Deploy the ExtraHop Discover Appliance with Hyper-V

Introduction

The ExtraHop virtual appliance can help you to monitor the performance of your applications across internal networks, the public internet, or a virtual desktop interface (VDI), including database and storage tiers. ExtraHop can monitor application performance across geographically distributed environments such as branch offices or virtualized environments using intra-VM traffic.

This guide explains how to install these products:

  • EH1000v (Monitors up to 250 devices)
  • EH2000v (Monitors up to 1000 devices)

On these platforms:

  • Hyper-V (Microsoft)

We assume you have some experience administering your hypervisor product.

The following diagram shows the high-level steps to install and use the ExtraHop virtual appliance. Installation time is approximately 15 minutes.

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Use the following documentation to assist you with the procedures in this guide:

Installation Requirements

This section includes hardware and software requirements for the host on which you are installing the ExtraHop virtual appliance.

Disk Requirements and Recommendations

To ensure proper functionality of the virtual appliance:

  • Do not change the default disk size on initial installation. Using the default disk size ensures correct lookback for ExtraHop metrics and proper system functionality. If your configuration requires a different disk size, contact your ExtraHop representative before changing it.

  • Do not migrate the VM. Although it is possible to migrate when the datastore is on a remote SAN, ExtraHop does not recommend this configuration.

System Requirements: EH1000v

Installation has the following requirements:

  • An existing installation of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 (or later)

  • A Hyper-V Manager client

The following server hardware is required for the EH1000v:

  • Processor: 2 processing cores with hyper-threading support, VT-x technology, and 64-bit architecture

    To use SSL decryption, three processing cores are required. Refer to ExtraHop Guide: Adding a CPU Core to the EH1000v with Hyper-V for more information.

  • Memory: 4 GB or higher

  • Disk: 46 GB or higher (thick-provisioned)

  • Network: You can configure the EH1000v to monitor intra-VM or external traffic.

    • Intra-VM: One 1-Gbps Ethernet network port is required (for management). The management port must be accessible on port 443.

    • External: Two 1-Gbps Ethernet network ports are required for the physical port mirror and management. The physical port mirror interface must be connected to the port mirror of the switch. While it is possible to use a 10-Gbps Ethernet network port for the port mirror interface, it is not recommended as the virtual appliance cannot process more than 1 Gbps of traffic.

  • Registration: For registration purposes, the EH1000v requires outbound DNS connectivity on UDP port 53 unless managed by the ExtraHop Central Manager (ECM).

System Requirements: EH2000v

Installation has the following requirements:

  • An existing installation of Hyper-V on Windows Server 2012 (or later)

  • A Hyper-V Manager client

The following server hardware is required for the EH2000v:

  • Processor: 6 processing cores with hyperthreading support, VT-x technology, and 64-bit architecture

    To use SSL decryption, three processing cores are required. Refer to ExtraHop Guide: Adding a CPU Core to the EH1000v with Hyper-V for more information.

  • Memory: 6 GB or higher

  • Disk: 255 GB or higher (thick-provisioned)

  • Network: You can configure the EH2000v to monitor intra-VM or external traffic.

    • Intra-VM: One 1-Gbps Ethernet network port is required (for management). The management interface must be accessible on port 443.

    • External: Two to four 1-Gbps Ethernet network ports are required for the physical port mirror and management. The physical port mirror interface must be connected to the port mirror of the switch. While it is possible to use a 10-Gbps Ethernet network port for the port mirror interface, it is not recommended as the virtual appliance cannot process more than 3 Gbps of traffic.

  • Registration: For registration purposes, the EH2000v requires outbound DNS connectivity on UDP port 53 unless managed by the ExtraHop Central Manager (ECM).

Installing the ExtraHop VM

Before you install the ExtraHop virtual appliance, ensure the following:

  • You have downloaded the file for the ExtraHop virtual appliance (this is an OVA file for OVA-aware hypervisor products). If you have not downloaded the file, contact support@extrahop.com.

