received by the server and the time the payload was sent back.
Network Out
The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the payload back.
Payload Size In
Displays the range of request sizes for all application turns associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values.
Payload Size Out
Displays the range of response sizes for all application turns associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values.
Turns
Number of TCP turns observed due to this protocol in the selected time period. Click the number of turns to display turn timing information over time for a specific protocol.

Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.

L7 devices details page

The Protocols table lists all the protocols detected on this device and associated packet and byte counts. Click a protocol in the table to see the list of devices associated with that protocol.

To filter the list of protocols visible in the table, enter a search string in the Filter text box. The list filters automatically as search characters are entered.

L7 networks page

The L7 Protocols sub-page displays metrics for OSI Layer 7 traffic by packet count and throughput (total bytes). It also provides metrics on the top devices sending or receiving network traffic. The page includes the following information:

Packets by Protocol
Displays the packet rates for the top 10 protocols on the network.
Bytes by Protocol
Displays the throughput for the top 10 protocols on the network.
Protocols
Displays the devices sending and receiving traffic for the specified protocol.
L7 networks packets page

The Packets area chart displays how applications contribute to the total packet count on the network. In the chart, Date identifies the date and time for the data point on the graph that is currently being viewed. Packets displays the packet rate for the protocol at the given data point on the area chart, and the color block identifies the associated protocol name.

L7 networks throughput page

The Bytes by Application area chart displays how applications contribute to the total byte count on the network. In the chart, Date identifies the date and time for the data point on the graph that is currently being viewed. Bytes identifies the throughput for the data point that is currently being viewed in the area chart, and the color block identifies the associated protocol name.

L7 networks details page

The L7 Protocols Details page provides a complete list of protocols, and the packet and byte count for each.

L7 groups page

Protocol
The name of the protocol present in the group.
Packets In
The total incoming packet count for the protocol.
Packets Out
The total outgoing packet count for the protocol.
Bytes In
The total incoming byte count for the protocol.
Bytes Out
The total outgoing byte count for the protocol.

LDAP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about L7 activity.

LDAP applications page

LDAP Applications Tooblar
The LDAP application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of LDAP errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists LDAP error messages and the number of times each occurred.
DNs
The chart shows the number of Distinguished Name (DN) messages transferred. The table displays the list of DN messages and the count associated with each DN message.
Users
The chart shows the number of requests from all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists users and the request count associated with each user.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
LDAP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of requests received.
Responses
The number of responses received.
Errors
The number of LDAP errors for the selected time interval.
Plain
The number of plain-text LDAP messages exchanged.
SASL
The number of encrypted LDAP messages exchanged.
Messages
Displays the LDAP messages for the selected time interval, such as BindRequest, BindResponse, UnbindRequest, SearchRequest, SearchResultDone and others. In the LDAP Server view, click the message counter to display clients that issued these messages. In the LDAP Client view, click the message counter to display servers that returned these messages.
Error Codes
Displays the LDAP errors for each LDAP error code within the selected time interval, such as invalidCredentials for LDAP error 49. Click the error counter to display devices that experienced these errors. For detailed error information, click Errors.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

LDAP devices page

LDAP Device Toolbar
The LDAP device toolbar includes the following controls:
LDAP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a LDAP client or LDAP server.
Errors
Displays a detailed list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the specified time interval.
Servers
When acting as a LDAP client, displays a chart showing the total number of responses compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Clients
When acting as a LDAP server, displays a chart showing the total number of requests compared to processing time during the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
LDAP Client
If you select Client for the LDAP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click to display the list of servers from which responses were sent.
Requests
Specifies the number of LDAP requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an LDAP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of LDAP errors for the selected time interval.
Plain
Specifies the number of plain-text messages exchanged when the device is acting as an LDAP client.
SASL
Specifies the number of encrypted messages exchanged when the device is acting as an LDAP client.
LDAP Server
If you select Server for the LDAP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click to display the list of servers from which responses were sent.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as an LDAP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an LDAP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of LDAP errors for the selected time interval.
Plain
Specifies the number of plain-text messages exchanged when the device is acting as an LDAP server.
SASL
Specifies the number of encrypted messages exchanged when the device is acting as an LDAP server.
Messages
Displays the LDAP messages for the selected time interval, such as BindRequest, BindResponse, UnbindRequest, SearchRequest, SearchResultDone and others. In the LDAP Server view, click the message counter to display clients that issued these messages. In the LDAP Client view, click the message counter to display servers that returned these messages.
Error Codes
Displays the LDAP errors for each LDAP error code within the selected time interval, such as invalidCredentials for LDAP error 49. Click the error counter to display devices that experienced these errors. For detailed error information, click Errors.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the number of LDAP protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red data points to list the peer devices associated with the errors at this point in time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median transaction time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing-time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Processing Time Distribution
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Move the cursor over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
LDAP devices timing page

The timing charts draw data from the Time Interval drop-down list on the navigation toolbar.

LDAP Metric Type
Select Client or Server to display statistics for the current device acting as an LDAP client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
SearchResultDone
This chart displays the median transaction time in milliseconds for SearchResultDone LDAP messages as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the transaction-time metrics.

LDAP groups page

LDAP Groups Toolbar
The LDAP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
LDAP Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a LDAP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays a detailed list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the specified time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
LDAP Client
If you select Client for the LDAP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of LDAP requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Specifies the number of LDAP responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of LDAP errors for the selected time interval.
Plain
Specifies the number of LDAP plain-text messages for the selected time interval.
SASL
Specifies the number of LDAP encrypted messages for the selected time interval.
LDAP Server
If you select Server for the LDAP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics. Click the counter to break down the responses by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Specifies the number of LDAP requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Specifies the number of LDAP responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Specifies the number of LDAP errors for the selected time interval.
Plain
Specifies the number of LDAP plain-text messages for the selected time interval.
SASL
Specifies the number of LDAP encrypted messages for the selected time interval.
Messages
Displays the LDAP messages for the selected time interval, such as BindRequest, BindResponse, UnbindRequest, SearchRequest, SearchResultDone and others. Click to break down the message by group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
Error Codes
Displays the LDAP errors for each LDAP error code within the selected time interval, such as invalidCredentials for LDAP error 49. Click to break down the message by group member in the table at the bottom of the page.
LDAP groups processing time page
LDAP Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a LDAP client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Server Processing Time
Displays median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

Memcache

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Memcache activity.

Memcache applications page

Memcache Application Toolbar
The Memcache application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of Memcache errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists Memcache error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Hits
The chart shows the total count for Memcache hits (values returned from the server to the client in response to "get" requests). Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists Memcache keys and the total count associated with each.
Misses
The chart shows the total count for Memcache misses ("get" requests for which the specified key was not found). Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists Memcache keys and the total count associated with each.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted in and out of the application within the selected time interval. Select By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter to view which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
Memcache Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of Memcache requests.
No-Replies
The number of Memcache requests for which a response was not necessarily expected, and none was received.
Responses
The number of Memcache responses.
Hits
The number of items matched and returned in response to Memcache GET requests.
Misses
The number of items requested but not received in response to Memcache GET requests. Misses are counted even if the server did not explicitly inform the client of the miss (for example, if the GET was a quiet request).
Errors
The number of errors sent by the Memcache server in response to client requests. Some responses other than the default response are not considered errors because they are usually expected to occur during normal operation. For example, the NOT_FOUND status code is not considered an error. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, only ERROR, CLIENT_ERROR, and SERVER_ERROR responses are considered errors.
Methods
Displays the Memcache methods for the selected time interval.
Status Codes
The status code section displays the HTTP status codes for the selected time interval. Click the number next to each status code to display a list of URIs associated with each status code.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Cache Hits and Misses
Displays the number of hits and misses as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

Memcache devices page

Memcache Device Toolbar
The Memcache device toolbar includes the following controls:
Memcache Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a Memcache client or server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
IP Address Memcache Metrics
Click the counters next to individual Memcache metrics to show the IP Address Memcache Metrics for Memcache peer devices. For Memcache servers, the peer devices are Memcache clients. For Memcache clients, the peer devices are Memcache servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS hostname of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
Memcache Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as a Memcache server.
No-Replies
Specifies the number of requests sent for which a response was not necessarily expected, and none was received when the device is acting as a Memcache server.

In the Memcache text protocol, when a client sends a request with the "noreply" keyword, the server performs the requested action but never sends a reply, and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

In the Memcache binary protocol, some kinds of requests are known as "quiet" requests. One example is the "get quietly" (getq) command: if the specified key is found, the server sends a response containing the corresponding value and the Discover appliance records a response; otherwise, the server sends nothing and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

If the server is responding and the Discover appliance is receiving a high-quality data feed, the number of requests should equal the number of responses plus the number of no-replies.

Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a Memcache server.
Hits
Specifies the number of items matched and that the device sent in response to "get" commands when acting as a Memcache server.
Misses
Specifies the number of items requested but not sent in response to get commands when the device is acting as a Memcache server. Misses are counted even if the server did not explicitly inform the client of the miss (for example, if the get was a quiet request).
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the Memcache server in response to client requests. Some responses other than the default response are not considered errors because they are usually expected to occur during normal operation. For example, the NOT_FOUND reply code is not considered an error. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, only ERROR, CLIENT_ERROR, and SERVER_ERROR responses are considered errors.
Memcache
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a Memcache client.
No-Replies

Specifies the number of requests sent for which a response was not necessarily expected, and none was received when the device is acting as a Memcache client.

In the Memcache text protocol, when a client sends a request with the "noreply" keyword, the server performs the requested action but never sends a reply, and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

In the Memcache binary protocol, some kinds of requests are known as "quiet" requests. One example is the "get quietly" (getq) command: if the specified key is found, the server sends a response containing the corresponding value and the Discover appliance records a response; otherwise, the server sends nothing and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

If the server is responding and the Discover appliance is receiving a high-quality data feed, the number of requests should equal the number of responses plus the number of no-replies.

Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a Memcache client.
Hits
Specifies the number of items matched and that the device received in response to "get" commands when acting as a Memcache client.
Misses
Specifies the number of items requested but not received in response to get commands when the device is acting as a Memcache client. Misses are counted even if the server did not explicitly inform the client of the miss (for example, if the get was a quiet request).
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the Memcache server in response to client requests. Some responses other than the default response are not considered errors because they are usually expected to occur during normal operation. For example, the NOT_FOUND reply code is not considered an error. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, only ERROR, CLIENT_ERROR, and SERVER_ERROR responses are considered errors.
Commands
Breakdown of individual commands, organized into meaningful groups. For example, in this area the reply code "get" represents the get and gets commands in the Memcache text protocol and the get, getq, getk, and getkq commands in the Memcache binary protocol. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, if a single get or gets command includes multiple keys, a "get" is counted for each of those keys.
Reply Codes
Breakdown of reply codes. In the Memcache binary protocol analysis, for reply codes other than the default NO_ERROR, the command that produced the reply is also provided here as part of the reply code.

EH_DIAG_* reply codes are present in early access deployments of Memcache to allow ExtraHop engineers to gather additional information about the performance of the module.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Value Sizes
Displays statistical summaries of size distributions for the following values:
Stored
Displays the range of stored value sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse-over to display the five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean stored value size for each peer device.
Retrieved
Displays the range of retrieved value sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. Mouse-over to display the five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean retrieved value size for each peer device.
Cache Hits and Misses
Displays the number of hits and misses as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Key Access Time Breakdown
Shows key access time as a function of time over the selected time interval. Key access time is the time from the last byte of the client's "get" command to the first byte of the corresponding value returned from the server. Therefore, this metric is recorded only for cache hits. The line chart displays the median and first/third quartiles of the key access time over time.
Key Access Time Distribution
Shows a histogram distribution of key access time over the selected time period. Key access time is the time from the last byte of the client's "get" command to the first byte of the corresponding value returned from the server. Therefore, this metric is recorded only for cache hits.

Memcache groups page

Memcache Groups Toolbar
The Memcache groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Memcache Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a Memcache client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
Memcache Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of Memcache requests.
No-Replies
Specifies the number of requests for which a response was not necessarily expected, and none was received.

In the Memcache text protocol, when a client sends a request with the "noreply" keyword, the server performs the requested action but never sends a reply, and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

In the Memcache binary protocol, some kinds of requests are known as "quiet" requests. One example is the "get quietly" (getq) command: if the specified key is found, the server sends a response containing the corresponding value and the Discover appliance records a response; otherwise, the server sends nothing and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

If the server is responding and the Discover appliance is receiving a high-quality data feed, the number of requests should equal the number of responses plus the number of no-replies.