  • You have the ExtraHop virtual appliance license key provided by ExtraHop. If you do not have a license key, contact support@extrahop.com.

  • You have an existing installation of one of the following virtualization products:

    • Microsoft Hyper-V

  • Your host system meets the minimum hardware requirements, and you understand the disk requirements for setting up an ExtraHop appliance.

  • If you are using a software tap, you have administrative access to servers you want to monitor, and you are running a 64-bit operating system (Linux/Windows). If you are using Windows, you must be using Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows Server 2012 (or later).

  • If you want to use Port Mirroring mode, you have administrative access to any physical or virtual switches that require configuration.

Installing the Files for Hyper-V

To install the files to run the ExtraHop virtual appliance with Hyper-V, complete the following steps.

  1. Go to the Start menu and open the Hyper-V Manager.

  2. In the right pane of the Hyper-V Manager, click New and select Import Virtual Machine….

  3. In the Import Virtual Machine Wizard, click Next.

  4. Browse to the folder with the extracted files and click Next.

  5. On Select Virtual Machine, click Next.

  6. Select Copy the virtual machine and click Next.

  7. On Choose Folders for Virtual Machine Files, select the location to store the configuration of the VM and click Next.

  8. On Choose Storage Folders to Store Virtual Hard Disks, select a location to store the virtual hard disks and click Next.

  9. On the summary screen review your choices and then click Finish.

  10. Wait several minutes for the files to copy.

  11. In the Virtual Machines list, right-click the virtual machine and select Start.

  12. Right-click the virtual machine again and select Connect.

  13. Click the green start button at the top of the screen and wait for the login prompt.

  14. Run the show ipaddr command to display the IP address of the ExtraHop Discovery Edition.

    If your network does not support DHCP, see Configure a Static IP Address on page 20 to set a static IP address.

    Note: The default time server setting is pool.ntp.org. To configure the time servers manually, refer to the System Settings section of the ExtraHop Admin UI Users Guide.
  15. You'll need the IP address to apply the ExtraHop license in the next procedure.

Register the Discover Appliance

Complete the following steps to apply the product key supplied by ExtraHop Customer Support. If you do not have a product key, contact support@extrahop.com.

  1. In your browser, type the IP address of the Explore appliance (https://<explore_ip_address>). If your browser prompts you about security certificates, ignore the warning and proceed.
  2. Review the license agreement, select I Agree, and then click Submit.
  3. On the log in screen, type setup for the user name and default for the password, and then click Log In.
  4. In the System Settings section, click License.
  5. Click Manage License.
  6. Click Register.
  7. Enter the product key and then click Register.

Configure a Static IP Address

The ExtraHop virtual appliance is delivered with DHCP enabled. If your network does not support DHCP, no IP address is acquired, and you must configure a static address manually. To configure a static IP address, complete the following steps:

  1. Log in to the console with the shell user account. At the password prompt, type default, and then press ENTER.

  2. Run the following command to enable privileged commands:
    enable
  3. At the password prompt, type default, and then press ENTER.
  4. Run the following command to enter configuration mode:
    configure
  5. Run the following command to enter the interface configuration mode:
    interface
  6. Run the ip command and specify the IP address and DNS settings in the following format: ip ipaddr <ip_address> <netmask> <gateway> <dns_server>

    For example:

    extrahop[ESA](config-if)# ip ipaddr 10.10.2.14 255.255.0.0 10.10.1.253 10.10.1.254
  7. Run the following command to leave the interface configuration section:
    exit
  8. Run the following command to save the running config file:
    running_config save
  9. Type Y and then press ENTER.

Mirror Wire Data

This section includes procedures for mirroring data to your ExtraHop virtual appliance.

Mirroring Internal and External Traffic

The ExtraHop virtual appliance can be configured to monitor network traffic in the following network configuration examples. Each example requires a modification to the network configuration of its hypervisor host and uses Network Adapter 1 as the management interface.