Responses
Specifies the number of Memcache responses.
Hits
Specifies the number of values returned from the server to the client in response to "get" commands.
Misses
Specifies the number of "get" commands for which the specified key was not found. Misses are counted even if the server did not explicitly inform the client of the miss (for example, if the get was a "quiet" request).
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the Memcache server in response to client requests. Some responses other than the default response are not considered errors because they are usually expected to occur during normal operation. For example, the NOT_FOUND reply code is not considered an error. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, only ERROR, CLIENT_ERROR, and SERVER_ERROR responses are considered errors.
Memcache
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of Memcache requests.
No-Replies

Specifies the number of requests for which a response was not necessarily expected, and none was received.

In the Memcache text protocol, when a client sends a request with the "noreply" keyword, the server performs the requested action but never sends a reply, and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

In the Memcache binary protocol, some kinds of requests are known as "quiet" requests. One example is the "get quietly" (getq) command: if the specified key is found, the server sends a response containing the corresponding value and the Discover appliance records a response; otherwise, the server sends nothing and the Discover appliance records a no-reply.

If the server is responding and the Discover appliance is receiving a high-quality data feed, the number of requests should equal the number of responses plus the number of no-replies.

Responses
Specifies the number of Memcache responses.
Hits
Specifies the number of values returned from the server to the client in response to "get" commands.
Misses
Specifies the number of "get" commands for which the specified key was not found. Misses are counted even if the server did not explicitly inform the client of the miss (for example, if the get was a "quiet" request).
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the Memcache server in response to client requests. Some responses other than the default response are not considered errors because they are usually expected to occur during normal operation. For example, the NOT_FOUND reply code is not considered an error. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, only ERROR, CLIENT_ERROR, and SERVER_ERROR responses are considered errors.
Commands
Breakdown of individual commands, organized into meaningful groups. For example, in this area the reply code "get" represents the get and gets commands in the Memcache text protocol and the get, getq, getk, and getkq commands in the Memcache binary protocol. In the Memcache text protocol analysis, if a single get or gets command includes multiple keys, a "get" is counted for each of those keys. Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Reply Codes

Breakdown of reply codes. In the Memcache binary protocol analysis, for reply codes other than the default NO_ERROR, the command that produced the reply is also provided here as part of the reply code.

EH_DIAG_* reply codes are present in early access deployments of Memcache to allow ExtraHop engineers to gather additional information about the performance of the module.

Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.

MongoDB

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about MongoDB activity.

MongoDB applications page

MongoDB Application Toolbar
The MongoDB application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of MongoDB errors. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists MongoDB error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Methods
The chart shows the total count compared to the mean time (ms). Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists methods, count, total time, and mean time (ms) associated with each method. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Users
The chart shows the number of responses and errors from all users. Mouse over the chart to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists users and the number of responses and errors associated with each user.
Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Database
Displays application metrics by database.

For example, Request Bytes is a top-level metric showing how many request bytes were transmitted from the application within the selected time interval. Selecting By Client IP in the drop-down list while mousing over the Request Bytes counter shows which client IP addresses originated these requests.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
MongoDB Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of MongoDB requests.
Responses
The number of MongoDB responses.
Errors
The number of errors sent or received within the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the methods MongoDB uses to authenticate clients. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

MongoDB devices page

MongoDB Device Toolbar
The MongoDB device toolbar includes the following controls:
MongoDB Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a MongoDB client or MongoDB server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by the current device for the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the MongoDB server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.

MongoDB Details specifies the type of additional MongoDB information displayed. Moving the cursor over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays MongoDB metrics by IP address.
By Database
Displays MongoDB metrics by database.

For example, MongoDB Requests is a top-level metric showing how many requests were received by the MongoDB server during the selected time frame. Selecting By IP in the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the HTTP Requests counter shows which IP addresses originated these requests. Selecting By Database from the drop-down list while moving the cursor over the HTTP Requests counter shows which databases were accessed by the requestors.

IP Address MongoDB Metrics
Click the counters next to individual MongoDB metrics to show the IP Address MongoDB Metrics for MongoDB peer devices. For MongoDB servers, the peer devices are MongoDB clients. For MongoDB clients, the peer devices are MongoDB servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
MongoDB Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as a MongoDB server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a MongoDB server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the MongoDB server.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a MongoDB server.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a MongoDB server.
MongoDB Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a MongoDB client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a MongoDB client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the MongoDB client.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as a MongoDB client.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as a MongoDB client.
Methods
Displays the methods MongoDB uses to authenticate clients. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
MongoDB devices timing page
Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.

MongoDB groups page

MongoDB Groups Toolbar
The MongoDB groups toolbar includes the following controls:
MongoDB Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current group acting as a MongoDB client or MongoDB server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current group over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by the current group for the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the MongoDB server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
MongoDB Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests sent by the MongoDB server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the MongoDB server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the MongoDB server.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of incomplete MongoDB requests sent from the current member.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of incomplete MongoDB responses received by the current member.
MongoDB Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests sent by the MongoDB server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the MongoDB server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the MongoDB server.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of incomplete MongoDB requests sent from the current member.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of incomplete MongoDB responses received by the current member.
Methods
Displays the methods MongoDB uses to authenticate clients. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

MSRPC

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Microsoft Remote Procedure Call (MSRPC) activity.

MSRPC devices page

MSRPC Device Toolbar
The MSRPC device toolbar includes the following controls:
RPC Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an MSRPC client or server.
Packets
The Packets line chart displays the incoming and outgoing RPC packet rate (packets per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max are the current and maximum packet rates. Total is the total number of packets over the selected time interval.
Throughput
The Throughput line chart displays the incoming and outgoing RPC throughput (bits per second) over the selected time interval. Current and Max are the current and maximum throughputs. Total is the total number of bytes transferred over the selected time interval.
RPC Metrics
Click the RPC Metrics section to display the list of RPC-specific metrics for the selected time interval. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Examples of RPC-specific metrics include:

Rejected Binds (naks)
Number of binds rejected by the server. Rejected binds occur when a server sends and receives bind updates from a peer server out of order.
Failed EPM Binds
Number of failed End-Point Mapper binds.
Orphaned
Number of times when client aborts request in progress.
Faults
Number of "fault" PDUs returned.
Canceled Operation
Number of canceled operations.
Fragmented Responses
Number of fragmented responses.
Authentication Types
The Authentication Types section displays the authentication methods and protection levels in format "AuthMethod - ProtLevel". Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.

Protection levels include:

None
No protection level
Connect
Authenticates only when the client establishes a relationship with a server.
Call
Authenticates only at the beginning of each remote procedure call when the server receives the request.
Packet
Authenticates only that all data received is from the expected client. Does not validate the data itself.
Packet Integrity
Authenticates and verifies that none of the data transferred between client and server has been modified.
Packet Integrity
Includes all previous levels, and ensures clear text data can only be seen by the sender and the receiver.
MSRPC devices interfaces page
MSRPC device toolbar
The MSRPC device toolbar includes the following controls:
RPC Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an MSRPC client or server.
Packets In by Interface
The Packets In by Interface area chart displays the incoming RPC packet rate (packets per second) over the selected time interval.
Packets Out by Interface
The Packets Out by Interface area chart displays the outgoing RPC packet rate (packets per second) over the selected time interval.
Bytes In by Interface
The Bytes In by Interface area chart displays the incoming RPC throughput (bits per second) over the selected time interval.
Bytes Out by Interface
The Bytes Out by Interface area chart displays the outgoing RPC throughput (bits per second) over the selected time interval.

RPC interfaces include:

  • AD Setup
  • Netlogon
  • Exchange MAPIAD Replication
  • AD Backup
  • LSA (Local Security Authority)
  • DCOM RIUnknown
  • DCOM RIUnknown2
  • System.Activator
  • ID Resolver
  • SAMR (Security Account Manager Remote)
  • SCM (Service Control Manager)
  • Srvsvc
  • Remote Registry
  • Exchange NSPI (Name Service Provider Interface)
  • AD XDS (Active Directory Exchange Directory Service)
  • EPM (Endpoint Mapper)
  • Exchange RFR (Exchange Referral)
  • File Replication
  • File Replication Ex
  • File Replication v1.0
  • RPC Management
MSRPC devices interfaces packets page
MSRPC Device Toolbar
The MSRPC device toolbar includes the following controls:
RPC Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an MSRPC client or server.
Packets In
Displays the incoming RPC packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.
Packets Out
Displays the incoming RPC packet rate (in packets per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.
MSRPC devices interfaces throughput page
MSRPC Device Toolbar
The MSRPC device toolbar includes the following controls:
RPC Metric Type
Display metrics for devices acting as an MSRPC client or server.
Bytes In
Displays the incoming RPC throughput (in bits per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.
Bytes Out
Displays the outgoing RPC throughput (in bits per second) for the selected device over the given time interval.

Multicast

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Multicast activity.

Multicast devices page

The Multicast sub-page for a device displays metrics for multicast and broadcast traffic on the network.

Well-known multicast groups include:

  • IEEE Spanning Tree (STP)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
  • Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
  • Cisco Shared Spanning Tree Protocol (CSSTP)
  • Alternate Spanning Multicast (ALTSM)
  • Router Information Protocol (RIP)
  • Network Time Protocol (NTP)
  • OSPFMPLSInter Switch Link (ISL)
  • Cisco VLAN Bridge (CVB)
  • DHCP client (DHCP_CLIENT)
  • DHCP server (DHCP_SERVER)
  • NETBIOS Name Service (NETBIOS_NS)
  • NETBIOS Datagram Service (NETBIOS_DGM)
  • Multicast DNS (MDNS)
  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Uncategorized L2 broadcast (L2BCAST)

Other multicast groups are represented using the numeric form of the group address, protocol, and L4 port.

Packet Count by Group
The Packet Count by Group bar chart displays the packet count for each of the top-ten multicast groups in which the selected device participates.
Byte Count by Group
The Byte Count by Group bar chart displays the byte count for each of the top-ten multicast groups in which the selected device participates.
Multicast Groups
The Multicast Groups table displays the multicast group, packet group, and byte count for the selected device.

Multicast networks page

The Multicast sub-page displays metrics for multicast and broadcast traffic on the network. Well-known multicast groups include:

Well-known multicast groups include:

  • IEEE Spanning Tree (STP)
  • Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
  • IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP)
  • Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
  • Cisco Shared Spanning Tree Protocol (CSSTP)
  • Alternate Spanning Multicast (ALTSM)
  • Router Information Protocol (RIP)
  • Network Time Protocol (NTP)
  • OSPFMPLSInter Switch Link (ISL)
  • Cisco VLAN Bridge (CVB)
  • DHCP client (DHCP_CLIENT)
  • DHCP server (DHCP_SERVER)
  • NETBIOS Name Service (NETBIOS_NS)
  • NETBIOS Datagram Service (NETBIOS_DGM)
  • Multicast DNS (MDNS)
  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)
  • Uncategorized L2 broadcast (L2BCAST)

Other multicast groups are represented using the numeric form of the group address, protocol, and L4 port.

Packet Count by Groups
Displays the packet count for each of the top-ten multicast groups.
Byte Count by Groups
Displays the byte count for each of the top-ten multicast groups.
Multicast Groups
Displays the multicast group, packet group, and byte count for the selected device.
Multicast networks details page
Multicast
Lists all multicast groups detected on the network and associated packet and byte counts. Click a multicast group to view the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that multicast group.
Multicast networks top groups page
Top Groups (Packets)
Displays how multicast groups contribute to the total packet count on the network. Click a multicast group listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the Multicast table below.
Top Groups (Bytes)
Displays how multicast groups contribute to the total byte count on the network. Click a multicast group listed in the legend to list the devices sending or receiving the traffic for that protocol in the Multicast table below.
Multicast
Displays the devices sending or receiving the traffic for the selected protocols.

NFS

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Network File System (NFS) activity. ExtraHop appliances support NFSv2, NFSv3, and NFSv4.

NFS devices page

Note:

Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.