Note: Monitoring external network-mirrored traffic requires an external NIC and an associated virtual switch.

Monitoring Intra-VM Traffic

The ExtraHop Discovery Edition can be configured to monitor network traffic of another VM on the same host using Port Mirroring mode in the Hyper-V Manager. An ExtraHop virtual machine running in port mirroring mode can only monitor another virtual machine running on the same virtual switch.

Enabling Port Mirroring Mode in the Hyper-V Manager

  1. Right-click the ExtraHop Discover VM and select Settings.
  2. Expand Network Adapter and click Advanced Features.
  3. In the Port mirroring section, click the Mirroring mode drop-down list and select Source.
  4. Make note of the source network and ensure the ExtraHop system’s capture interface is on the same network.
  5. Click Apply.
  6. Click OK.
  7. Repeat these steps for all the VMs you want to monitor, excluding the first VM you created in this procedure.

Monitoring External Mirrored Traffic to the VM

This scenario requires a second physical network interface and the creation of a second vSwitch associated with that NIC. This NIC then connects to a mirror, tap, or aggregator that copies traffic from a switch. This setup is useful for monitoring the intranet of an office.

  1. Right-click the ExtraHop Discover VM and select Settings.

  2. Expand Network Adapter and click Advanced Features.

  3. In the Port mirroring section, click the Mirroring mode drop-down list and select Destination.

  4. Click the Apply button.

  5. Click OK.

  6. Expand the virtual switch associated with the external data feed and enable the Microsoft NDIS Capture switch. You can ignore the warning that the selected extension is not operating correctly.

  7. Click Apply.

  8. Click OK.

  9. Open a PowerShell prompt and run the following commands: 

    $a = Get-VMSystemSwitchExtensionPortFeature -FeatureId 776e0ba7-94a1-41c8-8f28-951f524251b5
    $a.SettingData.MonitorMode = 2
    add-VMSwitchExtensionPortFeature -ExternalPort -SwitchName <name of the switch> -VMSwitchExtensionFeature $a

Software Tap

A software tap forwards traffic from any host to ExtraHop. A software tap is conceptually similar to a physical network tap, but implemented in software. In these topics and the industry, this software is alternately referred to as a packet forwarder, or sometimes RPCAP, which stands for Remote Packet Capture.

To use the software tap, ensure the following:

  • You have administrative access to servers you want to monitor.
  • You are running a 64-bit Linux or Windows OS. If you are using Windows, you are using Windows Server 2008 R2 or 2012.

To ensure proper functionality of the ExtraHop virtual appliance:

Install the Software Tap on a Linux Server

You must install the software tap on each server to be monitored in order to forward packets to the ExtraHop system. You can retrieve the commands from the procedures in this section or the ExtraHop Admin UI: https://<discover_ip_address>/admin/capture/rpcapd/linux/. The bottom of the ExtraHop Admin UI page contains links to automatically download the software tap.

Debian-Based Systems

To download and install the software tap on Debian-based systems:

  1. Run one of the following commands to download the software tap on the server:

    wget --no-check-certificate 'https://<extrahop_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd_<extrahop_firmware_version>_amd64.deb'
    curl -Ok 'https://<discover_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd_<extrahop_firmware_version>_amd64.deb'

    Where <extrahop_ip_address> is the interface 1 (management) IP address and <extrahop_firmware_version> is the firmware version.

  2. Run the following command to install and run the software tap on the server:

    sudo dpkg -i rpcapd_<extrahop_firmware_version>_amd64.deb
  3. At the prompt, enter the ExtraHop IP address, confirm the default connection to port 2003, and press ENTER.

  4. (Optional) Run the following commands to verify the ExtraHop system is receiving traffic:

    sudo dpkg --get-selections | grep rpcapd
    sudo service rpcapd status
  5. (Optional) Run the following command to change the ExtraHop IP address, port number, or arguments to the service:

    sudo dpkg-reconfigure rpcapd

RPM-Based Systems

To download and install the software tap on RPM-based systems:

  1. Run one of the following commands to download the software tap on the server:

    wget --no-check-certificate 'https://<extrahop_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.x86_64.rpm'
    curl -Ok 'https://<extrahop_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.x86_64.rpm'

    Replace <extrahop_ip_address> with the interface 1 (management) IP address.

    Replace <extrahop_firmware_version> with the firmware version.

  2. Run the following command to install and run the software tap on the server:

    sudo rpm -i rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.x86_64.rpm
  3. Run one of the following commands to open and edit the rpcapd.ini file in a text editor:

    vim /opt/extrahop/etc/rpcapd.ini
    nano /opt/extrahop/etc/rpcapd.ini
  4. Example output:

    #ActiveClient = <TARGETIP>,<TARGETPORT>
    NullAuthPermit = YES

    Replace <TARGETIP> with your ExtraHop system's IP address and <TARGETPORT> with 2003, and uncomment the line by deleting the number sign (#) at the beginning of the line.

    Example output:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.10.10,2003
    NullAuthPermit = YES
  5. Run the following command to start sending traffic to the ExtraHop system:

    sudo /etc/init.d/rpcapd start
  6. (Optional) Run the following command to verify the ExtraHop system is receiving traffic:

    sudo service rpcapd status

Other Linux Systems

To download and install the software tap on another Linux system:

  1. Run one of the following commands to download the software tap on the server:

    wget --no-check-certificate 'https://<extrahop_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.tar.gz'
    curl -Ok 'https://<extrahop_ip_address>/tools/rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.tar.gz'

    Replace <extrahop_ip_address> with the interface 1 (management) IP address.

    Replace <extrahop_firmware_version> with the firmware version.

  2. Run the following commands to install and run the software tap on the server:

    tar xf rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.tar.gz
    cd rpcapd
    sudo ./install.sh <extrahop_ip> 2003
  3. (Optional) Run the following command to verify the ExtraHop system is receiving traffic:

    sudo /etc/init.d/rpcapd status

To run the software tap on servers with multiple interfaces, refer to Monitoring Multiple Interfaces on a Linux Server on page 30.

Install the Software Tap on a Windows Server

You must install the software tap on each server to be monitored in order to forward packets to the ExtraHop system. To download and install the software tap:

  1. Go to https://<extrahop_ip_address>/admin/capture/rpcapd/windows/ to download the RPCAP Service for Windows installer file.

  2. When the file is finished downloading, click it to open the installer.

  3. In the wizard, select the components to install.

  4. Complete the ExtraHop IP and ExtraHop Port fields and click Next. The default port is 2003.

  5. (Optional) Enter additional arguments in the text box and click Next.

  6. Browse to and select the destination folder to install RPCAP Service.

  7. (Optional) If RPCAP Service was previously installed, click Yes to delete the previous service.

  8. When the installation is complete, click Close.

Monitoring Multiple Interfaces on a Linux Server

For servers with multiple interfaces, you can configure the software tap to forward packets from a particular interface or from multiple interfaces by editing its configuration file on the server.

To edit the configuration file, complete the following steps.

  1. After installing the software tap, open the configuration file on the server: /opt/extrahop/etc/rpcapd.ini

    The configuration file contains this text or similar:

    ActiveClient = 10.0.0.100,2003
    NullAuthPermit = YES
  2. Modify the existing ActiveClient line and create an ActiveClient line for each additional interface to be monitored. Specify each interface by its interface name or IP address.

    ActiveClient = <extrahop_ip>, <extrahop_port>, ifname=<interface_name>

    or

    ActiveClient = <extrahop_ip>, <extrahop_port>, ifaddr=<interface_address>

    <interface_name> is the name of the interface from which you want to forward packets.