NFS Device Toolbar
The NFS device toolbar includes the following controls:
NFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a NFS client or NFS server.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by the current device for the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the NFS server and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval. The access time indicates the time to access a file on an NFS partition and is measured by timing non-pipelined commands for every READ and WRITE.
IP Address NFS Metrics
Click the counters next to individual NFS metrics to show the IP Address NFS metrics for NFS peer devices. For NFS servers, the peer devices are NFS clients. For NFS clients, the peer devices are NFS servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
<Metric value>
Displays the value for the selected metric.
NFS Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an NFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the NFS server.
Retransmissions
Specifies the number of NFS requests for which the retransmission timer expired and the request was retried when the device is acting as an NFS server.
Reads
Specifies the number of NFS read requests that the device received when acting as an NFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of NFS write requests that the device received when acting as an NFS server.
TCP
Specifies the number of NFS requests that the device made over TCP when acting as an NFS server. All versions of NFS can use TCP, and NFSv4 requires it.
UDP
Specifies the number of NFS requests that the device made over UDP when acting as an NFS server. NFSv2 and NFSv3 can use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a stateless network connection between the client and server.
Aborts
Specifies the number of incomplete requests that the device received when acting as an NFS server.
NFS Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an NFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the NFS client.
Retransmissions
Specifies the number of NFS requests for which the retransmission timer expired and the request was retried when the device is acting as an NFS client.
Reads
Specifies the number of NFS read requests that the device sent when acting as an NFS client.
Writes
Specifies the number of NFS write requests that the device sent when acting as an NFS client.
TCP
Specifies the number of NFS requests that the device made over TCP when acting as an NFS client. All versions of NFS can use TCP, and NFSv4 requires it.
UDP
Specifies the number of NFS requests made over UDP when the device is acting as an NFS client. NFSv2 and NFSv3 can use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) to provide a stateless network connection between the client and server.
Aborts
Specifies the number of incomplete requests that the device sent when acting as an NFS client.
Authentication Methods
Displays the methods NFS uses to authenticate clients. Click the counter to display additional per-client or per-server IP address details.
Versions
Displays the versions of NFS traffic being processed over the selected time interval.
Status Codes
Displays the list of status codes sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the NFS methods for the selected time interval.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Request Size
Displays the range of request sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Response Size
Displays the range of response sizes for all transactions associated with the current device. The five-number summary includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values. Click to display the mean request size for each peer device.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown
Displays the area chart containing median round-trip time, request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Read, Write, and FSInfo Bytes
Displays the total bytes per device transmitted within the selected time interval. Mouse over the graph to see the byte count for each metric at a specific moment in time.
NFS devices timing page
Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Access Time
Displays a histogram of file access times. Move the mouse pointer over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer responses from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.

NFS groups page

Note:Where file name detail is presented, the Discover appliance displays both the file path and mount point, if available. The prefix '...' indicates that either the mount point or part of the path is not available. This may occur in instances when the capture process was restarted after the "mount" or a "cd" command was issued, or when the commands were lost due to desyncs.
NFS Groups Toolbar
The NFS groups toolbar includes the following controls:
NFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a NFS client or server, respectively.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the list of methods and associated bytes sent and received by members in the current group during the selected time interval. Methods are broken out by key parameters, such as the accessed file name.
Users
Displays the list of users accessing the NFS servers in this group and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Files
Displays the list of files accessed and associated bytes sent and received for the selected time interval.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
NFS Server
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses sent by the NFS server.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the NFS server.
Retransmissions
Specifies the number of NFS request retransmissions.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested from the NFS server.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested from the NFS server.
TCP
Specifies the number of NFS connections performed over TCP.
UDP
Specifies the number of NFS connections performed over UDP.
Aborts
Specifies the number of NFS operations aborted from this server.
NFS Client
Click the counter next to the metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses received by the NFS client.
Errors
Specifies the number of errors sent by the NFS client.
Retransmissions
Specifies the number of NFS request retransmissions.
Reads
Specifies the number of read operations requested by the NFS client.
Writes
Specifies the number of write operations requested by the NFS client.
TCP
Specifies the number of NFS connections performed over TCP.
UDP
Specifies the number of NFS connections performed over UDP.
Aborts
Specifies the number of NFS operations aborted to this client.
Authentication Methods
Displays the methods NFS uses to authenticate clients.
Versions
Displays the versions of NFS traffic being processed over the selected time interval.
Status Codes
Displays the list of status codes sent to or received by the current group over the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the NFS methods for the selected time interval.
NFS groups processing time pages
NFS Metric Type
Displays metrics for members in the current group acting as a NFS client or server, respectively.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Server Access Time
Shows median server access time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

PCoIP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about PC over IP (PCoIP) activity.

PCoIP devices page

PCoIP Device Toolbar
The PCoIPdevice toolbar includes the following controls:
Metric Type
Displays metrics for devices acting as a PCoIP client or PCoIPserver.
Messages In
Inbound PCoIP messages.
Audio
Number of audio messages received in the selected time interval.
Other
Number of other messages received in the selected time interval.
USB
Number of USB messages received in the selected time interval.
Video
Number of video messages received in the selected time interval.
Messages Out
Outbound PCoIP messages.
Audio
Number of audio messages sent in the selected time interval.
Other
Number of other messages sent in the selected time interval.
USB
Number of USB messages sent in the selected time interval.
Video
Number of video messages sent in the selected time interval.
Launches
Displays the number of launches for the selected time interval.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Bytes In by Channel
Displays the breakdown of incoming throughput by virtual channel.
Bytes Out by Channel
Displays the breakdown of outgoing throughput by virtual channel.

PCoIP groups page

PCoIP Groups Toolbar
The PCoIP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list and select either Client or Server to display metrics for members in the current group acting as an PCoIP client or PCoIPserver, respectively.
Messages In
Inbound PCoIP messages.
Audio
Number of audio messages received in the selected time interval.
Other
Number of other messages received in the selected time interval.
USB
Number of USB messages received in the selected time interval.
Video
Number of video messages received in the selected time interval.
Messages Out
Outbound PCoIP messages.
Audio
Number of audio messages sent in the selected time interval.
Other
Number of other messages sent in the selected time interval.
USB
Number of USB messages sent in the selected time interval.
Video
Number of video messages sent in the selected time interval.

POP3

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) activity.

Note:ExtraHop appliances do not include any built-in metric pages for POP3. However, you can view POP3 metrics by adding them to a custom page or dashboard.

RTCP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) activity.

RTCP applications page

Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By Sender IP
Displays application metrics by the sender IP addresses.
By Receiver IP
Displays application metrics by the receiver IP addresses.
By Canonical Name
Displays device metrics by canonical name.

The RTCP sub-page provides RTCP information about an application.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with RTCP transactions.
Packets
The number of packets associated with RTCP transactions.
RTCP Messages
Contains the following metrics:
Sender Report Messages
The number of packets transmitted by the sender from the beginning of the transmission to the time this sender report packet was generated.
Sender Report Drops
The number of packets that were lost by the sender since the beginning of reception.
Receiver Reports Messages
The number of packets transmitted by the receiver from the beginning of the transmission to the time this receiver report packet was generated.
Receiver Report Drops
The number of packets that were lost by the receiver since the beginning of reception.
Message Types
The number of RTCP records broken down by message type.
Packets Lost
The number of packets lost broken down by sender and receiver.
Sender Report Jitter
An estimate of the statistical variance of the RTP packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
Receiver Report Jitter
An estimate of the statistical variance of the RTP packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.