    <interface_address> specifies the IP address of the interface from which the packets are forwarded. <interface_address> may be either the IP address itself, such as 10.10.1.100, or a CIDR specification (network IP address/subnet prefix length) that contains the IP address, such as 10.10.1.0/24.

    For every ActiveClient line, the software tap independently forwards packets from the interface specified in the line.

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using the interface name:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifname=eth0
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifname=eth1
    NullAuthPermit = YES

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using the interface IP address:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.1.100
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.2.100
    NullAuthPermit = YES

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using CIDR specifications that contain the interface IP address:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.1.0/24
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.2.0/24
    NullAuthPermit = YES
  3. Save the configuration file. Make sure to save the file in ASCII format to prevent errors.

  4. Restart the software tap by running the command

    sudo /etc/init.d/rpcapd restart
    Note: To reinstall the software tap after changing the configuration file, run the installation command and replace <extrahop_ip> and <extrahop_port> with the –k flag in order to preserve the modified configuration file. For example:
    sudo sh ./install-rpcapd.sh –k

Monitoring Multiple Interfaces on a Windows Server

For servers with multiple interfaces, you can configure the software tap to forward packets from a particular interface or from multiple interfaces by editing its configuration file on the server.

To edit the configuration file, complete the following steps.

  1. After installing the software tap, on the server, open the configuration file: C:\Program Files\rpcapd\rpcapd.ini

    The configuration file contains this text or similar:

    ActiveClient = 10.0.0.100,2003
    NullAuthPermit = YES
  2. Modify the existing ActiveClient line and create an ActiveClient line for each additional interface to be monitored. Specify each interface by its interface name or IP address. For every ActiveClient line, the software tap will independently forward packets from the interface specified in the line:

    ActiveClient = <extrahop_ip>, <extrahop_port>, ifname=<interface_address>

    or

    ActiveClient = <extrahop_ip>, <extrahop_port>, ifaddr=<interface_name>

    <interface_address> specifies the IP address of the interface from which the packets are forwarded. <interface_address> may be either the IP address itself, such as 10.10.1.100, or a CIDR specification (network IP address/subnet prefix length) that contains the IP address, such as 10.10.1.0/24.

    <interface_name> is the name of the interface from which the packets are forwarded. The name is formatted as \Device\NPF_{<GUID>}, where <GUID> is the globally unique identifier (GUID) of the interface. For example, if the interface GUID is 2C2FC212-701D-42E6-9EAE-BEE969FEFB3F, the interface name is \Device\NPF_{2C2FC212-701D-42E6-9EAE-BEE969FEFB3F}.

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using the interface IP address:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.1.100
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.2.100
    NullAuthPermit = YES

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using CIDR specifications that contain the interface IP address:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.1.0/24
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifaddr=10.10.2.0/24
    NullAuthPermit = YES

    The following is an example of the configuration file specifying two interfaces using the interface name:

    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifname=\Device\NPF_{2C2FC212-701D-42E6-9EAE-BEE969FEFB3F}
    ActiveClient = 10.10.6.45, 2003, ifname=\Device\NPF_{3C2FC212-701D-42E6-9EAE-BEE969FEFB3F}
    NullAuthPermit = YES
  3. Save the configuration (.ini) file. Make sure to save the file in ASCII format to prevent errors.

  4. Restart the software tap by running the command

    restart-service rpcapd
    Note: To reinstall the software tap after changing the configuration file, run the installation command and replace –RpcapIp and –RpcapPort with the -KeepConfig flag in order to preserve the modified configuration file. For example:
    .\install-rpcapd.ps1 -MgmtIp <extrahop_ip> -KeepConfig

    or

    .\install-rpcapd.ps1 –InputDir . -KeepConfig

Configuring Additional RPCAP Settings

By default, the ExtraHop system accepts forwarded packets on port 2003. The servers using the software tap are directed to forward all traffic as denoted by the wildcard (*) in the Interface Address column.