RTCP devices page

Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays device metrics by IP address.
By Canonical Name
Displays device metrics by canonical name.

For device metrics, the RTCP page includes the following data:

RTCP In
Contains the following metrics:
Sender Report Messages
The number of incoming packets transmitted by the sender from the beginning of the transmission to the time this sender report packet was generated.
Sender Report Drops
The number of incoming packets that were lost by the sender since the beginning of reception.
Receiver Report Messages
The number of incoming packets transmitted by the receiver from the beginning of the transmission to the time this receiver report packet was generated.
Receiver Report Drops
The number of incoming packets that were lost by the receiver since the beginning of reception.
RTCP Out
Contains the following metrics:
Sender Report Messages
The number of outgoing packets transmitted by the sender from the beginning of the transmission to the time this sender report packet was generated.
Sender Report Drops
The number of outgoing packets that were lost by the sender since the beginning of reception.
Receiver Report Messages
The number of outgoing packets transmitted by the receiver from the beginning of the transmission to the time this receiver report packet was generated.
Receiver Report Drops
The number of outgoing packets that were lost by the receiver since the beginning of reception.
Message Types In
The number of incoming RTCP records broken down by message type.
Message Types Out
The number of outgoing RTCP records broken down by message type.
Packets Lost
The number of packets that were lost since the beginning of reception.
Sender Report Jitter In
An estimate of the statistical variance of the incoming packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
Sender Report Jitter Out
An estimate of the statistical variance of the outgoing packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
Receiver Report Jitter In
An estimate of the statistical variance of the incoming packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
Receiver Report Jitter Out
An estimate of the statistical variance of the outgoing packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.

RTCP groups page

RTCP In
Contains the following metrics:
Sender Report Messages
The number of incoming packets transmitted by the sender from the beginning of the transmission to the time this sender report packet was generated.
Sender Report Drops
The number of incoming packets that were lost by the sender since the beginning of reception.
Receiver Report Messages
The number of incoming packets transmitted by the receiver from the beginning of the transmission to the time this receiver report packet was generated.
Receiver Report Drops
The number of incoming packets that were lost by the receiver since the beginning of reception.
RTCP Out
Contains the following metrics:
Sender Report Messages
The number of outgoing packets transmitted by the sender from the beginning of the transmission to the time this sender report packet was generated.
Sender Report Drops
The number of outgoing packets that were lost by the sender since the beginning of reception.
Receiver Report Messages
The number of outgoing packets transmitted by the receiver from the beginning of the transmission to the time this receiver report packet was generated.
Receiver Report Drops
The number of outgoing packets that were lost by the receiver since the beginning of reception.
Message Types In
The number of incoming RTCP records broken down by message type.
Message Types Out
The number of outgoing RTCP records broken down by message type.

RTP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) activity.

RTP applications page

Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By Sender IP
Displays application metrics by the sender IP addresses.
By Receiver IP
Displays application metrics by the receiver IP addresses.
By Codec
Displays application metrics by codec.

The RTP sub-page provides the following RTP information about an application.

L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with RTP transactions.
Packets
The number of packets associated with RTP transactions.
RTP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Messages
The number of messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Drops
The number of packets associated with RTP transmissions which were lost in transit.
Duplicates
The number of duplicate messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Out of Order
The number of packets associated with RTP transmissions where the sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliance was expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the point of origin or an intermediary. This may result in decreased call quality.
RTP Messages by Codec
The number of RTP messages broken down by codec.
Throughput
The throughput (in bits per second) over the selected time interval.
Message Metrics
The number of drops, duplicates, and out of order messages associated with RTP transmissions over the selected time interval.
Jitter
An estimate of the statistical variance of the RTP packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
MOS
The mean opinion score calculated for packets associated with RTP transmissions.

RTP devices page

Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays device metrics by IP address.
By Codec
Displays device metrics by codec.

For device metrics, the RTP page includes the following data:

RTP In
Contains the following metrics:
Messages
The number of incoming messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Drops
The number of incoming packets associated with RTP transmissions which were lost in transit.
Duplicates
The number of incoming duplicate messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Out of Order
Number of incoming packets associated with RTP transmissions where the sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliancewas expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the point of origin or an intermediary. This may result in decreased call quality.
RTP Out
Contains the following metrics:
Messages
The number of outgoing messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Drops
The number of outgoing packets associated with RTP transmissions which were lost in transit.
Duplicates
The number of outgoing duplicate messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Out of Order
Number of outgoing packets associated with RTP transmissions where the sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliancewas expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the point of origin or an intermediary. This may result in decreased call quality.
RTP In by Codec
Displays the number of RTP packets in by codec as a function of time over the selected time interval.
RTP Out by Codec
Displays the number of RTP packets out by codec as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Throughput
Displays the number of RTP packets transmitted as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Message Metrics In
The number of incoming drops, duplicates, and out of order messages associated with RTP transmissions over the selected time interval.
Message Metrics Out
The number of outgoing drops, duplicates, and out of order messages associated with RTP transmissions over the selected time interval.
Jitter In
An estimate of the statistical variance of the incoming RTP packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
Jitter Out
An estimate of the statistical variance of the outgoing RTP packets' interarrival time, measured in timestamp units and expressed as an unsigned integer.
MOS In
The mean opinion score calculated for incoming packets associated with RTP transmissions.
MOS Out
The mean opinion score calculated for outgoing packets associated with RTP transmissions.

RTP groups page

RTP In
Contains the following metrics:
Messages
The number of incoming messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Drops
The number of incoming packets associated with RTP transmissions which were lost in transit.
Duplicates
The number of incoming duplicate messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Out of Order
Number of incoming packets associated with RTP transmissions where the sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliancewas expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the point of origin or an intermediary. This may result in decreased call quality.
RTP Out
Contains the following metrics:
Messages
The number of outgoing messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Drops
The number of outgoing packets associated with RTP transmissions which were lost in transit.
Duplicates
The number of outgoing duplicate messages associated with RTP transmissions.
Out of Order
Number of outgoing packets associated with RTP transmissions where the sequence number did not match the sequence number that the Discover appliancewas expecting. The reordering may have been introduced at the point of origin or an intermediary. This may result in decreased call quality.

SIP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) activity.

SIP applications page

SIP Application Toolbar
The SIP application toolbar includes the following controls:
Errors
The chart shows the number of SIP errors. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists the URIs in error and the number of times an error occurred.
Initiators
Displays the list of initiators establishing connections over the selected time interval.
URIs
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists the URIs, number of responses, total time (ms), and processing time (ms) associated with each URI. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Methods
The chart shows the total count compared to the processing time (ms). Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists methods, total time (ms), and processing time (ms) associated with each method. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Clients
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists client IP addresses, the host and device associated with each client, the number of responses from each client, and the total time and processing time for each client. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Servers
The chart shows the total number of responses compared to processing time. Mouse over the points to view a five-number summary of processing time (minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values). The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists server IP addresses, the host and device associated with each server, the number of responses from each server, and the total time and processing time for each server. Mouse over the orange bars to view the mean time, standard deviation, and count for each metric.

Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
By Initiator
Displays application metrics by initiator.
By URI
Displays application metrics by URI.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
SIP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of SIP requests.
Responses
The number of SIP responses.
Response Errors
The number of SIP errors for the selected time interval.
Methods
Displays the SIP methods for the selected time interval.
Status Codes
The status code section displays the HTTP status codes for the selected time interval. Click the number next to each status code to display a list of IP addresses associated with each status code.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

SIP devices page

SIP Device Toolbar
This SIP device toolbar includes the following controls:
SIP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as a SIP client or SIP server.
Errors
Displays a detailed list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the specified time interval.
Clients or Servers
Displays the associated client IP addresses when the device is acting as a server, and the associated server IP addresses when acting as a client.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.

Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:

By IP
Displays device metrics by IP address.
By URI
Displays device metrics by URI.
SIP Client
If you select Client for the SIP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as a SIP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers to which requests were sent.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as a SIP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers from which the responses were received.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a SIP client. Click the counter to display the list of servers associated with the errors.
SIP Server
If you select Server for the SIP Metric Type, the Discover appliance displays the following metrics:
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as a SIP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients from which requests were received.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as a SIP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients to which the responses were sent.
Response Errors
Specifies the number of response errors for the selected time interval when acting as a SIP server. Click the counter to display the list of clients associated with the errors.
Methods
Displays the SIP methods for the selected time interval.
Status Codes
The status code section displays the HTTP status codes for the selected time interval. Click the number next to each status code to display a list of URIs associated with each status code.
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Server Processing Time
Displays the median server processing time in milliseconds as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the processing time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.

SIP groups page

SIP Groups Toolbar
This SIP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
SIP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current member acting as a SIP client or SIP server.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
Methods
Displays the SIP methods for the selected time interval. Click the counter next to the method to break it down by group members in the table.
Status Codes
The status code section displays the status codes for the selected time interval. Click the number next to each status code to display a list of members associated with each status code in the table.

SMPP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Short Message Peer-to-Peer (SMPP) activity.

SMPP devices page

SMPP Device Toolbar
The SMPP device toolbar includes the following controls:
SMPP Metric Type
Displays statistics for devices acting as an SMPP client or server.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by devices over the selected time interval.
IP Address SMPP Metrics
Click the counters next to individual SMPP metrics to show the IP Address SMPP Metrics for SMPP peer devices. For SMPP servers, the peer devices are SMPP clients. For SMPP clients, the peer devices are SMPP servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
SMPP Server
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by devices in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device received when acting as an SMPP server (SMSC).
Responses
Number of responses that the device sent when acting as an SMPP server (SMSC).
Errors
Number of SMPP errors for the selected time interval.
SMPP Client
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by device in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of requests that the device sent when acting as an SMPP client (ESME).
Responses
Number of responses that the device received when acting as an SMPP client (ESME).
Errors
Number of SMPP errors for the selected time interval.
Inbound Messages
The Inbound Messages section displays the inbound SMPP message types for the selected time interval. Refer to the SMPP specification for a comprehensive list of message types.
Transaction Status
Displays the status codes returned by the SMPP server (SMSC) for requests sent to it by the SMPP client (ESME).
Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Response Time Breakdown (ms)
Displays the area chart containing median request transfer time, server processing time, and response transfer time over time in milliseconds. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
SMPP devices timing page
Request Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer requests from the client to the server. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Processing Time
Displays a histogram of times it took the server to process requests. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.
Response Transfer Time
Displays a histogram of times it took to transfer the response from the server to the client. Mouse over each bar to display the time range it represents and the number of requests in this bin.

SMPP groups page

SMPP Groups Toolbar
The SMPP groups toolbar includes the following controls:
SMPP Metric Type
Click the Metric Type drop-down list and select either Client or Server to display statistics for members in the current group acting as an SMPP client or server, respectively.
Errors
Click the Errors button to display the list of error messages sent to or received by members in the current group over the selected time interval.
SMPP Server
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of SMPP requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of SMPP responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of SMPP errors for the selected time interval.
SMPP Client
Click the counter next to each metric to break it down by group members in the table at the bottom of the page.
Requests
Number of SMPP requests for the selected time interval.
Responses
Number of SMPP responses for the selected time interval.
Errors
Number of SMPP errors for the selected time interval.
Inbound Messages
The Inbound Messages section displays the inbound SMPP message types for the selected time interval. Refer to the SMPP specification for a comprehensive list of message types.
Outbound
The Outbound Messages section displays the outbound SMPP message types for the selected time interval. Refer to the SMPP specification for a comprehensive list of message types.
Transaction Status
Displays the status codes returned by the SMPP server (SMSC) for requests sent to it by the SMPP client (ESME).
SMPP groups processing time page
Server Processing Time
Shows median server processing time over the selected time interval for each member in the group. The five-number summary, which includes the minimum, lower quartile, median, upper quartile, and maximum values, is displayed by hovering over a bar.

SMTP

ExtraHop appliances collect metrics about Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) activity.

SMTP applications page

SMTP Applications Page
The SMTP application toolbar includes the following controls:
Senders
The chart shows bytes transferred compared with message size. Mouse over points to view a summary of message size. The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists sender domains (HELO or EHLO command argument), bytes transferred, and mean message sizes.

Recipients
The chart shows bytes transferred compared with message size. Mouse over points to view a summary of message size. The orange bars represent a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values.

The table lists recipient email addresses (RCPT TO command argument), bytes received, and mean message sizes.