(Optional) To specify another port, complete the following steps.

  1. Go to the RPCAP Settings section and click Change.

  2. Change and modify the settings on the Add RPCAP Port Definition page.

  • Port: Specifies the listening port on the ExtraHop system. Each port must be unique for each interface subnet on the same server. Different subnets across servers are able to use the same port.

  • Interface Address: Specifies a subnet on the packet-forwarding server. If the server has multiple interfaces that match the interface address, the first interface on the server sends traffic to the ExtraHop system unless the interface name is specified.

  • Interface Name: Indicates the interface on the packet-forwarding server from which to forward packets.

    Note: You must specify an interface address or an interface name. If you specify both, then both criteria will apply.
  • Filter: Specifies the traffic to forward using Berkeley Packet Filter syntax. For example, TCP port 80 forwards only TCP traffic on port 80, and not TCP port 80 forwards only non-TCP traffic on port 80.

Analyzing Wire Data from a Software Tap

To find out how much wire data the ExtraHop system is receiving from the software tap:

  1. Log in to the ExtraHop Web UI (https://<extrahop_ip>/extrahop) and click the Settings button.

  2. Click System Health to get more information about the forwarded traffic. This page displays a Packets and Throughput graph for each software tap connected to the ExtraHop system.

  3. The RPCAP Packets and Throughput graphs contain four metrics:

    • Encapsulation: The total number of RPCAP encapsulation packets received by the ExtraHop system.

    • Tunnel Eligible: Total number of packets eligible to be forwarded to the ExtraHop system.

    • Tunnel Sent: Total number of RPCAP-tunneled packets forwarded to the ExtraHop system.

    • Tunnel Received: Total number of RPCAP-tunneled packets received by the ExtraHop system.

    The tunnel eligible, tunnel sent, and tunnel received values are equal if the ExtraHop system is receiving and processing all the packets sent by the server. If they are not equal, use the following reference for troubleshooting:

    • If Tunnel Sent is less than Tunnel Eligible, the server is not able to forward all of the traffic. This behavior may indicate that packet forwarding requires more processing or outbound bandwidth resources on the server. Consider separating the forwarding process onto a separate CPU or allocating a dedicated interface for forwarding traffic.

    • If Tunnel Received is less than Tunnel Sent, the ExtraHop system is not receiving all the traffic forwarded by the server. This behavior may be due to network congestion or insufficient resources on the ExtraHop system. If you suspect it is the latter, contact ExtraHop Support.

  4. Once you have verified that the ExtraHop system is receiving traffic, exit the System Health page and view metrics in the ExtraHop Web UI.

Removing the Software Tap from a Linux Server

To remove the software tap, run the commands in one of the following sections.

Debian-Based Systems

To stop and remove the software tap from a Debian-based Linux server, run the following commands:

sudo service rpcapd stop
sudo dpkg -r rpcapd
sudo dpkg --get-selections | grep rpcapd

You can also set the -P flag to completely remove the package from your system.

RPM-Based Systems

To stop and remove the software tap from a RPM-based Linux server, run the following commands:

service rpcapd stop
rpm -e rpcapd-<extrahop_firmware_version>.x86_64

Generic/Other Linux Systems

To stop and remove the software tap from another Linux server, run the following commands:

sudo /etc/init.d/rpcapd stop
sudo update-rc.d -f rpcapd remove
sudo rm -rf /opt/extrahop
sudo rm -f /etc/init.d/rpcapd

Removing the Software Tap from a Windows Server

To remove the software tap from a Windows server or your Windows desktop:

  1. Go to the Start Menu and select Control Panel.

  2. Select Uninstall a program.

  3. Select RPCAP Service for Windows.

  4. In the pop-up dialog box, click Remove.

  5. When the removal is complete, click Close.

Published 2017-11-20 17:13