Sender Domains
The chart shows bytes transferred. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists sender domains and the bytes transferred for each.
Errors
The chart shows the number of SMTP errors that occurred. Mouse over the points to view a summary of a specific time or date. The table lists SMTP error messages and the number of times each occurred.
Application Details
Specifies the type of additional application information displayed. IP detail views display directly monitored IP addresses and IP addresses that appear via routed traffic. IP addresses that appear via routed traffic are preceded by the word via. Mousing over the counter next to each top-level metric opens a context menu that includes the following options in the drop-down list:
By Client IP
Displays application metrics by the client IP addresses.
By Server IP
Displays application metrics by the server IP addresses.
L2-L4 Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Request L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with requests.
Response L2 Bytes
The number of L2 bytes associated with responses.
Request Packets
The number of packets associated with requests.
Response Packets
The number of packets associated with responses.
Request RTOs
Specifies the number of times the client delayed TCP retransmissions and missed server acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Response RTOs
Specifies the number of times the server delayed TCP retransmissions and missed client acknowledgments. A retransmission timeout is a 1-second stall in the TCP connection flow due to excessive retransmissions.
Request Zero Window
Specifies the number of client-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the client cannot handle the rate of data the server is sending.
Response Zero Window
Specifies the number of server-side zero window advertisements. A zero window indicates the connection has stalled because the server cannot handle the rate of data the client is sending.
SMTP Metrics
Contains the following metrics:
Requests
The number of SMTP requests.
Responses
The number of SMTP responses.
Errors
The number of responses by error for the application.
Sessions
The number of SMTP sessions.
Encrypted Sessions
The number of encrypted SMTP sessions.
Methods
Contains metrics for SMTP commands.
Transactions Metrics
Transaction metrics display the timing components for all transactions associated with the current device. Timing components are expressed as a confidence interval around the median value bounded by the 25th and 75th percentile values. Mouse over each component to display a five-number statistical summary.
ReqXfer
Request transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the request was received by the server. A large ReqXfer value relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the request size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
Process
Server processing time. The time in milliseconds between the time the request was received by the server and the time the response was sent. A large server processing time indicates application delay.
RspXfer
Response transfer time. The time in milliseconds before the server finished sending the response. A large RspXfer relative to the total transaction time indicates network delay. If the response size is large, some network delay due to transfer time is expected.
RTT
TCP round-trip time in milliseconds. Large round-trip time indicates that network latency is high.

Click the Transaction Metrics graph to display a chart showing responses compared to mean processing time during the selected time interval. The table below contains the total and mean time for each response.

Transactions Per Second
Displays the number of protocol transactions per second as a function of time over the selected time interval. The chart is annotated with red data points to indicate errors. The volume of errors is denoted by the height of red bars under the chart. Click the red dot to see the number of errors that occurred at that time. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Round-Trip Time (ms)
Displays the median round-trip time (RTT) in milliseconds (ms) from the current objects to clients as a function of time over the selected time interval. Vertical dotted lines indicate the upper and lower quartiles (75th and 25th percentiles) of the round-trip time metrics. Click and drag across the chart to select a particular region.
Congestion Requests: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs into the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.
Congestion Responses: Goodput (bps) and RTOs
Displays goodput and RTOs out of the object as a function of time over the selected time interval.

Goodput is application-level throughput (the number of useful information bits) and RTOs are retransmission timeouts. The Congestion In and Out graphs show the relationship over time between the rate of good application throughput and RTOs. An increase in RTOs theoretically leads to a decrease in goodput due to TCP back-off and packet retransmissions. It is best to view these charts in a smaller window of time so the metrics taken over time are not rolled up or smoothed out. In a small timeframe (30 minutes or less), one could see a decrease in goodput associated with a large number of RTOs, assuming that most flows on the server during this time frame experience this behavior. If only one or two flows are affected by RTOs, then the decreased goodput correlation may be masked by superficially healthy flows.

SMTP devices page

SMTP Device Toolbar
The SMTP device toolbar includes the following controls:
SMTP Metric Type
Displays metrics for the current device acting as an SMTP client or SMTP server.
Senders
Displays the list of sender email addresses (MAIL FROM command argument), bytes sent, and mean message sizes for the selected time interval.
Recipients
Displays the list of recipient email addresses (RCPT TO command argument), bytes received, and mean message sizes for the selected time interval.
Sender Domains
Displays the list of sender domains (HELO or EHLO command argument) and bytes transferred for the selected time interval.
Errors
Displays the list of error messages sent to or received by the current device over the selected time interval. 4xx and 5xx SMTP responses are considered errors.
Records
Displays results for records that match the selected metric source and protocol.
IP Address SMTP Metrics
Click the counters next to individual SMTP metrics to show the IP Address SMTP Metrics for SMTP peer devices. For SMTP servers, the peer devices are SMTP clients. For SMTP clients, the peer devices are SMTP servers.
IP Address
Represents the IP address of the peer device.
Host
Represents the DNS host name of the peer device determined by passive analysis of the DNS traffic.
Device
Provides a link to the corresponding peer device. For local peer devices, the link leads to that device. For remote peer devices, the link leads to the gateway device through which the requests were routed.
SMTP Client
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device sent when acting as an SMTP client.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device received when acting as an SMTP client.
Errors
Specifies the number of 4xx and 5xx SMTP responses received by the SMTP client.
Sessions
Specifies the number of sessions that the device participated in when acting as an SMTP client.
Encrypted Sessions
Specifies the number of encrypted sessions that the device participated in when acting as an SMTP client.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as an SMPT client. Click to display the list of servers to which incomplete requests were sent.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as an SMTP client. Click to display the list of servers from which incomplete responses were sent.
SMTP Server
Click the counter next to each metric to display additional IP address details.
Requests
Specifies the number of requests that the device received when acting as an SMTP server.
Responses
Specifies the number of responses that the device sent when acting as an SMTP server.
Errors
Specifies the number of 4xx and 5xx SMTP responses sent by the SMTP server.
Sessions
Specifies the number of sessions that the device participated in when acting as an SMTP server.
Encrypted Sessions
Specifies the number of encrypted sessions that the device participated in when acting as an SMTP server.
Requests Aborted
Specifies the number of requests that the device began to receive but did not receive completely when acting as an SMTP server. Click to display the list of clients from which incomplete requests were sent.
Responses Aborted
Specifies the number of responses that the device began to send but did not send completely when acting as an SMTP serve